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Baseer, N. Spinal cord neuronal circuitry involving dorsal horn projection cells 2014 School: College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow  phdthesis URL 
Abstract: The spinal cord dorsal horn is involved in the processing and transmission of sensory information to the brain. There are several distinct populations of dorsal horn projection cells that constitute the major output of the spinal cord. These cells are mostly found in lamina I and are scattered throughout the deep dorsal horn. There is a population of large lamina III projection cells that expresses the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r), which is the main target for substance P released by nociceptive primary afferents. These cells are densely innervated by peptidergic nociceptive afferents and more sparsely by low-threshold myelinated afferents. In addition, they also receive selective innervation from neuropeptide Y-containing inhibitory interneurons. However, not much is known about their input from glutamatergic spinal neurons. It has already been reported that the great majority of large lamina III NK1r expressing cells project to caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) therefore in
this study these cells were easily identified without retrograde tracer injection. Preliminary observations showed that these cells received contacts from preprodynorphin (PPD)-containing excitatory axons. The first part of the study tested the hypothesis that lamina III projection cells are selectively targeted by PPD-containing excitatory spinal neurons. Spinal cord sections from lumbar segments of the rat underwent immunocytochemical processing including combined confocal and electron microscopy to look for the presence of synapses at the sites of contact. The results showed that lamina III NK1r cells received numerous contacts from non-primary boutons that expressed vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), and formed asymmetrical synapses on their dendrites and cell bodies. These synapses were significantly smaller than those formed by peptidergic afferents but provided a substantial proportion of the glutamatergic input to lamina III NK1r projection cells. Furthermore, it was observed that PPD was
found to be present in  58% of the VGLUT2 boutons that contacted these cells while a considerably smaller proportion of (5-7%) VGLUT2 boutons in laminae I-IV expressed PPD. These results indicate a highly selective targeting of the lamina III projection neurons by glutamatergic neurons that express PPD. Fine myelinated (Aδ) nociceptors are responsible for the perception of fast, well-localised pain. Very little is known about their postsynaptic targets in the spinal cord, and therefore about their roles in the neuronal circuits that process nociceptive information. In the second part of the study, Fluorogold injections were made into the lateral parabrachial region (LPb) of the rat brain on one side and cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) was injected into the sciatic nerve on the contralateral side to assess whether Aδ nociceptors provide input to lamina I projection cells. The vast majority of lamina I projection neurons belong to the spinoparabrachial tract, and these can be divided into two major groups: those
that express NK1r, and those that do not. The results suggested that CTb labelled a distinct set of Aδ nociceptors, most of which lack neuropeptides. CTb-labelled Aδ afferents formed contacts on 43% of the spinoparabrachial lamina I neurons that lacked the NK1r, but on a significantly smaller proportion (26%) of NK1r projection cells. Combined confocal and electron microscopy established that the contacts were associated with synapses. Furthermore, the contact density of CTb labelled boutons was considerably higher on the NK1r- cells than on those with the NK1r. These results provide further evidence that primary afferents input to projection cells is organized in a specialized way and that both NK1r+ and NK1r- lamina I projection neurons are directly innervated by Aδ nociceptors, thus may have an important role in the perception of fast pain. Lamina I of the rat spinal cord dorsal horn contains a population of large spinoparabrachial projection neurons (giant cells) that receive numerous synapses from both
excitatory (VGLUT2) and inhibitory (VGAT) interneurons. The giant cells are selectively innervated by GABAergic axons that express neuronal-nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and are thought to originate from local inhibitory interneurons. In the rat, the nNOS inhibitory cells belong to a distinct functional population that differs from other inhibitory interneurons in terms of somatostatin receptor (sst2A) expression and also in responsiveness to painful stimuli. There is a population of inhibitory interneurons that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in lamina II of mice in which GFP is under control of the prion promoter (PrP) and the great majority of these cells also express nNOS. In this part of the study, the inhibitory synaptic input from nNOS-containing GFP boutons to giant lamina I cells was investigated. The great majority of lamina I projection neurons express NK1 receptor; therefore, the possibility that lamina I NK1r-expressing projection neurons received innervation from GFP+/nNOS+ axons was
also tested. Since retrograde tracing technique was not used in this part of the study, lamina I projection cells were identified based on the observations made in the previous studies in the rat. Lamina I giant cells were recognized with antibodies against glycine receptor associated protein gephyrin as well as VGLUT2 and VGAT boutons, all of which provide dense innervation to these cells while only those lamina I NK1cells were included in the sample that were large and strongly immunoreactive for NK1r. The results indicated that although GFP axons accounted for only 7-9% of the GABAergic boutons in superficial dorsal horn, they provided over 70% of the inhibitory synapses on most of the giant cells in the PrP-GFP mouse and the great majority of these boutons also contained nNOS. Moreover, a subset of large lamina I NK1r-expressing cells (18/60) received a substantial inhibitory input (> 30%) from GFP+ boutons while the majority of these neurons showed sparse (< 15%) synaptic input. Recently, it has been
reported that loss of some inhibitory interneurons in mice lacking the transcription factor Bhlhb5 results in exaggerated itch, and the cells that are lost include many of those that would normally express nNOS. Therefore, in the final set of experiments was designed to test whether there is a reduction in the inhibitory synaptic input to the giant cells in Bhlhb5-/- mouse. Spinal cord sections from Bhlhb5-/- mice and the wild type littermates were processed and analysed to determine any difference in the inhibitory nNOS input to lamina I giant cells belonging to either group. The giant cells from the knockout mice showed a substantial reduction ( 80%) in their inhibitory nNOS input; with a moderate reduction in their overall GABAergic input ( 35%). There was a considerable increase in nNOS-/VGAT+ boutons in the Bhlhb5-/- mouse (18 ± 4.6 and 37.7 ± 8.2/100 µm of the dendrite in WT and KO, respectively), suggesting some compensation from other nNOS-negative inhibitory interneurons. These results suggest that
the loss of nNOS-containing inhibitory synaptic input to lamina I projection cells may contribute to the abnormal scratching behaviour seen in the Bhlhb5-/- mouse. This raises the possibility that the giant cells and a subset of large lamina I NK1r-expressing cells are involved in perception of itch.
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Baseer:2014,
  author = {Baseer, Najma},
  title = {Spinal cord neuronal circuitry involving dorsal horn projection cells},
  school = {College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow},
  year = {2014},
  url = {http://theses.gla.ac.uk/id/eprint/5596}
}
Mathiasen, M.L., Dillingham, C.M., Kinnavane, L., Powell, A. and Aggleton, J.P. Asymmetric cross-hemispheric connections link the rat anterior thalamic nuclei with the cortex and hippocampal formation 2017 Neuroscience  article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Mathiasen:2017,
  author = {Mathiasen, M. L. and Dillingham, C. M. and Kinnavane, L. and Powell, A. and Aggleton, J. P.},
  title = {Asymmetric cross-hemispheric connections link the rat anterior thalamic nuclei with the cortex and hippocampal formation},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  year = {2017},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2017.02.026}
}
d'Ascanio , P., Centini, C., Pompeiano, M., Pompeiano, O. and Balaban, E. Fos and FRA protein expression in rat nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis during different space flight conditions. 2002 Brain Res Bull
Vol. 59(1), pp. 65-74School: Dipartimento di Fisiologia e Biochimica, Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy. 
article DOI  
Abstract: The nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis (LPGi) exerts a prominent excitatory influence over locus coeruleus (LC) neurons, which respond to gravity signals. We investigated whether adult albino rats exposed to different gravitational fields during the NASA Neurolab Mission (STS-90) showed changes in Fos and Fos-related antigen (FRA) protein expression in the LPGi and related cardiovascular, vasomotor, and respiratory areas. Fos and FRA proteins are induced rapidly by external stimuli and return to basal levels within hours (Fos) or days (FRA) after stimulation. Exposure to a light pulse (LP) 1 h prior to sacrifice led to increased Fos expression in subjects maintained for 2 weeks in constant gravity (either at approximately 0 or 1 G). Within 24 h of a gravitational change (launch or landing), the Fos response to LP was abolished. A significant Fos response was also induced by gravitational stimuli during landing, but not during launch. FRA responses to LP showed a mirror image pattern,
with significant responses 24 h after launch and landing, but no responses after 2 weeks at approximately 0 or 1 G. There were no direct FRA responses to gravity changes. The juxtafacial and retrofacial parts of the LPGi, which integrate somatosensory/acoustic and autonomic signals, respectively, also showed gravity-related increases in LP-induced FRA expression 24 h after launch and landing. The neighboring nucleus ambiguus (Amb) showed completely different patterns of Fos and FRA expression, demonstrating the anatomical specificity of these results. Immediate early gene expression in the LPGi and related cardiovascular vasomotor and ventral respiratory areas may be directly regulated by excitatory afferents from vestibular gravity receptors. These structures could play an important role in shaping cardiovascular and respiratory function during adaptation to altered gravitational environments encountered during space flight and after return to earth.
BibTeX:
@article{Ascanio:2002,
  author = {d'Ascanio, Paola and Centini, Claudia and Pompeiano, Maria and Pompeiano, Ottavio and Balaban, Evan},
  title = {Fos and FRA protein expression in rat nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis during different space flight conditions.},
  journal = {Brain Res Bull},
  school = {Dipartimento di Fisiologia e Biochimica, Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {59},
  number = {1},
  pages = {65--74},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/s0361-9230(02)00840-7}
}
d'Alcantara , P., Schiffmann, S.N. and Swillens, S. Effect of protein kinase A-induced phosphorylation on the gating mechanism of the brain Na+ channel: model fitting to whole-cell current traces. 1999 Biophys J
Vol. 77(1), pp. 204-216School: Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Biologie humaine et Nucléaire, Faculté de Médecine, Université libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium. pdalcant@ulb.ac.be 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The activity of the voltage-gated Na+ channel is subjected to modulation through covalent modifications. It has been previously shown that brain Na+ currents are reduced following the activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, but the effect of the phosphorylation on the gating mechanism of the channel has not been demonstrated so far. In this study, we analyze the whole-cell Na+ current recorded in the absence or presence of forskolin, which stimulates the PKA pathway. A minimal molecular model of the gating mechanism of the Na+ channel is defined to fit the experimental data: it consists of three closed states, one open state, and two inactivated states. We experimentally demonstrate that the kinetics of inactivation from the closed states are not affected by phosphorylation. The results obtained by computer fitting indicate that, among all the kinetic parameters describing the transitions between states, only one parameter is significantly modified in the presence of forskolin, and
corresponds to the acceleration of the inactivation from the open state. This conclusion is supported by the analysis of current traces obtained from cells in the presence of a phosphatase inhibitor or loaded with the PKA catalytic unit, and is in agreement with previously reported single channel records.
BibTeX:
@article{Alcantara:1999a,
  author = {d'Alcantara, P. and Schiffmann, S. N. and Swillens, S.},
  title = {Effect of protein kinase A-induced phosphorylation on the gating mechanism of the brain Na+ channel: model fitting to whole-cell current traces.},
  journal = {Biophys J},
  school = {Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Biologie humaine et Nucléaire, Faculté de Médecine, Université libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium. pdalcant@ulb.ac.be},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {77},
  number = {1},
  pages = {204--216},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3495(99)76882-7},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3495(99)76882-7}
}
d'Alcantara , P., Schiffmann, S.N. and Swillens, S. Effect of protein kinase A-induced phosphorylation on the gating mechanism of the brain Na+ channel: model fitting to whole-cell current traces. 1999 Biophysical journal
Vol. 77, pp. 204-16 
article  
Abstract: The activity of the voltage-gated Na+ channel is subjected to modulation through covalent modifications. It has been previously shown that brain Na+ currents are reduced following the activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, but the effect of the phosphorylation on the gating mechanism of the channel has not been demonstrated so far. In this study, we analyze the whole-cell Na+ current recorded in the absence or presence of forskolin, which stimulates the PKA pathway. A minimal molecular model of the gating mechanism of the Na+ channel is defined to fit the experimental data: it consists of three closed states, one open state, and two inactivated states. We experimentally demonstrate that the kinetics of inactivation from the closed states are not affected by phosphorylation. The results obtained by computer fitting indicate that, among all the kinetic parameters describing the transitions between states, only one parameter is significantly modified in the presence of forskolin, and
corresponds to the acceleration of the inactivation from the open state. This conclusion is supported by the analysis of current traces obtained from cells in the presence of a phosphatase inhibitor or loaded with the PKA catalytic unit, and is in agreement with previously reported single channel records.
BibTeX:
@article{Alcantara:1999b,
  author = {d'Alcantara, P. and Schiffmann, S. N. and Swillens, S.},
  title = {Effect of protein kinase A-induced phosphorylation on the gating mechanism of the brain Na+ channel: model fitting to whole-cell current traces.},
  journal = {Biophysical journal},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {77},
  pages = {204-16},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
A'bertin, S. Involvement of the Nucleus Accumbens in the Formation of Spatial Selection Reactions in Rats in a Radial Maze 2003 Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology
Vol. 33(8), pp. 777-781 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Studies on rats demonstrated that lesioning of the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens led to impairment of the ability of experimental rats to perform error-free identification of the arm containing the largest amount of reinforcement in a radial maze. The behavioral deficit was not associated with impaired motivation or sensorimotor learning ability, as there was no such deficit in operated rats during sequential presentation of local discriminant stimuli identifying the location of the forthcoming reinforcement. These data suggest that the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens, which receives convergent projections from the ventral hippocampus, amygdala, and ventral tegmental area, plays an important role in organizing the spatial orientation of the animal in the direction of the preferred reinforcement in conditions of a sensory information deficit.
BibTeX:
@article{Abertin:2003,
  author = {A'bertin, S.V.},
  title = {Involvement of the Nucleus Accumbens in the Formation of Spatial Selection Reactions in Rats in a Radial Maze},
  journal = {Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {33},
  number = {8},
  pages = {777-781},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study i the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-1642458268&partnerID=40&md5=05d85d911e64bbb85c1a4dd6ff224277},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025193114311}
}
Aalders, T. and Meek, J. The hypothalamic aggression region of the rat: Observations on the synaptic organization 1993 Brain Research Bulletin
Vol. 31(1-2), pp. 229-232 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Comparison of detailed physiological and morphological data shows that the hypothalamic aggression region in the rat largely coincides with the intermediate hypothalamic area. This region has a neuronal density of about 35.103 neurons per mm3, a synaptic density of about 300.106 per mm3, and a synapse to neuron ratio of about 9000, including only about 200 axosomatic synaptic contacts per neuron. Septal synaptic contacts in this region originate from unmyelinated axons and are axodendritic of the asymmetrical type, with an average bouton diameter of 785 nm and an average synaptic contact length of 270 nm. © 1993.
BibTeX:
@article{Aalders:1993,
  author = {Aalders, T.T.A. and Meek, J.},
  title = {The hypothalamic aggression region of the rat: Observations on the synaptic organization},
  journal = {Brain Research Bulletin},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {31},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {229-232},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/036192309390030F/pdf?md5=242de26f46725ac4518e183d9359fb11&pid=1-s2.0-036192309390030F-main.pdf},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0361-9230(93)90030-F}
}
Aamodt, S., Shi, J., Colonnese, M., Veras, W. and Constantine-Paton, M. Chronic NMDA exposure accelerates development of GABAergic inhibition in the superior colliculus. 2000 J Neurophysiol
Vol. 83(3), pp. 1580-1591School: Department of Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. 
article URL 
Abstract: Maturation of excitatory synaptic connections depends on the amount and pattern of their activity, and activity can affect development of inhibitory synapses as well. In the superficial visual layers of the superior colliculus (sSC), developmental increases in the effectiveness of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A)) receptor-mediated inhibition may be driven by the maturation of visual inputs. In the rat sSC, GABA(A) receptor currents significantly jump in amplitude between postnatal days 17 and 18 (P17 and P18), approximately when the effects of cortical inputs are first detected in collicular neurons. We manipulated the development of these currents in vivo by implanting a drug-infused slice of the ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer Elvax over the superior colliculus of P8 rats to chronically release from this plastic low levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Sham-treated control animals received a similar implant containing only the solvent for NMDA. To examine the effects of this treatment
on the development of GABA-mediated neurotransmission, we used whole cell voltage-clamp recording of spontaneous synaptic currents (sPSCs) from sSC neurons in untreated, NMDA-treated, and sham-treated superior colliculus slices ranging in age from 10 to 20 days postnatal. Both amplitude and frequency of sPSCs were studied at holding potentials of +50 mV in the presence and absence of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline methiodide (BMI). The normal developmental increase in GABA(A) receptor currents occurred on schedule (P18) in sham-treated sSC, but NMDA treatment caused premature up-regulation (P12). The average sPSCs in early NMDA-treated neurons were significantly larger than in age-matched sham controls or in age-matched, untreated neurons. No differences in average sPSC amplitudes across treatments or ages were present in BMI-insensitive, predominantly glutamatergic synaptic currents of the same neurons. NMDA treatment also significantly increased levels of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD),
measured by quantitative western blotting with staining at P13 and P19. Cell counting using the dissector method for MAP 2 and GAD(67) at P13 and P19 indicated that the differences in GABAergic transmission were not due to increases in the proportion of inhibitory to excitatory neurons after NMDA treatment. However, chronic treatments begun at P8 with Elvax containing both NMDA and BMI significantly decreased total neuron density at P19 ( approximately 15, suggesting that the NMDA-induced increase in GABA(A) receptor currents may protect against excitotoxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{Aamodt:2000,
  author = {Aamodt, SM and Shi, J and Colonnese, MT and Veras, W and Constantine-Paton, M},
  title = {Chronic NMDA exposure accelerates development of GABAergic inhibition in the superior colliculus.},
  journal = {J Neurophysiol},
  school = {Department of Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {83},
  number = {3},
  pages = {1580--1591},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://jn.physiology.org/content/83/3/1580.long}
}
Aarnisalo, A.A. and Panula, P. Neuropeptide FF in the lateral spinal and lateral cervical nuclei: evidence of contacts on spinothalamic neurons. 1998 Exp Brain Res
Vol. 119(2), pp. 159-165School: Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy, University of Helsinki, Finland. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Neuropeptide FF (NPFF, F8Famide) is best known for its modulating effect on opioid analgesia and morphine tolerance. However, the exact mode of action of NPFF in sensory transmission is not known. We compared the distribution of NPFF-immunoreactive (ir) fibers and terminal-like thickenings with the retrograde, tracer-filled spinothalamic (ST) neurons in the lateral spinal nucleus (LSN) and lateral cervical nucleus (LCN) of rat, areas where NPFF-containing nerve terminals are abundant. We injected fluorescent latex microspheres into the ventroposterolateral thalamic nucleus and more medial thalamic nuclei, which are innervated by ST neurons. We found NPFF-ir terminal-like thickenings and fibers apposing the tracer-filled neurons in the LSN and LCN. ST neurons filled with the retrograde tracer making contacts with NPFF-ir terminal-like thickenings, were found to terminate not only in the ventroposterolateral thalamic nucleus but also in more medial thalamic nuclei. The highest number of tracer-
filled ST neurons having NPFF-ir terminal-like thickenings and fibers in apposition were found at the cervical level. Our results suggest that NPFF-containing systems in the spinal cord of rat are not limited to the substantia gelatinosa, and the sensory functions of NPFF may be mediated at least partly through the modulation of the ST system. NPFF-ir contacts in the LSN and LCN might play an important role in the somatic sensory transmission system. This study shows evidence for the first time that the spinal NPFF-containing system may be involved in mechanisms that control sensory input to the supraspinal levels.
BibTeX:
@article{Aarnisalo:1998,
  author = {Aarnisalo, A. A. and Panula, P.},
  title = {Neuropeptide FF in the lateral spinal and lateral cervical nuclei: evidence of contacts on spinothalamic neurons.},
  journal = {Exp Brain Res},
  school = {Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy, University of Helsinki, Finland.},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {119},
  number = {2},
  pages = {159--165},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s002210050329}
}
Aarnisalo, A.A. and Panula, P. Neuropeptide FF in the lateral spinal and lateral cervical nuclei: evidence of contacts on spinothalamic neurons. 1998 Experimental brain research
Vol. 119, pp. 159-65 
article DOI  
Abstract: Neuropeptide FF (NPFF, F8Famide) is best known for its modulating effect on opioid analgesia and morphine tolerance. However, the exact mode of action of NPFF in sensory transmission is not known. We compared the distribution of NPFF-immunoreactive (ir) fibers and terminal-like thickenings with the retrograde, tracer-filled spinothalamic (ST) neurons in the lateral spinal nucleus (LSN) and lateral cervical nucleus (LCN) of rat, areas where NPFF-containing nerve terminals are abundant. We injected fluorescent latex microspheres into the ventroposterolateral thalamic nucleus and more medial thalamic nuclei, which are innervated by ST neurons. We found NPFF-ir terminal-like thickenings and fibers apposing the tracer-filled neurons in the LSN and LCN. ST neurons filled with the retrograde tracer making contacts with NPFF-ir terminal-like thickenings, were found to terminate not only in the ventroposterolateral thalamic nucleus but also in more medial thalamic nuclei. The highest number of tracer-
filled ST neurons having NPFF-ir terminal-like thickenings and fibers in apposition were found at the cervical level. Our results suggest that NPFF-containing systems in the spinal cord of rat are not limited to the substantia gelatinosa, and the sensory functions of NPFF may be mediated at least partly through the modulation of the ST system. NPFF-ir contacts in the LSN and LCN might play an important role in the somatic sensory transmission system. This study shows evidence for the first time that the spinal NPFF-containing system may be involved in mechanisms that control sensory input to the supraspinal levels.
BibTeX:
@article{Aarnisalo:1998a,
  author = {Aarnisalo, A. A. and Panula, P.},
  title = {Neuropeptide FF in the lateral spinal and lateral cervical nuclei: evidence of contacts on spinothalamic neurons.},
  journal = {Experimental brain research},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {119},
  pages = {159-65},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s002210050329}
}
Aarnisalo, A. and Panula, P. Neuropeptide FF-containing efferent projections from the medial hypothalamus of rat: a phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin study 1995 Neuroscience
Vol. 65, pp. 175-192 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Aarnisalo:1995,
  author = {Aarnisalo, AA and Panula, P},
  title = {Neuropeptide FF-containing efferent projections from the medial hypothalamus of rat: a phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin study},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {65},
  pages = {175-192},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-4522(94)00459-i}
}
Aarnoutse, E.J., Van der Want, J.J. and Vrensen, G.F. Retrograde fluorescent microsphere tracing of retinal and central afferents to the nucleus of the optic tract in pigmented and albino rats. 1995 Neurosci Lett
Vol. 201(2), pp. 143-146School: Department of Morphology, Graduate School for the Neurosciences, The Netherlands. 
article DOI  
Abstract: The pretectal nucleus of the optic tract is involved in optokinetic nystagmus. Albino animals suffer from inverse optokinetic nystagmus, possibly due to a smaller number of ipsilateral projections. Animals with laterally placed eyes have an asymmetric nystagmus, attributed to a presumed lack of binocular cortical input to the nucleus of the optic tract. Moreover, a direct input from the ipsilateral retina is controversial. We investigated the retinal and central afferents to the nucleus of the optic tract in the rat by retrograde tracing using fluorescent latex microspheres. Ipsilaterally projecting retinal ganglion cells were observed in pigmented and also in albino rats. Projections from the visual cortex and primary visual nuclei were demonstrated.
BibTeX:
@article{Aarnoutse:1995,
  author = {Aarnoutse, E. J. and Van der Want, J. J. and Vrensen, G. F.},
  title = {Retrograde fluorescent microsphere tracing of retinal and central afferents to the nucleus of the optic tract in pigmented and albino rats.},
  journal = {Neurosci Lett},
  school = {Department of Morphology, Graduate School for the Neurosciences, The Netherlands.},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {201},
  number = {2},
  pages = {143--146},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3940(95)12159-5}
}
Aas, J.E. and Brodal, P. GABA and glycine as putative transmitters in subcortical pathways to the pontine nuclei. A combined immunocytochemical and retrograde tracing study in the cat with some observations in the rat. 1990 Neuroscience
Vol. 34(1), pp. 149-162School: Anatomical Institute, University of Oslo, Norway. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Using the retrograde tracers horseradish peroxidase-wheatgerm agglutinin and gold particles conjugated to wheatgerm agglutinin apo-horseradish peroxidase in combination with an antiserum against glutaraldehyde-fixed GABA, it was examined whether the pontine nuclei of the cat receive projections from GABA-like immunoreactive neurons in the brainstem, diencephalon, or deep cerebellar nuclei, contributing to the GABA-like immunoreactive fibre plexus previously demonstrated in the pontine nuclei [Brodal et al. (1988) Neuroscience 25, 27-45]. Following tracer injections that covered both the pontine nuclei and the reticular tegmental nucleus in two cats, it was found that 125 out of 1166 (10.7 and 29 out of 294 (9.9 retrogradely labelled neurons in the cerebellar nuclei were GABA-like immunoreactive. In the same two experiments only six out of 2029 (0.3 and 10 out of 1398 (0.7 retrogradely labelled neurons in the brainstem and diencephalon were GABA-like immunoreactive. Among the
regions in the brainstem and diencephalon known to project to the pontine nuclei, double-labelled cells were seen in the reticular formation, the periaqueductal gray, and the nucleus praepositus hypoglossi, but not in the zona incerta or the anterior pretectal nucleus, regions that have been shown to contain glutamate decarboxylase-like immunoreactive neurons projecting to the pontine nuclei in the rat [Border et al. (1986) Brain Res. Bull. 17, 169-179]. In order to test whether this is due to species differences, the same experimental approach was used in the rat, and it was found that 54 out of 3249 (1.7 retrogradely labelled neurons in the brainstem and diencephalon were double-labelled. Notably, in the zona incerta 2% of the retrogradely labelled cells were also GABA-like immunoreactive, and in the reticular formation there was a higher proportion of double-labelled cells than was found in the cat. Additional sources were identified, that may contribute to the GABA-like immunoreactive fibre plexus in
the pontine nuclei of the rat. This, in conjunction with the previous finding that the pontine nuclei of the rat contain only very few putative GABAergic neurons [Border and Mihailoff (1985) Expl Brain Res. 59, 600-614; Brodal et al. (1988) Neuroscience 25, 27-45], lead to the suggestion that the GABA-like immunoreactive fibre plexus in the pontine nuclei of the rat is predominantly of extrinsic origin, possibly representing a mosaic of the terminal fields of several subcorticopontine projections.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
BibTeX:
@article{Aas:1990,
  author = {J. E. Aas and P. Brodal},
  title = {GABA and glycine as putative transmitters in subcortical pathways to the pontine nuclei. A combined immunocytochemical and retrograde tracing study in the cat with some observations in the rat.},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  school = {Anatomical Institute, University of Oslo, Norway.},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {34},
  number = {1},
  pages = {149-162},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-4522(90)90309-r}
}
Aas, J.-E. and Brodal, P. Demonstration of a Mamillo-Ponto-Cerebellar Pathway. 1989 Eur J Neurosci
Vol. 1(1), pp. 61-74School: Anatomical Institute, University of Oslo, O162 Oslo 1, Norway. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The pathway from the mamillary complex to the cerebellum via the pontine nuclei has been studied using several anterograde and retrograde tracing techniques in the cat. We have also compared the pontine terminal regions of fibres from the mamillary complex and from the cingulate gyrus. Implantations of crystalline horseradish peroxidase wheat germ agglutinin (HRP-WGA) in the mamillary complex and lesions of the cingulate gyrus were combined in the same animal with injections of HRP-WGA, rhodamine-B-isothiocyanate (RITC), and Fluoro-Gold in different parts of the cerebellar hemisphere. Fibres from both the mamillary complex and the cingulate gyrus terminate mainly within a transversely oriented, c-shaped band in the ipsilateral, rostral pontine nuclei. Within this band the terminal fields of fibres from the mamillary complex and the cingulate gyrus form a mosaic-like pattern of partly overlapping patches. Pontine regions receiving a mamillary input project mainly to the ventral paraflocculus,
and to a lesser degree to the dorsal paraflocculus, but apparently not to the uvula or crus II. Judging from the literature it seems highly unlikely that other parts of the cerebellar hemispheres received projections from these pontine regions. Fibres from the ventral paraflocculus were shown to terminate in the parvicellular part of the lateral cerebellar nucleus only. The present findings would seem to imply that inputs from the mamillary complex and a related cortical region, the cingulate gyrus, are partly integrated, partly kept separate at the precerebellar level. This would ensure that small groups of cells in the rostral pontine nuclei receive a specific set of afferents. Conceivably, the information transmitted to the cerebellum by these groups of pontine cells might be related to functions of the mamillary complex, such as learning, motivation, and spatial memory.
BibTeX:
@article{Aas:1989,
  author = {Aas, Jan-Erik and Brodal, Per},
  title = {Demonstration of a Mamillo-Ponto-Cerebellar Pathway.},
  journal = {Eur J Neurosci},
  school = {Anatomical Institute, University of Oslo, O162 Oslo 1, Norway.},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {61--74},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1460-9568.1989.tb00775.x/abstract},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.1989.tb00775.x}
}
Abankwa, D., Kury, P. and Muller, H.W. Dynamic changes in gene expression profiles following axotomy of projection fibres in the Mammalian CNS. 2002 Molecular and cellular neurosciences
Vol. 21, pp. 421-35 
article DOI  
Abstract: Following postcommissural fornix transection we have investigated the postaxotomy transcriptional program in the subiculum where the injured axons originate. cDNA array hybridization revealed 125 genes that were specifically regulated as the injured neurons passed through three distinct postlesion (PL) stages comprising (i). early phase of injury and axon degeneration, (ii). sprouting phase of the proximal stump, and (iii). axonal growth arrest at the lesion scar. Numerous genes were detected which have, so far, not been associated with axotomy or axonal growth. Following the early lesion response that is characterized predominantly by down-regulation of genes at 1 day PL, neurons switch to a sprouting program with the majority of genes up-regulated at 7 days PL. However, the latter program of gene expression is not maintained but largely reversed (at 3 weeks PL) to the initial profile as axonal growth is blocked at the lesion barrier, indicating retrograde signaling that leads to down-
regulation of neuronal genes previously up-regulated during axon sprouting.
BibTeX:
@article{Abankwa:2002b,
  author = {Abankwa, Daniel and Kury, Patrick and Muller, Hans Werner},
  title = {Dynamic changes in gene expression profiles following axotomy of projection fibres in the Mammalian CNS.},
  journal = {Molecular and cellular neurosciences},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {21},
  pages = {421-35},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1006/mcne.2002.1183}
}
Abankwa, D., Küry, P. and Müller, H.W. Dynamic changes in gene expression profiles following axotomy of projection fibres in the Mammalian CNS. 2002 Mol Cell Neurosci
Vol. 21(3), pp. 421-435School: Department of Neurology, Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf, Germany. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Following postcommissural fornix transection we have investigated the postaxotomy transcriptional program in the subiculum where the injured axons originate. cDNA array hybridization revealed 125 genes that were specifically regulated as the injured neurons passed through three distinct postlesion (PL) stages comprising (i). early phase of injury and axon degeneration, (ii). sprouting phase of the proximal stump, and (iii). axonal growth arrest at the lesion scar. Numerous genes were detected which have, so far, not been associated with axotomy or axonal growth. Following the early lesion response that is characterized predominantly by down-regulation of genes at 1 day PL, neurons switch to a sprouting program with the majority of genes up-regulated at 7 days PL. However, the latter program of gene expression is not maintained but largely reversed (at 3 weeks PL) to the initial profile as axonal growth is blocked at the lesion barrier, indicating retrograde signaling that leads to down-
regulation of neuronal genes previously up-regulated during axon sprouting.
BibTeX:
@article{Abankwa:2002,
  author = {Abankwa, Daniel and Küry, Patrick and Müller, Hans Werner},
  title = {Dynamic changes in gene expression profiles following axotomy of projection fibres in the Mammalian CNS.},
  journal = {Mol Cell Neurosci},
  school = {Department of Neurology, Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf, Germany.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {21},
  number = {3},
  pages = {421--435},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1006/mcne.2002.1183}
}
Abankwa, D., Küry, P. and Müller, H.W. Dynamic changes in gene expression profiles following axotomy of projection fibres in the Mammalian CNS. 2002 Mol Cell Neurosci
Vol. 21(3), pp. 421-435School: Department of Neurology, Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf, Germany. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Following postcommissural fornix transection we have investigated the postaxotomy transcriptional program in the subiculum where the injured axons originate. cDNA array hybridization revealed 125 genes that were specifically regulated as the injured neurons passed through three distinct postlesion (PL) stages comprising (i). early phase of injury and axon degeneration, (ii). sprouting phase of the proximal stump, and (iii). axonal growth arrest at the lesion scar. Numerous genes were detected which have, so far, not been associated with axotomy or axonal growth. Following the early lesion response that is characterized predominantly by down-regulation of genes at 1 day PL, neurons switch to a sprouting program with the majority of genes up-regulated at 7 days PL. However, the latter program of gene expression is not maintained but largely reversed (at 3 weeks PL) to the initial profile as axonal growth is blocked at the lesion barrier, indicating retrograde signaling that leads to down-
regulation of neuronal genes previously up-regulated during axon sprouting.
BibTeX:
@article{Abankwa:2002a,
  author = {Abankwa, Daniel and Küry, Patrick and Müller, Hans Werner},
  title = {Dynamic changes in gene expression profiles following axotomy of projection fibres in the Mammalian CNS.},
  journal = {Mol Cell Neurosci},
  school = {Department of Neurology, Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf, Germany.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {21},
  number = {3},
  pages = {421--435},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1006/mcne.2002.1183}
}
Abbadie, C. and Besson, J.-M. c-fos Expression in rat lumbar spinal cord during the development of adjuvant-induced arthritis 1992 Neuroscience
Vol. 48(4), pp. 985-993 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: A parallel clinical and behavioral study of adjuvant-induced arthritis in the rat showed four stages in the time-course of the disease: preclinical (first week), acute (weeks 2-4), post-acute (weeks 5-8) and recovery weeks 9-11) [Calvino et al. (1987) Behav. Brain Res. 24, 11-29]. As several studies have reported the expression of the proto-oncogene c-fos in spinal cord neurons following acute noxious peripheral stimuli, the aim of this study was to quantitatively assess Fos-like immunoreactivity in lumbar spinal cord neurons at various times of adjuvant-induced arthritis development, i.e. one, two, three, 11 and 22 weeks post-inoculation. The total number of Fos-like immunoreactive neurons in the lumbar enlargement correlated with the observed development of adjuvant-induced arthritis, i.e. Fos-like immunoreactivity was absent at one week, moderate at two weeks, greatly increased at three weeks, decreased at 11 weeks and returned to control values at 22 weeks. At three weeks, at
the peak of Fos-
like immunoreactivity distribution and acute stage of hyperalgesia, maximal labeling was observed in L3 and L4 spinal segments. In these segments, the most densely labeled region was the neck (laminae V and VI) of the dorsal horn (55%) and the ventral horn (35%) as compared to the superficial laminae (laminae I and II; 5%) and the nucleus proprius (laminae III and IV; 5%). These data indicate that c-fos expression induced by chronic inflammation is better expressed in deeper laminae than in the superficial ones, and that the number of Fos-positive cells correlates with behavioral studies. Thus, the use of Fos-like immunoreactivity in the chronic inflammatory pain model seems to be an interesting tool to study possible effects of various pharmacological compounds such as analgesic or anti-inflammatory drugs. © 1992.
BibTeX:
@article{Abbadie:1992,
  author = {Abbadie, C. and Besson, J.-M.},
  title = {c-fos Expression in rat lumbar spinal cord during the development of adjuvant-induced arthritis},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {48},
  number = {4},
  pages = {985-993},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study i the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0026611139&partnerID=40&md5=77217a31612ac5cf6f1796b3a0f4d06c},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-4522(92)90287-c}
}
Abbadie, C. and Besson, J.-M. C-fos expression in rat lumbar spinal cord following peripheral stimulation in adjuvant-induced arthritic and normal rats 1993 Brain Research
Vol. 607(1-2), pp. 195-204 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Our previous data reported a maximal expression of the c-fos immediate-early gene in the lumbar spinal cord of the non-stimulated p polyarthritic rat neurons, three weeks after Freund's adjuvant injection. The present study utilises c-fos expression to judge the reactivity of spinal neurons to calibrated mechanical pressure applied to the ankle joint, in both normal and arthritic rats under ketamine anesthesia. The results indicate that the number of Fos-like immunoreactive neurons (1) is slightly decreased in ketamine-anesthetized non-stimulated arthritic rats as compared to the non-anesthetized non-stimulated ones, (2) is significantly higher in both stimulated normal and arthritic animals as compared to non-stimulated animals, particularly in laminae I, II, V and VI of L3 and L4, and (3) is significantly increased in stimulated arthritic as compared to stimulated normal rats, in all laminae of lumbar spinal segments. The appearance of 'basal' Fos labeling during the adjuvant-
induced arthritic
disease and the increased number of Fos-like immunoreactive neurons in stimulated arthritic rats compared to stimulated normal animals indirectly suggests that these neurons are abnormally active and thus involved in the hyperglesia of arthritic disease. Therefore the use of Fos-like immunoreactivity in the chronic pain model seems to be an appropriate tool to study possible effects of various pharmacological compounds, such as analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs. © 1993.
BibTeX:
@article{Abbadie:1993,
  author = {Abbadie, C. and Besson, J.-M.},
  title = {C-fos expression in rat lumbar spinal cord following peripheral stimulation in adjuvant-induced arthritic and normal rats},
  journal = {Brain Research},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {607},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {195-204},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study i the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0027499092&partnerID=40&md5=6ab9db3ccacb9878a0342abfc30df388},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(93)91507-O}
}
Abbadie, C., Gultekin, S. and Pasternak, G. Immunohistochemical localization of the carboxy terminus of the novel mu opioid receptor splice variant MOR-IC within the human spinal cord 2000 NeuroReport
Vol. 11(9), pp. 1953-1957 
article URL 
Abstract: The present study examined the distribution in the human spinal cord of a unique carboxy terminus sequence contained within MOR-IC, one of the recently described splice variants of the cloned mu opioid receptor gene MOR- I. Although MOR-I-like immunoreactivity (LI) and delta opioid receptor-like immunoreactivity were observed only in the superficial laminae. MOR-IC-LI was abundant in the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn and around the central canal. In the substantia gelatinosa, MOR-IC-LI was found in small diameter axonal elements, the cytoplasm and the plasmalemma of small spinal neurons and dendrites in inner lamina II and in some fibers within Lissauer's tract. These studies imply the presence of MOR-IC in human spinal cord and its distribution suggests that it plays a role in the control of pain processing. (C) 2000 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
BibTeX:
@article{Abbadie:2000,
  author = {Abbadie, C. and Gultekin, S.H. and Pasternak, G.W.},
  title = {Immunohistochemical localization of the carboxy terminus of the novel mu opioid receptor splice variant MOR-IC within the human spinal cord},
  journal = {NeuroReport},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {11},
  number = {9},
  pages = {1953-1957},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study i the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0034717682&partnerID=40&md5=0c1a1f09f2a4fb734612cbc920631007}
}
Abbaoui, A., E L Hiba, O. and Gamrani, H. The neuronal basis of copper induced modulation of anxiety state in rat. 2017 Acta histochemica
Vol. 119, pp. 10-17 
article DOI  
Abstract: Recently, studies have provided strong evidence indicating the involvement of trace elements in the physiopathology of psychiatric disorders, particularly anxiety. We aimed, through the present study, to describe the effect of acute exposure to Cu (10mg/kg BW) on anxiety state together with the serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems in rat by means of neurobehavioral tests (elevated plus maze, dark light box) and immunohistochemistry using anti-serotonin (5HT) and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Our data report that Cu enhanced 5HT innervation in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) together with a loss of TH expression within the ventral tegmental area (VTA), Substantia nigra compacta (SNc) and their subsequent outputs including the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) and striatum. In the elevated plus maze Cu significantly increased the time and the number of entries into the open arms, and raised the time spent in the Dark Box indicating a clear reduced anxiety state induced by Cu. The present data show for the first time a powerful neuro-modulatory potential of Cu in rat which involves primarily a dysfunction of 5HT and DA neurotransmissions.
BibTeX:
@article{Abbaoui:2017,
  author = {Abbaoui, Abdellatif and E L Hiba, Omar and Gamrani, Halima},
  title = {The neuronal basis of copper induced modulation of anxiety state in rat.},
  journal = {Acta histochemica},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {119},
  pages = {10--17},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acthis.2016.10.003}
}
Abbasi, S. and Kumar, S.S. Electrophysiological and morphological characterization of cells in superficial layers of rat presubiculum. 2013 J Comp Neurol
Vol. 521(13), pp. 3116-3132School: Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine and Program in Neuroscience, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, 32306-4300, USA. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The presubiculum (PrS) plays critical roles in spatial information processing and memory consolidation and has also been implicated in temporal lobe epileptogenesis. Despite its involvement in these processes, a basic structure-function analysis of PrS cells remains far from complete. To this end, we performed whole-cell recording and biocytin labeling of PrS neurons in layer (L)II and LIII to examine their electrophysiological and morphological properties. We characterized the cell types based on electrophysiological criteria, correlated their gross morphology, and classified them into distinct categories using unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis. We identified seven distinct cell types: regular-spiking (RS), irregular-spiking (IR), initially bursting (IB), stuttering (Stu), single-spiking (SS), fast-adapting (FA), and late-spiking (LS) cells, of which RS and IB cells were common to LII and LIII, LS cells were specific to LIII, and the remaining types were identified exclusively in
LII. Recorded neurons were either pyramidal or nonpyramidal and, except for Stu cells, displayed spine-rich dendrites. The RS, IB, and IR cells appeared to be projection neurons based on extension of their axons into LIII of the medial entorhinal area (MEA) and/or angular bundle. We conclude that LII and LIII of PrS are distinct in their neuronal populations and together constitute a more diverse population of neurons than previously suggested. PrS neurons serve as major drivers of circuits in superficial (LII-III) entorhinal cortex (ERC) and couple neighboring structures through robust afferentation, thereby substantiating the PrS's critical role in the parahippocampal region.
BibTeX:
@article{Abbasi:2013,
  author = {Abbasi, Saad and Kumar, Sanjay S},
  title = {Electrophysiological and morphological characterization of cells in superficial layers of rat presubiculum.},
  journal = {J Comp Neurol},
  school = {Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine and Program in Neuroscience, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, 32306-4300, USA.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {521},
  number = {13},
  pages = {3116--3132},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.23365},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.23365}
}
Abbasova, K.R., Chepurnov, S.A., Chepurnova, N.E. and van Luijtelaar, G. The role of perioral afferentation in the occurrenceof spike-wave discharges in the WAG/Rij modelof absence epilepsy. 2010 Brain Res
Vol. 1366, pp. 257-262School: Animal Physiology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia. akenul@gmail.com 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: According to the focal cortical theory of absence epilepsy, spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) have a cortical focal origin in the perioral region of the somatosensory cortex in rats. In the present study the role of peripheral afferents of the perioral (snout) region in the occurrence of spontaneous SWDs was investigated in the WAG/Rij (Wistar Albino Glaxo from Rijswijk) rat model of absence epilepsy in order to examine whether an input from peripheral sources is imperative for the occurrence of SWDs. Twelve male WAG/Rij rats were chronically equipped with cortical EEG electrodes. Peripheral afferents of the perioral region of the snout nervus trigeminus were pharmacologically blocked with a local injection of 2% Novocain, a blockade of nervus facialis and saline injections were used as controls. ECoGs were recorded before and after bilateral injection of the drug. Blockade of the n. trigeminus decreased the incidence and duration of SWD, while similar injections with Novocain near the n.
facialis had no effect. Injections with saline were also not effective. Our data demonstrate that intact peripheral afferent input may be primarily involved in the initiation of SWDs. It suggests that the cortico-thalamo-cortical circuits need the peripheral stimulations from the snout and vibrissae for an initiation of the spontaneous SWDs.
BibTeX:
@article{Abbasova:2010,
  author = {Abbasova, K. R. and Chepurnov, S. A. and Chepurnova, N. E. and van Luijtelaar, G.},
  title = {The role of perioral afferentation in the occurrenceof spike-wave discharges in the WAG/Rij modelof absence epilepsy.},
  journal = {Brain Res},
  school = {Animal Physiology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia. akenul@gmail.com},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {1366},
  pages = {257--262},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2010.10.007},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2010.10.007}
}
Abbate, S.L., Atkinson, M.B. and Breuer, A.C. Amount and speed of fast axonal transport in diabetes. 1991 Diabetes
Vol. 40(1), pp. 111-117School: Department of Internal Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH 44195. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Abnormalities in axonal transport have been observed in human and experimental diabetes and may be related to the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Axonal transport has previously been evaluated by indirect methods. In this study, direct-measurement techniques were applied (with computer-enhanced video-recorded images) for the first time to evaluate intra-axonal organelle speed and frequency (the amount of organelle traffic) in both the anterograde fast component (AFC) and retrograde fast component (RFC) of axonal transport in diabetic nerve. Sciatic nerve and dorsal and ventral nerve roots were studied in the animal model of insulin-dependent diabetes (BB/Wistar rat) and sciatic nerve in the non-insulin-dependent (streptozocin-induced) model of diabetes (STZ-D rat). STZ-D rats were studied at 1 mo, and BB/Wistar rats were studied at 1 and 2 mo of diabetes duration. Statistically significant decreases in peripheral axon organelle speed were found only for RFC at 1 mo of diabetes in both
the BB/Wistar (8.1 and STZ-D (5.4 rats. The difference was no longer significant in BB/Wistar rats at 2 mo of diabetes. This recovery suggests that the underlying abnormality is reversible. No differences were seen in AFC of any axons, and the only other difference seen was a 5.1% decrement in RFC at 2 mo in the ventral roots. No significant difference was observed in any group for organelle frequencies. Other factors should be considered to explain the decrease in materials transported in accumulation studies. The transient deficits in RFC speed observed remain of undetermined significance in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy.
BibTeX:
@article{Abbate:1991,
  author = {Abbate, S. L. and Atkinson, M. B. and Breuer, A. C.},
  title = {Amount and speed of fast axonal transport in diabetes.},
  journal = {Diabetes},
  school = {Department of Internal Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH 44195.},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {40},
  number = {1},
  pages = {111--117},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2337/diab.40.1.111}
}
Abbott, A., Wigmore, M. and Lacey, M. Excitation of rat subthalamic nucleus neurones in vitro by activation of a group I metabotropic glutamate receptor 1997 Brain Research
Vol. 766(1-2), pp. 162-167 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The subthalamic nucleus (SThN) provides a glutamate mediated excitatory drive to several other component nuclei of the basal ganglia, thereby significantly influencing locomotion and control of voluntary movement. We have characterised functionally the metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors in the SThN using extracellular single unit recording from rat midbrain slices. SThN neurones fired action potentials spontaneously at a rate of 10 Hz which was increased by the group I/II mGlu receptor agonist (1S,3R)-1- amino-cyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylate (1S,3R-ACPD; 1-30 μM) and the group I selective agonist (S,R)-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG; 1-30 μM). However, both the group II selective agonist (1S, 1'R,2'R,3'R)-2-(2,3- dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV; 1 μM) and the group III selective agonist (S)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutanoic acid (L-AP4; 10 μM) were without effect, indicating that the excitation was mediated by a group I mGlu receptor. The excitation caused by DHPG (3 μM) was
reversed by co-
application of the mGlu receptor antagonist (+)-α-methyl-4- carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG; 500 μM). Thus a group I mGlu receptor mediates excitation of SThN neurones, and suggests a use for group I mGlu receptor ligands for treatment of both hypo- and hyperkinetic disorders of basal ganglia origin, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease.
BibTeX:
@article{Abbott:1997,
  author = {Abbott, A. and Wigmore, M.A. and Lacey, M.G.},
  title = {Excitation of rat subthalamic nucleus neurones in vitro by activation of a group I metabotropic glutamate receptor},
  journal = {Brain Research},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {766},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {162-167},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study i the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0030886785&partnerID=40&md5=5ae632fb001c247efe4a1a53114e0a6c},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-8993(97)00550-7}
}
Abbott, C.J., Choe, T.E., Lusardi, T.A., Burgoyne, C.F., Wang, L. and Fortune, B. Imaging axonal transport in the rat visual pathway. 2013 Biomed Opt Express
Vol. 4(2), pp. 364-386School: Discoveries in Sight Research Laboratories, Devers Eye Institute, and Legacy Research Institute, Legacy Health, Portland, OR 97232, USA. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: A technique was developed for assaying axonal transport in retinal ganglion cells using 2 µl injections of 1% cholera toxin b-subunit conjugated to AlexaFluor488 (CTB). In vivo retinal and post-mortem brain imaging by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and post-mortem microscopy were performed. The transport of CTB was sensitive to colchicine, which disrupts axonal microtubules. The bulk rates of transport were determined to be approximately 80-90 mm/day (anterograde) and 160 mm/day (retrograde). Results demonstrate that axonal transport of CTB can be monitored in vivo in the rodent anterior visual pathway, is dependent on intact microtubules, and occurs by active transport mechanisms.
BibTeX:
@article{Abbott:2013,
  author = {Abbott, Carla J. and Choe, Tiffany E. and Lusardi, Theresa A. and Burgoyne, Claude F. and Wang, Lin and Fortune, Brad},
  title = {Imaging axonal transport in the rat visual pathway.},
  journal = {Biomed Opt Express},
  school = {Discoveries in Sight Research Laboratories, Devers Eye Institute, and Legacy Research Institute, Legacy Health, Portland, OR 97232, USA.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {2},
  pages = {364--386},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/BOE.4.000364},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1364/BOE.4.000364}
}
Abbott, C.J., Choe, T.E., Lusardi, T.A., Burgoyne, C.F., Wang, L. and Fortune, B. Imaging axonal transport in the rat visual pathway. 2013 Biomedical optics express
Vol. 4, pp. 364-86 
article DOI  
Abstract: A technique was developed for assaying axonal transport in retinal ganglion cells using 2 microl injections of 1% cholera toxin b-subunit conjugated to AlexaFluor488 (CTB). In vivo retinal and post-mortem brain imaging by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and post-mortem microscopy were performed. The transport of CTB was sensitive to colchicine, which disrupts axonal microtubules. The bulk rates of transport were determined to be approximately 80-90 mm/day (anterograde) and 160 mm/day (retrograde). Results demonstrate that axonal transport of CTB can be monitored in vivo in the rodent anterior visual pathway, is dependent on intact microtubules, and occurs by active transport mechanisms.
BibTeX:
@article{Abbott:2013a,
  author = {Abbott, Carla J. and Choe, Tiffany E. and Lusardi, Theresa A. and Burgoyne, Claude F. and Wang, Lin and Fortune, Brad},
  title = {Imaging axonal transport in the rat visual pathway.},
  journal = {Biomedical optics express},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {364-86},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1364/boe.4.000364}
}
Abbott, C.R., Monteiro, M., Small, C.J., Sajedi, A., Smith, K.L., Parkinson, J.R.C., Ghatei, M.A. and Bloom, S.R. The inhibitory effects of peripheral administration of peptide YY(3-36) and glucagon-like peptide-1 on food intake are attenuated by ablation of the vagal-brainstem-hypothalamic pathway. 2005 Brain Res
Vol. 1044(1), pp. 127-131School: Imperial College London, 6th Floor Commonwealth Building, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 ONN, UK. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The vagus nerve forms a neuro-anatomical link between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain. A number of gastrointestinal hormones, including cholecystokinin and ghrelin, require an intact vagal-brainstem-hypothalamic pathway to affect CNS feeding circuits. We have shown that the effects of peripheral administration of both peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on food intake and activation of hypothalamic arcuate feeding neurones are abolished following either bilateral sub-diaphragmatic total truncal vagotomy or brainstem-hypothalamic pathway transectioning in rodents. These findings suggest that the vagal-brainstem-hypothalamic pathway may also play a role in the effects of circulating PYY(3-36) and GLP-1 on food intake.
BibTeX:
@article{Abbott:2005,
  author = {Abbott, Caroline R. and Monteiro, Mariana and Small, Caroline J. and Sajedi, Arshia and Smith, Kirsty L. and Parkinson, James R C. and Ghatei, Mohammad A. and Bloom, Stephen R.},
  title = {The inhibitory effects of peripheral administration of peptide YY(3-36) and glucagon-like peptide-1 on food intake are attenuated by ablation of the vagal-brainstem-hypothalamic pathway.},
  journal = {Brain Res},
  school = {Imperial College London, 6th Floor Commonwealth Building, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 ONN, UK.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {1044},
  number = {1},
  pages = {127--131},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2005.03.011},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2005.03.011}
}
Abbott, S.B., Kanbar, R., Bochorishvili, G., Coates, M.B., Stornetta, R.L. and Guyenet, P.G. C1 neurons excite locus coeruleus and A5 noradrenergic neurons along with sympathetic outflow in rats. 2012 J Physiol
Vol. 590(Pt 12), pp. 2897-2915School: Department of Pharmacology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: C1 neurons activate sympathetic tone and stimulate the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis in circumstances such as pain, hypoxia or hypotension. They also innervate pontine noradrenergic cell groups, including the locus coeruleus (LC) and A5. Activation of C1 neurons reportedly inhibits LC neurons; however, because these neurons are glutamatergic and have excitatory effects elsewhere, we re-examined the effect of C1 activation on pontine noradrenergic neurons (LC and A5) using a more selective method. Using a lentivirus that expresses channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2) under the control of the artificial promoter PRSx8, we restricted ChR2 expression to C1 neurons (67, retrotrapezoid nucleus neurons (20 and cholinergic neurons (13. The LC contained ChR2-positive terminals that formed asymmetric synapses and were immunoreactive for vesicular glutamate transporter type 2. Low-frequency photostimulation of ChR2-expressing neurons activated LC (38 of 65; 58 and A5 neurons (11 of
16; 69 and sympathetic nerve discharge. Locus coeruleus and A5 inhibition was not seen unless preceded by excitation. Locus coeruleus activation was eliminated by intracerebroventricular kynurenic acid. Stimulation of ChR2-expressing neurons at 20 Hz produced modest increases in LC and A5 neuronal discharge. In additional rats, the retrotrapezoid nucleus region was destroyed with substance P–saporin prior to lentivirus injection into the rostral ventrolateral medulla, increasing the proportion of C1 ChR2-expressing neurons (83. Photostimulation in these rats activated the same proportion of LC and A5 neurons as in control rats but produced no effect on sympathetic nerve discharge owing to the destruction of bulbospinal C1 neurons. In conclusion, low-frequency stimulation of C1 neurons activates pontine noradrenergic neurons and sympathetic nerve discharge, possibly via the release of glutamate from monosynaptic C1 inputs.
BibTeX:
@article{Abbott:2012,
  author = {Abbott, S. B. and Kanbar, R. and Bochorishvili, G. and Coates, M. B. and Stornetta, R. L. and Guyenet, P. G.},
  title = {C1 neurons excite locus coeruleus and A5 noradrenergic neurons along with sympathetic outflow in rats.},
  journal = {J Physiol},
  school = {Department of Pharmacology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {590},
  number = {Pt 12},
  pages = {2897--2915},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2012.232157},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2012.232157}
}
Abdallah, K., Artola, A., Monconduit, L., Dallel, R. and Luccarini, P. Bilateral descending hypothalamic projections to the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis in rats. 2013 PLoS One
Vol. 8(8), pp. e73022School: d, France. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Several lines of evidence suggest that the hypothalamus is involved in trigeminal pain processing. However, the organization of descending hypothalamic projections to the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Sp5C) remains poorly understood. Microinjections of the retrograde tracer, fluorogold (FG), into the Sp5C, in rats, reveal that five hypothalamic nuclei project to the Sp5C: the paraventricular nucleus, the lateral hypothalamic area, the perifornical hypothalamic area, the A11 nucleus and the retrochiasmatic area. Descending hypothalamic projections to the Sp5C are bilateral, except those from the paraventricular nucleus which exhibit a clear ipsilateral predominance. Moreover, the density of retrogradely FG-labeled neurons in the hypothalamus varies according to the dorso-ventral localization of the Sp5C injection site. There are much more labeled neurons after injections into the ventrolateral part of the Sp5C (where ophthalmic afferents project) than after injections into
its dorsomedial or intermediate parts (where mandibular and maxillary afferents, respectively, project). These results demonstrate that the organization of descending hypothalamic projections to the spinal dorsal horn and Sp5C are different. Whereas the former are ipsilateral, the latter are bilateral. Moreover, hypothalamic projections to the Sp5C display somatotopy, suggesting that these projections are preferentially involved in the processing of meningeal and cutaneous inputs from the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve in rats. Therefore, our results suggest that the control of trigeminal and spinal dorsal horn processing of nociceptive information by hypothalamic neurons is different and raise the question of the role of bilateral, rather than unilateral, hypothalamic control.
BibTeX:
@article{Abdallah:2013,
  author = {Abdallah, Khaled and Artola, Alain and Monconduit, Lénaic and Dallel, Radhouane and Luccarini, Philippe},
  title = {Bilateral descending hypothalamic projections to the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis in rats.},
  journal = {PLoS One},
  school = {d, France.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {8},
  number = {8},
  pages = {e73022},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073022},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073022}
}
Abdallah, K., Monconduit, L., Artola, A., Luccarini, P. and Dallel, R. GABAAergic inhibition or dopamine denervation of the A11 hypothalamic nucleus induces trigeminal analgesia. 2015 Pain
Vol. 156(4), pp. 644-655School: Inserm U1107, F-63100, Clermont-Ferrand, France bCHU Clermont-Ferrand, Service d'Odontologie, Clermont-Ferrand, France. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Descending pain-modulatory systems, either inhibitory or facilitatory, play a critical role in both acute and chronic pain. Compared with serotonin and norepinephrine, little is known about the function of dopamine (DA). We characterized the anatomical organization of descending DA pathways from hypothalamic A11 nuclei to the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) and investigated their role in trigeminal pain. Immunochemistry analysis reveals that A11 is a heterogeneous nucleus that contains at least 3 neuronal phenotypes, DA, GABA, and alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide (α-CGRP) neurons, exhibiting different distribution patterns, with a large proportion of GABA relative to DA neurons. Using fluorogold, we show that descending pathways from A11 nuclei to MDH originate mainly from DA neurons and are bilateral. Facial nociceptive stimulation elevates Fos immunoreactivity in both ipsilateral and contralateral A11 nuclei. Fos immunoreactivity is not detected in DA or projecting neurons but,
interestingly, in GABA neurons. Finally, inactivating A11, using muscimol, or partially lesioning A11 DA neurons, using the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine, inhibits trigeminal pain behavior. These results show that A11 nuclei are involved in pain processing. Interestingly, however, pain seems to activate GABAergic neurons within A11 nuclei, which suggests that pain inhibits rather than activates descending DA controls. We show that such inhibition produces an antinociceptive effect. Pain-induced inhibition of descending DA controls and the resulting reduced DA concentration within the dorsal horn may inhibit the transfer of nociceptive information to higher brain centers through preferential activation of dorsal horn D2-like receptors.
BibTeX:
@article{Abdallah:2015,
  author = {Abdallah, Khaled and Monconduit, Lénaic and Artola, Alain and Luccarini, Philippe and Dallel, Radhouane},
  title = {GABAAergic inhibition or dopamine denervation of the A11 hypothalamic nucleus induces trigeminal analgesia.},
  journal = {Pain},
  school = {Inserm U1107, F-63100, Clermont-Ferrand, France bCHU Clermont-Ferrand, Service d'Odontologie, Clermont-Ferrand, France.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {156},
  number = {4},
  pages = {644--655},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000091},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000091}
}
Abdallah, K., Monconduit, L., Artola, A., Luccarini, P. and Dallel, R. GABAAergic inhibition or dopamine denervation of the A11 hypothalamic nucleus induces trigeminal analgesia 2015 Pain
Vol. 156(4), pp. 644-655 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Descending pain-modulatory systems, either inhibitory or facilitatory, play a critical role in both acute and chronic pain. Compared with serotonin and norepinephrine, little is known about the function of dopamine (DA). We characterized the anatomical organization of descending DA pathways from hypothalamic A11 nuclei to the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) and investigated their role in trigeminal pain. Immunochemistry analysis reveals that A11 is a heterogeneous nucleus that contains at least 3 neuronal phenotypes, DA, GABA, and alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide (α-CGRP) neurons, exhibiting different distribution patterns, with a large proportion of GABA relative to DA neurons. Using fluorogold, we show that descending pathways from A11 nuclei to MDH originate mainly from DA neurons and are bilateral. Facial nociceptive stimulation elevates Fos immunoreactivity in both ipsilateral and contralateral A11 nuclei. Fos immunoreactivity is not detected in DA or projecting neurons but,
interestingly, in
GABA neurons. Finally, inactivating A11, using muscimol, or partially lesioning A11 DA neurons, using the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine, inhibits trigeminal pain behavior. These results show that A11 nuclei are involved in pain processing. Interestingly, however, pain seems to activate GABAergic neurons within A11 nuclei, which suggests that pain inhibits rather than activates descending DA controls. We show that such inhibition produces an antinociceptive effect. Pain-induced inhibition of descending DA controls and the resulting reduced DA concentration within the dorsal horn may inhibit the transfer of nociceptive information to higher brain centers through preferential activation of dorsal horn D2-like receptors.
BibTeX:
@article{Abdallah:2015a,
  author = {Abdallah, K. and Monconduit, L. and Artola, A. and Luccarini, P. and Dallel, R.},
  title = {GABAAergic inhibition or dopamine denervation of the A11 hypothalamic nucleus induces trigeminal analgesia},
  journal = {Pain},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {156},
  number = {4},
  pages = {644-655},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84952315961&partnerID=40&md5=0569abc5bd85e62584ccecf58792ece9},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000091}
}
Abdellah, M., Bilgili, A., Eilemann, S., Shillcock, J., Markram, H. and Schürmann, F. Bio-physically plausible visualization of highly scattering fluorescent neocortical models for in silico experimentation. 2017 BMC bioinformatics
Vol. 18, pp. 62 
article DOI  
Abstract: We present a visualization pipeline capable of accurate rendering of highly scattering fluorescent neocortical neuronal models. The pipeline is mainly developed to serve the computational neurobiology community. It allows the scientists to visualize the results of their virtual experiments that are performed in computer simulations, or in silico. The impact of the presented pipeline opens novel avenues for assisting the neuroscientists to build biologically accurate models of the brain. These models result from computer simulations of physical experiments that use fluorescence imaging to understand the structural and functional aspects of the brain. Due to the limited capabilities of the current visualization workflows to handle fluorescent volumetric datasets, we propose a physically-based optical model that can accurately simulate light interaction with fluorescent-tagged scattering media based on the basic principles of geometric optics and Monte Carlo path tracing. We also develop an automated and efficient framework for generating dense fluorescent tissue blocks from a neocortical column model that is composed of approximately 31000 neurons. Our pipeline is used to visualize a virtual fluorescent tissue block of 50 μm(3) that is reconstructed from the somatosensory cortex of juvenile rat. The fluorescence optical model is qualitatively analyzed and validated against experimental emission spectra of different fluorescent dyes from the Alexa Fluor family. We discussed a scientific visualization pipeline for creating images of synthetic neocortical neuronal models that are tagged virtually with fluorescent labels on a physically-plausible basis. The pipeline is applied to analyze and validate simulation data generated from neuroscientific in silico experiments.
BibTeX:
@article{Abdellah:2017,
  author = {Abdellah, Marwan and Bilgili, Ahmet and Eilemann, Stefan and Shillcock, Julian and Markram, Henry and Schürmann, Felix},
  title = {Bio-physically plausible visualization of highly scattering fluorescent neocortical models for in silico experimentation.},
  journal = {BMC bioinformatics},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {18},
  pages = {62},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1186/s12859-016-1444-4}
}
Abdel-Majid, R.M., Archibald, M.L., Tremblay, F. and Baldridge, W.H. Tracer coupling of neurons in the rat retina inner nuclear layer labeled by Fluorogold. 2005 Brain Res
Vol. 1063(2), pp. 114-120School: Laboratory for Retina and Optic Nerve Research, Dalhousie University, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: A subpopulation of neurons in the inner nuclear layer (INL) of the rat retina were labeled 9-13 weeks after application of Fluorogold (FG) to the superior colliculus. Neurobiotin injection of FG-labeled cells in the INL of flatmounted living retina revealed that these cells consisted of both displaced ganglion cells and a subset of amacrine cells. Fluorogold-labeled amacrine cells in the INL showed tracer coupling to other presumptive amacrine cells in the INL, but there was no evidence of coupling to neurons in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). As the labeling of amacrine cells by FG may be due to gap junction coupling between ganglion and amacrine cells, these data add to the evidence that tracer coupling between these cells can be unidirectional. Some of the FG-labeled displaced ganglion cells in the INL injected with Neurobiotin also showed tracer coupling to neurons in the INL or GCL.
BibTeX:
@article{Abdel-Majid:2005,
  author = {Raja' M Abdel-Majid and Michele L Archibald and François Tremblay and William H Baldridge},
  title = {Tracer coupling of neurons in the rat retina inner nuclear layer labeled by Fluorogold.},
  journal = {Brain Res},
  school = {Laboratory for Retina and Optic Nerve Research, Dalhousie University, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {1063},
  number = {2},
  pages = {114--120},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2005.09.046},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2005.09.046}
}
Abdel-Majid, R.M., Archibald, M.L., Tremblay, F. and Baldridge, W.H. Tracer coupling of neurons in the rat retina inner nuclear layer labeled by Fluorogold. 2005 Brain research
Vol. 1063, pp. 114-20 
article DOI  
Abstract: A subpopulation of neurons in the inner nuclear layer (INL) of the rat retina were labeled 9-13 weeks after application of Fluorogold (FG) to the superior colliculus. Neurobiotin injection of FG-labeled cells in the INL of flatmounted living retina revealed that these cells consisted of both displaced ganglion cells and a subset of amacrine cells. Fluorogold-labeled amacrine cells in the INL showed tracer coupling to other presumptive amacrine cells in the INL, but there was no evidence of coupling to neurons in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). As the labeling of amacrine cells by FG may be due to gap junction coupling between ganglion and amacrine cells, these data add to the evidence that tracer coupling between these cells can be unidirectional. Some of the FG-labeled displaced ganglion cells in the INL injected with Neurobiotin also showed tracer coupling to neurons in the INL or GCL.
BibTeX:
@article{Abdel-Majid:2005a,
  author = {Abdel-Majid, Raja' M. and Archibald, Michele L. and Tremblay, Francois and Baldridge, William H.},
  title = {Tracer coupling of neurons in the rat retina inner nuclear layer labeled by Fluorogold.},
  journal = {Brain research},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {1063},
  pages = {114-20},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2005.09.046}
}
Abdullah, M., O'Daly, A., Vyas, A., Rohde, C. and Brushart, T.M. Adult motor axons preferentially reinnervate predegenerated muscle nerve. 2013 Exp Neurol
Vol. 249, pp. 1-7School: Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, 601 N. Caroline Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Preferential motor reinnervation (PMR) is the tendency for motor axons regenerating after repair of mixed nerve to reinnervate muscle nerve and/or muscle rather than cutaneous nerve or skin. PMR may occur in response to the peripheral nerve pathway alone in juvenile rats (Brushart, 1993; Redett et al., 2005), yet the ability to identify and respond to specific pathway markers is reportedly lost in adults (Uschold et al., 2007). The experiments reported here evaluate the relative roles of pathway and end organ in the genesis of PMR in adult rats. Fresh and 2-week predegenerated femoral nerve grafts were transferred in correct or reversed alignment to replace the femoral nerves of previously unoperated Lewis rats. After 8 weeks of regeneration the motoneurons projecting through the grafts to recipient femoral cutaneous and muscle branches and their adjacent end organs were identified by retrograde labeling. Motoneuron counts were subjected to Poisson regression analysis to determine the
relative roles of pathway and end organ identity in generating PMR. Transfer of fresh grafts did not result in PMR, whereas substantial PMR was observed when predegenerated grafts were used. Similarly, the pathway through which motoneurons reached the muscle had a significant impact on PMR when grafts were predegenerated, but not when they were fresh. Comparison of the relative roles of pathway and end organ in generating PMR revealed that neither could be shown to be more important than the other. These experiments demonstrate unequivocally that adult muscle nerve and cutaneous nerve differ in qualities that can be detected by regenerating adult motoneurons and that can modify their subsequent behavior. They also reveal that two weeks of Wallerian degeneration modify the environment in the graft from one that provides no modality-specific cues for motor neurons to one that actively promotes PMR.
BibTeX:
@article{Abdullah:2013,
  author = {Abdullah, M. and O'Daly, A. and Vyas, A. and Rohde, C. and Brushart, T. M.},
  title = {Adult motor axons preferentially reinnervate predegenerated muscle nerve.},
  journal = {Exp Neurol},
  school = {Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, 601 N. Caroline Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {249},
  pages = {1--7},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2013.07.019},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2013.07.019}
}
Abe, J., Okamura, H., Makino, S., Yanaihara, N. and Ibata, Y. Immunocytochemical distribution of [Met]enkephalin-Arg-Gly-Leu immunoreactivity in the rat diencephalon 1987 Brain Research Bulletin
Vol. 19(6), pp. 735-741 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Recently, [Met]Enkephalin-Arg-Gly-Leu (MEAGL) was isolated from bovine adrenal glands, and it was found to be derived exclusively from proenkephalin. Therefore, we investigated the distribution of MEAGL-like rmmunoreactive neuronal perikarya and fibers in the rat diencephalon pretreated with colchicine by PAP immunocytochemistry. In the thalamus MEAGL immunoreactive neuronal perikarya were distributed in the paraventricular nucleus and the ventral part of the lateral geniculate nucleus. Immunoreactive fibers were found in the paraventricular, paracentral, anteroventral, reuniens and rhomboid nuclei. In addition, immunoreactive fibers were also noted in the anterior pretectal nucleus. In the hypothalamus, immunoreactive neuronal perikarya were observed in the medial preoptic area, anterior and lateral hypothalamic nuclei, perifornical region, parvocellular and postero-magnocellular regions of paraventricular nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, dorsomedial nucleus, arcuate nucleus,
premammillary, medial
mammillary and lateral mammillary nuclei. The distribution of immunoreactive fibers was similar to that of neuronal perikarya. However, immunoreactive fibers were also observed in the supraoptic and suprachiasmatic nuclei where no immunoreactive neuronal perikarya were detected. Numerous immunoreactive fibers were detected in the external layer of the median eminence, but there were few in the internal layer. The similarity and difference in the distribution between MEAGL and other proenkephalin peptides such as [Met]enkephalin were also discussed. © 1987.
BibTeX:
@article{Abe:1987,
  author = {Abe, J. and Okamura, H. and Makino, S. and Yanaihara, N. and Ibata, Y.},
  title = {Immunocytochemical distribution of [Met]enkephalin-Arg-Gly-Leu immunoreactivity in the rat diencephalon},
  journal = {Brain Research Bulletin},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {19},
  number = {6},
  pages = {735-741},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study i the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0023543559&partnerID=40&md5=f6a6ba26da04bc3e490d90585bf8bc51},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0361-9230(87)90061-X}
}
Abe, K. A study of sensory projection from jaw muscles to the cerebral cortex in the rat. 1978 Jpn J Physiol
Vol. 28(3), pp. 309-322 
article DOI  
Abstract: The sensory projection from jaw muscles to the cerebral cortex have been studied in rats by electrophysiological and histochemical methods. Electrical stimulation of individual masticatory muscles elicited bilateral responses in the cortical areas 8, 10, 2, and 2a. The following pathway was postulated to mediate these cortical responses; impulses of muscle origin are conducted in turn to the trigeminal mesencephalic tract nucleus (TMT), the contralateral thalamic nucleus ventralis posteromedialis (VPM), the cerebral cortex and finally to the other cerebral cortex which is ipsilateral to the side of stimulation. The ipsilateral cortical response appeared about 5 msec later than the contralateral one and was abolished by sectioning the corpus callosum. By stimulating the cerebral cortex antidromically, the conduction time to the VPM was found to be as long as 6 msec. The conduction from the TMT to the contralateral VPM consumed a period of more than 10 msec. It was presumed to be multisynaptic,
being based on the finding that horseradish peroxidase injected into the VPM could not be recovered in the contralateral TMT.
BibTeX:
@article{Abe:1978,
  author = {Abe, K.},
  title = {A study of sensory projection from jaw muscles to the cerebral cortex in the rat.},
  journal = {Jpn J Physiol},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {28},
  number = {3},
  pages = {309--322},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2170/jjphysiol.28.309}
}
Abe, K., Kikuta, J., Kato, M., Ishida, K., Shigenaga, T., Taguchi, K. and Miyatake, T. Effects of microinjected carbachol on the antinociceptive response to noxious heat stimuli 2003 Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Vol. 26(2), pp. 162-165 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Injecting muscarinic receptor agonists into a specific area of the brainstem produces an antinociceptive response. The present study investigates whether direct injections of the cholinergic agonist, carbachol, into the rat nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (NRGC)/nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis alpha (NRGCα) of the rostral ventrolateral medulla evokes antinociception, and then examines the interference action of cholinergic antagonists in rats. Microinjections of carbachol (0.75, 1.5, 3 μg/site) prolonged hot plate (HP) and tail flick (TF) responses to noxious heat stimuli in a dose-dependent manner. The level of carbachol-induced antinociception during the HP and TF tests reached a maximum at 5-15 min after carbachol administration in all groups. Thereafter, the peak level progressively decreased and reached the baseline by the end of the experiment. Antinociception induced by carbachol at 3 μg/site was attenuated by the prior administration of the muscarinic receptor
antagonist,
atropine (200, 500 ng/site). On the other hand, the nicotinic autonomic ganglion blocker, mecamylamine (1, 3 μg/site), did not affect subsequent carbachol-induced antinociception. These results suggest that the antinociceptive effects induced by a microinjection of carbachol depend on muscarinic, but not nicotinic, mechanisms within the rat NRGC/NRGCα. © 2003 Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.
BibTeX:
@article{Abe:2003,
  author = {Abe, K. and Kikuta, J. and Kato, M. and Ishida, K. and Shigenaga, T. and Taguchi, K. and Miyatake, T.},
  title = {Effects of microinjected carbachol on the antinociceptive response to noxious heat stimuli},
  journal = {Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {26},
  number = {2},
  pages = {162-165},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study i the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0043269371&partnerID=40&md5=ea9c80e9e731ad612d7443b50bb75e9d},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1248/bpb.26.162}
}
van Abeelen, J.H. Genetic control of hippocampal cholinergic and dynorphinergic mechanisms regulating novelty-induced exploratory behavior in house mice. 1989 Experientia
Vol. 45(9), pp. 839-845School: Department of Animal Physiology, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Neurobehavioral genetics endeavors to trace the pathways from genetic and environmental determinants to neuroanatomical and neurophysiological systems and, thence, to behavior. Exploiting genetic variation as a tool, the behavioral sequelae of manipulating these neuronal systems by drugs and antisera are analyzed. Apart from research in rats, this paper deals mainly with the genetically-influenced regulation in mice of exploratory behaviors that are adaptive in novel surroundings and are hippocampally-mediated. Special attention is paid to neuropeptidergic, GABAergic, and cholinergic synaptic functions in the mouse hippocampus. The behaviorally different inbred mouse strains C57BL/6 and DBA/2 show opposite reactions (reductions and increases, respectively, in exploration rates) to peripheral and intrahippocampal injections with agents that interfere with peptidergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic neurotransmission. These findings can be explained by an interdependent over-release of opioids,
arrested GABA release, and excess acetylcholine in the hippocampal neuronal network of DBA/2 mice, as compared to C57BL/6 mice where these systems are functionally well balanced. Very similar results have been obtained with the lines SRH and SRL, derived from C57BL/6 and DBA/2, and genetically selected for rearing behavior. Most probably, the opioids act to disinhibit exploratory responses. An additional genetic approach is mentioned, in which four inbred mouse strains and one derived heterogeneous stock are used for estimating genetic correlations between structural properties of the hippocampal mossy fibers and levels of hippocampal dynorphin B, on the one hand, and frequencies of exploratory responses to environmental novelty, on the other.
BibTeX:
@article{Abeelen:1989a,
  author = {van Abeelen, J. H.},
  title = {Genetic control of hippocampal cholinergic and dynorphinergic mechanisms regulating novelty-induced exploratory behavior in house mice.},
  journal = {Experientia},
  school = {Department of Animal Physiology, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands.},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {45},
  number = {9},
  pages = {839--845},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01954058}
}
Abel, P. and Olavarria, J. The callosal pattern in striate cortex is more patchy in monocularly enucleated albino than pigmented rats. 1996 Neurosci Lett
Vol. 204(3), pp. 169-172School: Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195-1525, USA. 
article DOI  
Abstract: We investigated the effect of neonatal monocular enucleation on the pattern of interhemispheric connections through the corpus callosum in occipital cortex of pigmented and albino rats. Callosal connections were revealed in tangential sections through the flattened cortex following multiple injections of horseradish peroxidase into the opposite hemisphere. In pigmented rats, we found that monocular enucleation induces the development of an anomalous band-like accumulation of callosal connections in middle portions of striate cortex in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the remaining eye, as reported previously. In one-eyed albino rats, we also found callosal connections anomalously placed in middle portions of striate cortex, but they tended to form several patches of labeling rather than a single continuous band as in pigmented rats. Densitometric analysis of the callosal patterns revealed that this difference between rat strains was statistically significant. The increased patchiness in the
callosal pattern of one-eyed albino rats may reflect differences in the ipsilateral retinal projections in albino versus pigmented rats.
BibTeX:
@article{Abel:1996,
  author = {Abel, PL and Olavarria, JF},
  title = {The callosal pattern in striate cortex is more patchy in monocularly enucleated albino than pigmented rats.},
  journal = {Neurosci Lett},
  school = {Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195-1525, USA.},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {204},
  number = {3},
  pages = {169--172},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3940(96)12359-4}
}
Abel, R., Bishop, A., Moscoso, G., Spitz, L. and Polak, J. The ontogeny of innervation of the human pylorus 1998 Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Vol. 33(4), pp. 613-618 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Purpose: The aim of this study was to document the vagal innervation and expression of neuropeptides, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in the neuromuscular system of the developing human pylorus. Methods: Specimens of human pylorus (n = 54; age range, 8 weeks' gestation to 6 months postnatal) were studied. Vagal innervation was determined by Dil autofluorescence. A wide range of neuropeptides, NCAM, and the neural isoform of NOS were examined by immunohistochemistry. Results: Vagal innervation was first recognized in the myenteric plexus in the 12-week-old fetus as was vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) expression. Neuropeptides were present from 8 weeks' gestation and appeared to be expressed progressively from the adventitia toward the mucosa and showed an adultlike profile by 23 weeks' gestation. A craniocaudal pattern of expression was noted for VIP and nNOS. Alpha smooth muscle actin was expressed by muscle fibers of the
muscularis propria
from 8 weeks and the muscularis mucosae by 14 weeks. All the isoforms of NCAM examined were expressed from 8 weeks in the muscularis propria and by 12 weeks in the submucosa. Conclusion: The expression of the antigens studied correlated with the gestational age and development of the pylorus.
BibTeX:
@article{Abel:1998,
  author = {Abel, R.M. and Bishop, A.E. and Moscoso, G. and Spitz, L. and Polak, J.M.},
  title = {The ontogeny of innervation of the human pylorus},
  journal = {Journal of Pediatric Surgery},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {33},
  number = {4},
  pages = {613-618},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study i the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0031895022&partnerID=40&md5=8b05665d04c0c294e3c00a46a8646913},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3468(98)90327-X}
}
Ableitner, A., Wüster, M. and Herz, A. Specific changes in local cerebral glucose utilization in the rat brain induced by acute and chronic diazepam 1985 Brain Research
Vol. 359(1-2), pp. 49-56 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The effect of acute and long term administration of diazepam upon local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) in discrete regions of the central nervous system of the rat was studied by means of a quantitative autoradiographic [14C]2-deoxy-d-glucose technique16. A single injection of diazepam (1.0 mg/kg and 2.5 mg/kg i.v.) reduced LCGU up to 30% in particular brain areas, such as the lateral and ventral thalamic nuclei, the medial geniculate body and the mamillary body, whereas the activity in many other structures was not significantly altered. That the effects may be mediated via specific benzodiazepine receptors was indicated by the ability of the selective benzodiazepine antagonist Ro 15-1788 (imidazobenzodiazepine) to attenuate these actions. Rats treated chronically with diazepam (20 mg/kg day for a period of 14 days) still displayed slight reductions of LCGU in certain areas affected acutely such as the lateral thalamic nucleus. In contrast to its effects in rats chronically
treated with
vehicle, an acute diazepam injection failed to significantly modify LCGU in rats chronically treated with diazepam. Furthermore, in chronic diazepam-treated animals Ro 15-1788 produced an increase of LCGU to values above control levels in those brain regions in which a decrement was seen upon acute diazepam administration to naive rats. These findings indicate an adaptation to and a possible development of physical dependence upon chronic drug treatment. © 1985.
BibTeX:
@article{Ableitner:1985,
  author = {Ableitner, A. and Wüster, M. and Herz, A.},
  title = {Specific changes in local cerebral glucose utilization in the rat brain induced by acute and chronic diazepam},
  journal = {Brain Research},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {359},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {49-56},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study i the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0022402929&partnerID=40&md5=cfd118217f84b41ad95b2819fabc0382},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(85)91411-8}
}
Abou-Madi, L., Pontarotti, P., Tramu, G., Cupo, A. and Eybalin, M. Coexistence of putative neuroactive substances in lateral olivocochlear neurons of rat and guinea pig. 1987 Hear Res
Vol. 30(2-3), pp. 135-146School: INSERM-U. 254, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie de l'Audition, Hôpital St Charles, Montpellier, France. 
article DOI  
Abstract: We have used the retrograde axonal transport of Fast Blue, injected intra-cochlearly, to identify in the rat lateral superior olive (LSO) neurons which belong to the lateral olivocochlear system (LOCS). Using immunohistofluorescence technique, we have localized within Fast Blue-labeled neurons immunostainings for enkephalins (Met-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin-Arg6-Gly7-Leu8), dynorphins (alpha-neo-endorphin, dynorphin 1-17) or choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Many Fast Blue-labeled neurons did not show any immunostaining, but all the immunostained neurons found in the LSO were Fast Blue-labeled. In immunohistofluorescence colocalization experiments of two antigens, we could colocalize within the same neurons of the rat LSO immunostainings for ChAT and enkephalins and for ChAT and dynorphins. In each case, neurons only immunostained for ChAT, enkephalins or dynorphins could also be observed. A colocalization of the immunostainings for Met-enkephalin and dynorphins within neurons of the guinea
pig and rat LSO was also found. However, in this case, neurons which did not show colocalization were only Met-enkephalin-immunoreactive, thus suggesting that all the dynorphins immunoreactive LSO neurons also contain enkephalins. These findings support the idea that the neurons of the LSO which contain ChAT-, enkephalin- or dynorphin-immunostainings project to the cochlea and belong to the LOCS. It can also be concluded that acetylcholine, enkephalins and dynorphins coexist within a same population of neurons of the LOCS, although other patterns of co-containment of neuroactive substances within LOCS neurons may also exist.
BibTeX:
@article{Abou-Madi:1987,
  author = {L. Abou-Madi and P. Pontarotti and G. Tramu and A. Cupo and M. Eybalin},
  title = {Coexistence of putative neuroactive substances in lateral olivocochlear neurons of rat and guinea pig.},
  journal = {Hear Res},
  school = {INSERM-U. 254, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie de l'Audition, Hôpital St Charles, Montpellier, France.},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {30},
  number = {2-3},
  pages = {135--146},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-5955(87)90131-6}
}
Abou-Madi, L., Pontarotti, P., Tramu, G., Cupo, A. and Eybalin, M. Coexistence of putative neuroactive substances in lateral olivocochlear neurons of rat and guinea pig. 1987 Hearing research
Vol. 30, pp. 135-46 
article DOI  
Abstract: We have used the retrograde axonal transport of Fast Blue, injected intra-cochlearly, to identify in the rat lateral superior olive (LSO) neurons which belong to the lateral olivocochlear system (LOCS). Using immunohistofluorescence technique, we have localized within Fast Blue-labeled neurons immunostainings for enkephalins (Met-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin-Arg6-Gly7-Leu8), dynorphins (alpha-neo-endorphin, dynorphin 1-17) or choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Many Fast Blue-labeled neurons did not show any immunostaining, but all the immunostained neurons found in the LSO were Fast Blue-labeled. In immunohistofluorescence colocalization experiments of two antigens, we could colocalize within the same neurons of the rat LSO immunostainings for ChAT and enkephalins and for ChAT and dynorphins. In each case, neurons only immunostained for ChAT, enkephalins or dynorphins could also be observed. A colocalization of the immunostainings for Met-enkephalin and dynorphins within neurons of the guinea pig
and rat LSO was also found. However, in this case, neurons which did not show colocalization were only Met-enkephalin-immunoreactive, thus suggesting that all the dynorphins immunoreactive LSO neurons also contain enkephalins. These findings support the idea that the neurons of the LSO which contain ChAT-, enkephalin- or dynorphin-immunostainings project to the cochlea and belong to the LOCS. It can also be concluded that acetylcholine, enkephalins and dynorphins coexist within a same population of neurons of the LOCS, although other patterns of co-containment of neuroactive substances within LOCS neurons may also exist.
BibTeX:
@article{Abou-Madi:1987a,
  author = {Abou-Madi, L. and Pontarotti, P. and Tramu, G. and Cupo, A. and Eybalin, M.},
  title = {Coexistence of putative neuroactive substances in lateral olivocochlear neurons of rat and guinea pig.},
  journal = {Hearing research},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {135-46},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-5955(87)90131-6}
}
Abraham, I. and Kovacs, K. Postnatal handling alters the activation of stress-related neuronal circuitries 2000 European Journal of Neuroscience
Vol. 12(8), pp. 3003-3014 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Postnatal handling, as a crucial early life experience, plays an essential role in the development of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress. The impact of postnatal handling on the reactivity of stress-related neuronal circuitries was investigated in animals that were handled for the first 21 days of life and as adults they were exposed to physical (ether) or emotional (restraint) challenge. To assess neuronal activation we relied on the induction of immediate-early gene product c-Fos and analysed its spatial and temporal distribution at various time intervals after stress. Ether and restraint commonly activated parvocellular neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, and resulted in activation of brain areas providing stress-related information to the hypothalamic effector neurons and/or in regions governing autonomic and behavioural responses to stress. Beyond these areas, the strength and timing of c-Fos induction showed stressor specificity in
olfactory and septal
region, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, hippocampal formation, amygdala and brainstem. Handled rats displayed a lower number of c-Fos-positive cell nuclei and weaker staining intensity than non-handled controls in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, central nucleus of amygdala, hippocampus, piriform cortex and posterior division of the cingulum. Significant differences were revealed in timing of c-Fos induction as a function of stressor and early life experience. Together, these data provide functional anatomical evidence that environmental enrichment in the early postnatal period attenuates the reactivity of stress-related neuronal circuitries in the adult rat brain.
BibTeX:
@article{Abraham:2000,
  author = {Abraham, I.M. and Kovacs, K.J.},
  title = {Postnatal handling alters the activation of stress-related neuronal circuitries},
  journal = {European Journal of Neuroscience},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {12},
  number = {8},
  pages = {3003-3014},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study i the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0033812015&partnerID=40&md5=5ba117adcf2765f5be0da7e66bab6c71},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1460-9568.2000.00176.x}
}
Abraham, M., Sánchez-Moreno, R., Cometto-Muñiz, J. and Cain, W. A quantitative structure-activity analysis on the relative sensitivity of the olfactory and the nasal trigeminal chemosensory systems 2007 Chemical Senses
Vol. 32(7), pp. 711-719 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: We have applied a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approach to analyze the chemical parameters that determine the relative sensitivity of olfaction and nasal chemesthesis to a common set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We used previously reported data on odor detection thresholds (ODTs) and nasal pungency thresholds (NPTs) from 64 VOCs belonging to 7 chemical series (acetate esters, carboxylic acids, alcohols, aliphatic aldehydes, alkylbenzenes, ketones, and terpenes). The analysis tested whether NPTs could be used to separate out "selective" chemosensory effects (i.e., those resting on the transfer of VOCs from the gas phase to the receptor phase) from "specific" chemosensory effects in ODTs. Previous work showed that selective effects overwhelmingly dominate chemesthetic potency whereas both selective and specific effects control olfactory potency. We conclude that it is indeed possible to use NPTs to separate out selective from specific effects in ODTs.
Among the series
studied, aldehydes and acids, except for formic acid, show clear specific effects in their olfactory potency. Furthermore, for VOCs whose odor potency rests mainly on selective effects, we have developed a QSAR equation that can predict their ODTs based on their NPTs. © The Author 2007. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Abraham:2007,
  author = {Abraham, M.H. and Sánchez-Moreno, R. and Cometto-Muñiz, J.E. and Cain, W.S.},
  title = {A quantitative structure-activity analysis on the relative sensitivity of the olfactory and the nasal trigeminal chemosensory systems},
  journal = {Chemical Senses},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {32},
  number = {7},
  pages = {711-719},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-34548370709&partnerID=40&md5=ab98ddfac73b1809333b2d8f43252989},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjm038}
}
Abrahams, T., Liu, W. and Varner, K. Blockade of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in the rostral ventrolateral medulla attenuates the sympathoinhibitory response to cocaine 1996 Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Vol. 279(2), pp. 967-974 
article URL 
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla play a role in the sympathoinhibitory response elicited by i.v. administration of cocaine and, if so, to identify the type(s) of receptors involved. Adrenergic antagonists were microinjected bilaterally into the rostral ventrolateral medulla in pentobarbital- anesthetized rats in an attempt to block the decrease in sympathetic nerve discharge (SND) elicited by cocaine (1 mg/kg i.v.). After the bilateral microinjection of saline, cocaine elicited a -56 ± 5% (mean ± S.E.) decrease in SND lasting 36 ± 3 min. Cocaine also increased arterial pressure (21 ± 3 mm Hg). Prior microinjection of the alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist idazoxan (0.3, 3 or 10 nmol) did not alter the magnitude of the sympathoinhibitory response to cocaine; however, the duration of the response was significantly reduced by all 3 doses (range 21 ± 3 to 11 ± 2 min). Similarly, microinjection of the alpha-2 adrenergic
antagonist piperoxan (10
nmol) decreased the duration (from 45 ± 8 to 23 ± 4 min), but not the magnitude of the sympathoinhibitory response. Microinjection of either the alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist terazosin (0.24 nmol) or the beta adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol (2 nmol) did not attenuate the decrease in SND elicited by cocaine. The cocaine-mediated pressor response was not affected by any of the antagonist treatments. These data show that the decrease in SND elicited by cocaine is mediated centrally and involves, at least in part, the activation of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in the rostral ventrolateral medulla.
BibTeX:
@article{Abrahams:1996,
  author = {Abrahams, T.P. and Liu, W. and Varner, K.J.},
  title = {Blockade of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in the rostral ventrolateral medulla attenuates the sympathoinhibitory response to cocaine},
  journal = {Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {279},
  number = {2},
  pages = {967-974},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0030433177&partnerID=40&md5=caae63ab9741a8e73640b6e0c67f2654}
}
Abrahamson, D.R. and Rodewald, R. Evidence for the sorting of endocytic vesicle contents during the receptor-mediated transport of IgG across the newborn rat intestine. 1981 J Cell Biol
Vol. 91(1), pp. 270-280 
article DOI  
Abstract: Fc receptors on the luminal membranes of intestinal epithelial cells in the neonatal rat mediate the vesicular transfer of functionally intact IgG from the intestinal lumen to the circulation. In addition, there is a low level of nonselective protein uptake, but in this case transfer does not occur. To determine whether a specialized class of endocytic vesicles could account for the selective transfer of IgG, mixtures of IgG conjugated to ferritin (IgG-Ft) and unconjugated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were injected together into the proximal intestine of 10-d-old rats, and the cellular distribution of these two different tracers was determined by electron microscopy. Virtually all apical endocytic vesicles contained both tracers, indicating simultaneous uptake of both proteins within the same vesicle. However, only IgG-Ft bound to the apical plasma membrane, appeared within coated vesicles at the lateral cell surface, and was released from cells. HRP did not bind to the luminal membrane and
was not transferred across cells but was confined to apical lysosomes as identified by acid phosphatase and aryl sulfatase activities. To test the possibility that the binding of IgG to its receptor stimulated endocytosis, HRP was used as a fluid volume tracer, and the amount of HRP taken up by cells in the presence and absence of IgG was measured morphologically and biochemically. The results demonstrate that endocytosis in these cells is constitutive and occurs at the same level in the absence of IgG. The evidence presented indicates that the principal selective mechanism for IgG transfer is the binding of IgG to its receptor during endocytosis. Continued binding to vesicle membranes appears to be required for successful transfer because unbound proteins are removed from the transport pathway before exocytosis. These results favor the proposal that IgG is transferred across cells as an IgG-receptor complex.
BibTeX:
@article{Abrahamson:1981,
  author = {Abrahamson, D. R. and Rodewald, R.},
  title = {Evidence for the sorting of endocytic vesicle contents during the receptor-mediated transport of IgG across the newborn rat intestine.},
  journal = {J Cell Biol},
  year = {1981},
  volume = {91},
  number = {1},
  pages = {270--280},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.91.1.270}
}
Abrahamson, E. and Moore, R. The posterior hypothalamic area: chemoarchitecture and afferent connections. 2001 Brain Res
Vol. 889, pp. 1-22 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Abrahamson:2001,
  author = {Abrahamson, EE and Moore, RY},
  title = {The posterior hypothalamic area: chemoarchitecture and afferent connections.},
  journal = {Brain Res},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {889},
  pages = {1-22},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(00)03015-8}
}
Abrahamson, E.E. and Moore, R.Y. The posterior hypothalamic area: chemoarchitecture and afferent connections. 2001 Brain research
Vol. 889, pp. 1-22 
article DOI  
Abstract: This study provides an analysis of the chemoarchitecture of the posterior hypothalamic area (PHA) and a retrograde transport analysis of inputs to the PHA in the rat. The chemoarchitectural analysis reveals that the majority of PHA neurons contain glutamate. Hypocretin, melanin concentrating hormone, tyrosine hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y and gamma-aminobutyric acid are also found in subsets of PHA neurons, and fibers immunoreactive for these substances as well as for serotonin, dopamine-beta-hydroxylase and met-enkephalin are observed in the area and aid in the delineation of its borders. The retrograde tracing study demonstrates that the PHA receives input from multiple, diverse neuron populations. Descending projections to the PHA arise from the limbic forebrain (cingulate cortex and lateral septum) and both the medial and lateral hypothalamus. Subcortical visual nuclei, including the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus and intergeniculate leaflet, pretectal area, and superior colliculus, and
the subthalamus (zona incerta, fields of Forel) also project to the PHA. Ascending projections to the PHA arise from brainstem cholinergic nuclei, the reticular formation, midbrain raphe nuclei, periaqueductal gray and parabrachial nucleus. Retrograde transport studies using the psuedorabies virus (PRV) demonstrate that the PHA receives input indirectly from the hippocampus, amygdala and suprachiasmatic nucleus through circuits including nuclei in the limbic forebrain and hypothalamus. These data suggest that the PHA is important in the neural control of behavioral state, modulating aspects of hippocampal, autonomic and cortical function as they relate to the elaboration of adaptive behavior.
BibTeX:
@article{Abrahamson:2001a,
  author = {Abrahamson, E. E. and Moore, R. Y.},
  title = {The posterior hypothalamic area: chemoarchitecture and afferent connections.},
  journal = {Brain research},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {889},
  pages = {1-22},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(00)03015-8}
}
Abramets, I. and Samoilovich, I. Analysis of two types of dopaminergic responses of neurons of the spinal ganglia of rats 1991 Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology
Vol. 21(5), pp. 435-440 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: It was established, in experiments on isolated spinal ganglia of adult rats in concluons of intracellular recording, that dopamine (1 μM/liter) elicits depolarized responses in 61% of neurons, hyperpolarized in 20% of neurons, and depolarized-hyperpolarized in 19% of neurons. The depolarized responses are associated with the activation of D1 dopamine receptors, and are governed by the shift of cAMP-dependent cation (sodium) channels to the conducting state. The hyperpolarized responses are triggered by the activation of D2 dopamine receptors, which by means of HTP-binding protein convert the potassium channels to the conducting state. The change in the polarization of neurons with the action of dopamine influences their electrical excitability variously. © 1991 Plenum Publishing Corporation.
BibTeX:
@article{Abramets:1991,
  author = {Abramets, I.I. and Samoilovich, I.M.},
  title = {Analysis of two types of dopaminergic responses of neurons of the spinal ganglia of rats},
  journal = {Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {21},
  number = {5},
  pages = {435-440},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study i the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0026212476&partnerID=40&md5=1e450fef613124f77969ba84640fd6e5},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01200278}
}
Abrams, J.K., Johnson, P.L., Hay-Schmidt, A., Mikkelsen, J.D., Shekhar, A. and Lowry, C.A. Serotonergic systems associated with arousal and vigilance behaviors following administration of anxiogenic drugs. 2005 Neuroscience
Vol. 133(4), pp. 983-997School: Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, Whitson Street, Bristol BS1 3NY, UK. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Serotonergic systems play important roles in modulating behavioral arousal, including behavioral arousal and vigilance associated with anxiety states. To further our understanding of the neural systems associated with increases in anxiety states, we investigated the effects of multiple anxiogenic drugs on topographically organized subpopulations of serotonergic neurons using double immunohistochemical staining for c-Fos and tryptophan hydroxylase combined with topographical analysis of the rat dorsal raphe nucleus (DR). Anxiogenic drugs with diverse pharmacological properties including the adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine, the serotonin 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist m-chlorophenyl piperazine (mCPP), the alpha2-adrenoreceptor antagonist yohimbine, and the benzodiazepine receptor partial inverse agonist N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) induced increases in behavioral arousal and vigilance behaviors consistent with an increase in anxiety state. In addition, these
anxiogenic drugs, excluding yohimbine, had convergent actions on an anatomically-defined subset of serotonergic neurons within the middle and caudal, dorsal subdivision of the DR. High resolution topographical analysis revealed that at the mid-rostrocaudal level, caffeine and FG-7142 had convergent effects on c-Fos expression in serotonergic neurons that were restricted to a previously undefined region, which we have named the shell region of the dorsal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRDSh), that overlaps the anatomical border between the dorsal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus, the ventral part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRV), and the ventrolateral part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRVL). Retrograde tracing methods revealed that DRDSh contains large numbers of neurons projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, a forebrain structure important for emotional appraisal and modulation of anxiety-related physiological and behavioral responses. Together these findings support the hypothesis that there
is a functional topographical organization in the DR and are consistent with the hypothesis that anxiogenic drugs have selective actions on a subpopulation of serotonergic neurons projecting to a distributed central autonomic and emotional motor control system regulating anxiety states and anxiety-related physiological and behavioral responses.
BibTeX:
@article{Abrams:2005,
  author = {J. K. Abrams and P. L. Johnson and A. Hay-Schmidt and J. D. Mikkelsen and A. Shekhar and C. A. Lowry},
  title = {Serotonergic systems associated with arousal and vigilance behaviors following administration of anxiogenic drugs.},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  school = {Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, Whitson Street, Bristol BS1 3NY, UK.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {133},
  number = {4},
  pages = {983--997},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.03.025},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.03.025}
}
Abrams, J.K., Johnson, P.L., Hollis, J.H. and Lowry, C.A. Anatomic and functional topography of the dorsal raphe nucleus. 2004 Ann N Y Acad Sci
Vol. 1018, pp. 46-57School: University Research Centre for Neuroendocrinology, University of Bristol, Marlborough Street, Bristol BS2 8HW, United Kingdom. J.K.Abrams@bristol.ac.uk 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Serotonergic systems play an important and generalized role in regulation of sleep-wake states and behavioral arousal. Recent in vivo electrophysiologic recording studies in animals suggest that several different subtypes of serotonergic neurons with unique behavioral correlates exist within the brainstem raphe nuclei, raising the possibility that topographically organized subpopulations of serotonergic neurons may have unique behavioral or physiologic correlates and unique functional properties. We have shown that the stress-related and anxiogenic neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor can stimulate the in vitro neuronal firing rates of topographically organized subpopulations of serotonergic neurons within the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR). These findings are consistent with a wealth of behavioral studies suggesting that serotonergic systems within the DR are involved in the modulation of ongoing anxiety-related behavior and in behavioral sensitization, a process whereby anxiety- and fear-
related behavioral responses are sensitized for a period of up to 24 to 48 h. The dorsomedial subdivision of the DR, particularly its middle and caudal aspects, has attracted considerable attention as a region that may play a critical role in the regulation of acute and chronic anxiety states. Future studies aimed at characterization of the molecular and cellular properties of topographically organized subpopulations of serotonergic neurons are likely to lead to major advances in our understanding of the role of serotonergic systems in stress-related physiology and behavior.
BibTeX:
@article{Abrams:2004,
  author = {Abrams, Jolane K. and Johnson, Philip L. and Hollis, Jacob H. and Lowry, Christopher A.},
  title = {Anatomic and functional topography of the dorsal raphe nucleus.},
  journal = {Ann N Y Acad Sci},
  school = {University Research Centre for Neuroendocrinology, University of Bristol, Marlborough Street, Bristol BS2 8HW, United Kingdom. J.K.Abrams@bristol.ac.uk},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {1018},
  pages = {46--57},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1196/annals.1296.005},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1296.005}
}
de Abreu, S., Lenhard, A., Mehanna, A., de Souza, H., de Aguiar Correa, F., Hasser, E. and Martins-Pinge, M. Role of paraventricular nucleus in exercise training-induced autonomic modulation in conscious rats 2009 Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical
Vol. 148(1-2), pp. 28-35 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is an important site for autonomic regulation, where gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system plays an important role. The central mechanisms underlying modulatory effects of exercise training have yet to be characterized. Our objective was to analyze the effects on the autonomic modulation and hemodynamic parameters after bicuculline or muscimol injections into the PVN of sedentary (control, C) and previously submitted to swimming training (ST) rats. After ST protocol, adult male Wistar rats, instrumented with guide cannulas to PVN and femoral artery and vein catheters were submitted to mean arterial pressure (MAP) recording. The exercise training reduced the LF oscillations in normalized units and increased the HF oscillations in absolute and normalized units. Compared with the C group, muscimol microinjections in the ST group promoted a higher decrease in MAP (C = - 14 ± 1 vs. ST = - 28 ± 4 mm Hg). Spectral analysis of HR (
pulse interval) showed
that the muscimol microinjections also reduced LF and HF oscillations in absolute units in both groups. Bicuculline microinjections increased the systolic arterial pressure (C = 155 ± 5, ST = 164 ± 5 mm Hg) in ST compared with the C group. Bicuculline injections also increased the LF oscillations of HR in absolute units in C and ST groups. Meanwhile, in normalized units only the ST group showed an increase in the LF oscillations. Our data showed that PVN has an important role in autonomic modulation after exercise training. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Abreu:2009,
  author = {de Abreu, S.B. and Lenhard, A. and Mehanna, A. and de Souza, H.C.D. and de Aguiar Correa, F.M. and Hasser, E.M. and Martins-Pinge, M.C.},
  title = {Role of paraventricular nucleus in exercise training-induced autonomic modulation in conscious rats},
  journal = {Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {148},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {28-35},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-67349274734&partnerID=40&md5=b43ffcfabbe5b303a395c24888933b37},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autneu.2009.02.007}
}
Abrous, D., Choulli, K., Rouge-Pont, F., Simon, H., Le Moal, M. and Herman, J. Effects of intracerebral dopaminergic grafts on behavioural deficits induced by neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the mesotelencephalic dopaminergic pathway 1993 Neuroscience
Vol. 54(2), pp. 499-511 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The functional capabilities of dopamine neuron-rich grafts implanted into the accumbens and striatal regions in neonatal rats were evaluated in a series of behavioural tests. The ascending mesotelencephalic dopaminergic system of three-day-old rat pups was bilaterally lesioned by injecting 6-hydroxydopamine at the level of the lateral hypothalamus. Five days later a suspension containing dopaminergic neurons obtained from embryonic day 14 mesencephali was injected bilaterally into the striatal complex. The functional effects of such grafts were evaluated using behavioural tests for which it was known that the performance of the animals is changed following the lesion of the mesotelencephalic pathway and for which the influence of dopaminergic grafts implanted into adult hosts have previously been described. The dopamine-rich grafts compensated for the modifications of the locomotor responsiveness to amphetamine and apomorphine induced by neonatal dopamine depletion. However, the
grafts were unable
to restore more complex behaviours such as hoarding for food pellets, schedule-induced polydipsia and learning behaviours. Moreover, the neonatal transplants induced additional deficits such as catalepsia, nocturnal hyperactivity and day-time hyperactivity during food deprivation. It was concluded that, at least in the present paradigm, the implantation into neonatal brain does not lead to any greater functional recovery than that observed after implantation during adulthood. © 1993.
BibTeX:
@article{Abrous:1993,
  author = {Abrous, D.N. and Choulli, K. and Rouge-Pont, F. and Simon, H. and Le Moal, M. and Herman, J.P.},
  title = {Effects of intracerebral dopaminergic grafts on behavioural deficits induced by neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the mesotelencephalic dopaminergic pathway},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {54},
  number = {2},
  pages = {499-511},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0027151877&partnerID=40&md5=73e7dfee45d41298a3381f050fea612f},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-4522(93)90269-L}
}
Abrous, D., Rivet, J., Le Moal, M. and Herman, J. Similar post-lesion receptor readjustments following the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the dopaminergic mesotelencephalic system in neonatal and adult rats 1990 Brain Research
Vol. 526(2), pp. 195-202 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The ascending dopaminergic system of adult or 3-day-old rats has been unilaterally lesioned by the intraparenchymal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine aimed at the medial forebrain bundle at the level of the level of the lateral hypothalamus. Nigral dopaminergic neurons disappeared following the lesion on the lesioned side in both experimental groups while the depletion of the ventral tegmental area was less extensive, especially following the neonatal lesion. Striatal regions were markedly depleted of their dopaminergic innervation, although the magnitude of the depletion was slightly higher following the adult stage lesion as judged on the basis of biochemical measurements (99% vs. 96%). Amphetamine (5 mg/kg) evoked an identical ipsilateral rotational response in both experimental groups. Moreover, this rotational response was blocked both by the specific D1 receptor blocker SCH-23390 (0.1 mg/kg) and the specific D2 receptor antagonist raclopride (2 mg/kg). Likewise, contralateral
rotational
responses to the directly acting D1 and D2 dopamine receptor agonists SKF-38393 (2.5 mg/kg) and LY-171555 (0.15 mg/kg) were similar in both experimental groups, both qualitatively and quantitatively. These results confirm conclusions obtained in earlier works, and indicate that reported differences in behavioral deficits between animals lesioned as neonates or adults are not related to differing modifications of striatal DA receptor sensitivities. © 1990.
BibTeX:
@article{Abrous:1990,
  author = {Abrous, D.N. and Rivet, J.M. and Le Moal, M. and Herman, J.P.},
  title = {Similar post-lesion receptor readjustments following the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the dopaminergic mesotelencephalic system in neonatal and adult rats},
  journal = {Brain Research},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {526},
  number = {2},
  pages = {195-202},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0024992672&partnerID=40&md5=986266c32e3954143d20f03160f75a33},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(90)91221-2}
}
Abrous, D., Simon, H. and Le Moal, M. Administration of amphetamine does not increase the functional efficacy of dopaminergic grafts made in infancy 1996 Brain Research
Vol. 708(1-2), pp. 21-28 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Previous reports have evoked the possibility that a priming stimulation of grafted dopaminergic (DA) neurones by amphetamine enhances their efficacy in behavioural tests performed several days later. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis. Five days after the unilateral destruction of the DA mesotelencephalic system of 3-day-old rat pups, DA grafts were implanted into the denervated neostriatum of half of the lesioned pups. At adulthood, lesion and graft groups were subdivided into 4 subgroups which received one of the following treatments: saline or amphetamine injection in an environment where the behavioural test was subsequently conducted (paired environment) or in an unrelated environment (unpaired environment). Five days later, rotational response to a tail-pinch stress was tested in the paired environment. In these conditions, we found no evidence for a priming effect of amphetamine. Animals that received amphetamine or saline in the unpaired environment
displayed the same
rotational response to the tail-pinch stress. On the other hand, a conditioning influence of the environment was detected. Thus, the effect previously described might have been caused by a conditioning effect and/or might be due to differences in the experimental conditions. This suggests that 'priming' the graft with amphetamine does not provide a general strategy to enhance the functional efficacy of DA grafts.
BibTeX:
@article{Abrous:1996,
  author = {Abrous, D.N. and Simon, H. and Le Moal, M.},
  title = {Administration of amphetamine does not increase the functional efficacy of dopaminergic grafts made in infancy},
  journal = {Brain Research},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {708},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {21-28},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0030063456&partnerID=40&md5=0830e67433b2d3e20906a0de544fd138},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(95)01246-X}
}
Abuirmeileh, A., Lever, R., Kingsbury, A., Lees, A., Locke, I., Knight, R., Chowdrey, H., Biggs, C. and Whitton, P. The corticotrophin-releasing factor-like peptide urocortin reverses key deficits in two rodent models of Parkinson's disease 2007 European Journal of Neuroscience
Vol. 26(2), pp. 417-423 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The potential neuroprotective action of the corticotrophin-releasing factor-related peptide urocortin (UCN) was investigated in the rat 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) paradigms of Parkinson's disease. UCN (20 fmol) was either given at the same time as (T = 0) or 7 days after (T = +7) intracerebral 6-OHDA or LPS injection. At 14 days after 6-OHDA or LPS injection, circling behaviour was measured following apomorphine challenge. Circling was significantly lower in rats given UCN at either T = 0 or T = +7 compared with animals given 6-OHDA or LPS and vehicle. Sham-treated rats showed no circling. Consistent with these observations, striatal dopamine concentrations were markedly higher in 6-OHDA/LPS + UCN rats vs. 6-OHDA/LPS + vehicle groups. Additionally, l-dihydroxyphenylalanine production by tyrosine hydroxylase was greatly reduced in the striata of 6-OHDA/LPS + vehicle rats, whereas this was not the case in rats coadministered UCN. Finally, the numbers of
tyrosine
hydroxylase-positive cells recorded in the substantia nigra of 6-OHDA/LPS + vehicle-treated animals were markedly lower than those of sham-operated or 6-OHDA/LPS + UCN rats. Critically, UCN was effective in reversing lesion-induced deficits when given either at the same time as or 7 days after the neurotoxic insult. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such an effect has been demonstrated in vivo. The apparent ability of UCN to arrest the progression of or even reverse nigral lesions once established suggests that pharmacological manipulation of this system could have substantial therapeutic utility. © The Authors (2007).
BibTeX:
@article{Abuirmeileh:2007,
  author = {Abuirmeileh, A. and Lever, R. and Kingsbury, A.E. and Lees, A.J. and Locke, I.C. and Knight, R.A. and Chowdrey, H.S. and Biggs, C.S. and Whitton, P.S.},
  title = {The corticotrophin-releasing factor-like peptide urocortin reverses key deficits in two rodent models of Parkinson's disease},
  journal = {European Journal of Neuroscience},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {26},
  number = {2},
  pages = {417-423},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-34447624725&partnerID=40&md5=f4d9d760a15c0ebee033bc4eba91c0e2},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2007.05653.x}
}
Abul, H.T., Mathew, T.C., Abul, F., Al-Sayer, H. and Dashti, H.M. Antioxidant enzyme level in the testes of cirrhotic rats. 2002 Nutrition
Vol. 18(1), pp. 56-59School: Department of Pharmacology, Kuwait University Health Sciences Center, Safat, Kuwait. 
article DOI  
Abstract: An understanding of the tissue and organ level of antioxidant enzymes that scavenge reactive oxygen species may provide an indication of their susceptibility to free radical-related cytotoxic damage. A direct association between testicular production of excessive reactive oxygen species and male infertility has been noted. We measured the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the testes of thioacetamide-induced cirrhotic rats.Antioxidant enzyme activities and trace element levels (copper, zinc, manganese, and selenium) in the testes of thioacetamide-induced cirrhotic and control rats were measured. The statistical difference between the experimental and control groups with regard to the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and levels of trace elements was analyzed with Student's t test.Our results showed a significant decrease in the activity of these enzymes in the testes of cirrhotic rats. The testicular levels of copper, zinc, and
manganese, which are associated with these antioxidant enzymes, increased, whereas selenium decreased slightly in cirrhotic rats; that decrease was not statistically significant.Our studies showed a drastic decrease in the level of antioxidant enzymes in the testes of cirrhotic rats that could have deleterious effects on sperm function in these animals. Further studies are necessary to understand the exact pathways of trace element metabolism in the testes of cirrhotic rats.
BibTeX:
@article{Abul:2002,
  author = {Abul, Habib T. and Mathew, T Chacko and Abul, Fawzi and Al-Sayer, Hilal and Dashti, Hussein M.},
  title = {Antioxidant enzyme level in the testes of cirrhotic rats.},
  journal = {Nutrition},
  school = {Department of Pharmacology, Kuwait University Health Sciences Center, Safat, Kuwait.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {18},
  number = {1},
  pages = {56--59},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/s0899-9007(01)00743-2}
}
Acarin, L., Gonzalez, B., Castellano, B. and Castro, A.J. Microglial response to N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated excitotoxicity in the immature rat brain. 1996 The Journal of comparative neurology
Vol. 367, pp. 361-74 
article  
Abstract: The intracerebral injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) has been proposed as a model for hypoxic-ischemic insult in the immature brain. In this light, the aim of this study was to describe the time course of the microglial reaction in the areas undergoing primary degeneration at the site of intracortical NMDA injection as well as in areas undergoing secondary anterograde and/or retrograde degeneration. Fifty nanomoles of NMDA were injected in the sensorimotor cortex of 6-day-old rats. After survival times ranging from 10 hours to 28 days, cryostat sections were stained for routine histology and for the demonstration of microglial cells by means of tomato lectin histochemistry. The areas affected by primary degeneration caused by the intracortical injection of NMDA were the neocortex, the hippocampus, and the rostral thalamus. Secondary degeneration (retrograde and anterograde) was observed in the ventrobasal complex of the thalamus. The cortical lesion also caused Wallerian degeneration of
the cortical descending efferents as observed in the basilar pons. Microglial reactivity in all these areas was present at 10 hours postinjection and was restricted to the areas undergoing neuronal or axonal degeneration. Reactive microglial cells were stained intensely and showed a round or pseudopodic morphology. At 3 days, an apparent increase in the number of tomato lectin-positive cells was observed in the areas undergoing neuronal death. By 7 days after the injection, the lesion became nonprogressive, and by 14 and 28 days, microglial cells showed moderate lectin binding and a more ramified morphology.
BibTeX:
@article{Acarin:1996b,
  author = {Acarin, L. and Gonzalez, B. and Castellano, B. and Castro, A. J.},
  title = {Microglial response to N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated excitotoxicity in the immature rat brain.},
  journal = {The Journal of comparative neurology},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {367},
  pages = {361-74},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Acarin, L., González, B., Castellano, B. and Castro, A.J. Microglial response to N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated excitotoxicity in the immature rat brain. 1996 J Comp Neurol
Vol. 367(3), pp. 361-374School: Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, Illinois 60153, USA. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The intracerebral injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) has been proposed as a model for hypoxic-ischemic insult in the immature brain. In this light, the aim of this study was to describe the time course of the microglial reaction in the areas undergoing primary degeneration at the site of intracortical NMDA injection as well as in areas undergoing secondary anterograde and/or retrograde degeneration. Fifty nanomoles of NMDA were injected in the sensorimotor cortex of 6-day-old rats. After survival times ranging from 10 hours to 28 days, cryostat sections were stained for routine histology and for the demonstration of microglial cells by means of tomato lectin histochemistry. The areas affected by primary degeneration caused by the intracortical injection of NMDA were the neocortex, the hippocampus, and the rostral thalamus. Secondary degeneration (retrograde and anterograde) was observed in the ventrobasal complex of the thalamus. The cortical lesion also caused Wallerian degeneration
of the cortical descending efferents as observed in the basilar pons. Microglial reactivity in all these areas was present at 10 hours postinjection and was restricted to the areas undergoing neuronal or axonal degeneration. Reactive microglial cells were stained intensely and showed a round or pseudopodic morphology. At 3 days, an apparent increase in the number of tomato lectin-positive cells was observed in the areas undergoing neuronal death. By 7 days after the injection, the lesion became nonprogressive, and by 14 and 28 days, microglial cells showed moderate lectin binding and a more ramified morphology.
BibTeX:
@article{Acarin:1996,
  author = {L. Acarin and B. González and B. Castellano and A. J. Castro},
  title = {Microglial response to N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated excitotoxicity in the immature rat brain.},
  journal = {J Comp Neurol},
  school = {Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, Illinois 60153, USA.},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {367},
  number = {3},
  pages = {361--374},
  note = {Not a tract tracing experiment in the rat. NMDA injection. Degeneration / lesion experiment. Hypoxic insult.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/gt;3.0.CO;2-3},
  doi = {gt;3.0.CO;2-3}
}
Acarin, L., González, B., Castellano, B. and Castro, A.J. Microglial response to N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated excitotoxicity in the immature rat brain. 1996 J Comp Neurol
Vol. 367(3), pp. 361-374School: Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, Illinois 60153, USA. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The intracerebral injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) has been proposed as a model for hypoxic-ischemic insult in the immature brain. In this light, the aim of this study was to describe the time course of the microglial reaction in the areas undergoing primary degeneration at the site of intracortical NMDA injection as well as in areas undergoing secondary anterograde and/or retrograde degeneration. Fifty nanomoles of NMDA were injected in the sensorimotor cortex of 6-day-old rats. After survival times ranging from 10 hours to 28 days, cryostat sections were stained for routine histology and for the demonstration of microglial cells by means of tomato lectin histochemistry. The areas affected by primary degeneration caused by the intracortical injection of NMDA were the neocortex, the hippocampus, and the rostral thalamus. Secondary degeneration (retrograde and anterograde) was observed in the ventrobasal complex of the thalamus. The cortical lesion also caused Wallerian degeneration
of the cortical descending efferents as observed in the basilar pons. Microglial reactivity in all these areas was present at 10 hours postinjection and was restricted to the areas undergoing neuronal or axonal degeneration. Reactive microglial cells were stained intensely and showed a round or pseudopodic morphology. At 3 days, an apparent increase in the number of tomato lectin-positive cells was observed in the areas undergoing neuronal death. By 7 days after the injection, the lesion became nonprogressive, and by 14 and 28 days, microglial cells showed moderate lectin binding and a more ramified morphology.
BibTeX:
@article{Acarin:1996a,
  author = {Acarin, L. and González, B. and Castellano, B. and Castro, A. J.},
  title = {Microglial response to N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated excitotoxicity in the immature rat brain.},
  journal = {J Comp Neurol},
  school = {Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, Illinois 60153, USA.},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {367},
  number = {3},
  pages = {361--374},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/gt;3.0.CO;2-3},
  doi = {gt;3.0.CO;2-3}
}
Accolla, R., Bathellier, B., Petersen, C.C.H. and Carleton, A. Differential spatial representation of taste modalities in the rat gustatory cortex. 2007 J Neurosci
Vol. 27(6), pp. 1396-1404School: Flavour Perception Group, Laboratory of Sensory Processing, Brain Mind Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Discrimination between foods is crucial for the nutrition and survival of animals. Remarkable progress has been made through molecular and genetic manipulations in the understanding of the coding of taste at the receptor level. However, much less is known about the cortical processing of taste sensation and the organizing principles of the gustatory cortex (GC). Using genetic tracing, it has recently been shown that sweet and bitter taste are processed through segregated neuronal circuitries along the gustatory pathway up to the cortical level. This is in disagreement with the evidence that GC neurons recorded in both anesthetized and behaving animals responded to multiple taste modalities (including sweet and bitter). To investigate the functional architecture of the GC in regard to taste modalities, we used in vivo intrinsic optical imaging, a technique that has been successfully applied to explore the organization of other neocortical regions. We found that four of the primary taste
modalities (sweet, bitter, salty, and sour) are represented by distinctive spatial patterns but that no region was specific to a single modality. In addition, we found that two tastants of similar hedonic value (pleasant or unpleasant) activated areas with more common regions than two tastants with opposite hedonic value. In summary, we propose that these specific cortical patterns can be used to discriminate among various tastants.
BibTeX:
@article{Accolla:2007,
  author = {Riccardo Accolla and Brice Bathellier and Carl C H Petersen and Alan Carleton},
  title = {Differential spatial representation of taste modalities in the rat gustatory cortex.},
  journal = {J Neurosci},
  school = {Flavour Perception Group, Laboratory of Sensory Processing, Brain Mind Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {27},
  number = {6},
  pages = {1396--1404},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5188-06.2007},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5188-06.2007}
}
Accolla, R., Bathellier, B., Petersen, C.C.H. and Carleton, A. Differential spatial representation of taste modalities in the rat gustatory cortex. 2007 The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Vol. 27, pp. 1396-404 
article DOI  
Abstract: Discrimination between foods is crucial for the nutrition and survival of animals. Remarkable progress has been made through molecular and genetic manipulations in the understanding of the coding of taste at the receptor level. However, much less is known about the cortical processing of taste sensation and the organizing principles of the gustatory cortex (GC). Using genetic tracing, it has recently been shown that sweet and bitter taste are processed through segregated neuronal circuitries along the gustatory pathway up to the cortical level. This is in disagreement with the evidence that GC neurons recorded in both anesthetized and behaving animals responded to multiple taste modalities (including sweet and bitter). To investigate the functional architecture of the GC in regard to taste modalities, we used in vivo intrinsic optical imaging, a technique that has been successfully applied to explore the organization of other neocortical regions. We found that four of the primary taste
modalities (sweet, bitter, salty, and sour) are represented by distinctive spatial patterns but that no region was specific to a single modality. In addition, we found that two tastants of similar hedonic value (pleasant or unpleasant) activated areas with more common regions than two tastants with opposite hedonic value. In summary, we propose that these specific cortical patterns can be used to discriminate among various tastants.
BibTeX:
@article{Accolla:2007a,
  author = {Accolla, Riccardo and Bathellier, Brice and Petersen, Carl C. H. and Carleton, Alan},
  title = {Differential spatial representation of taste modalities in the rat gustatory cortex.},
  journal = {The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {1396-404},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.5188-06.2007}
}
Accorsi-Mendonca, D., Almado, C.E.L., Bonagamba, L.G.H., Castania, J.A., Moraes, D.J.A. and Machado, B.H. Enhanced Firing in NTS Induced by Short-Term Sustained Hypoxia Is Modulated by Glia-Neuron Interaction. 2015 The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Vol. 35, pp. 6903-17 
article DOI  
Abstract: Humans ascending to high altitudes are submitted to sustained hypoxia (SH), activating peripheral chemoreflex with several autonomic and respiratory responses. Here we analyzed the effect of short-term SH (24 h, FIO210%) on the processing of cardiovascular and respiratory reflexes using an in situ preparation of rats. SH increased both the sympatho-inhibitory and bradycardiac components of baroreflex and the sympathetic and respiratory responses of peripheral chemoreflex. Electrophysiological properties and synaptic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neurons, the first synaptic station of afferents of baroreflexes and chemoreflexes, were evaluated using brainstem slices and whole-cell patch-clamp. The second-order NTS neurons were identified by previous application of fluorescent tracer onto carotid body for chemoreceptor afferents or onto aortic depressor nerve for baroreceptor afferents. SH increased the intrinsic excitability of NTS neurons. Delayed excitation, caused by A-type potassium current (IKA), was observed in most of NTS neurons from control rats. The IKA amplitude was higher in identified second-order NTS neurons from control than in SH rats. SH also blunted the astrocytic inhibition of IKA in NTS neurons and increased the synaptic transmission in response to afferent fibers stimulation. The frequency of spontaneous excitatory currents was also increased in neurons from SH rats, indicating that SH increased the neurotransmission by presynaptic mechanisms. Therefore, short-term SH changed the glia-neuron interaction, increasing the excitability and excitatory transmission of NTS neurons, which may contribute to the observed increase in the reflex sensitivity of baroreflex and chemoreflex in in situ preparation.
BibTeX:
@article{Accorsi-Mendonca:2015a,
  author = {Accorsi-Mendonca, Daniela and Almado, Carlos E. L. and Bonagamba, Leni G. H. and Castania, Jaci A. and Moraes, Davi J. A. and Machado, Benedito H.},
  title = {Enhanced Firing in NTS Induced by Short-Term Sustained Hypoxia Is Modulated by Glia-Neuron Interaction.},
  journal = {The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {6903-17},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.4598-14.2015}
}
Accorsi-Mendonça, D., Almado, C.E.L., Bonagamba, L.G.H., Castania, J.A., Moraes, D.J.A. and Machado, B.H. Enhanced Firing in NTS Induced by Short-Term Sustained Hypoxia Is Modulated by Glia-Neuron Interaction. 2015 J Neurosci
Vol. 35(17), pp. 6903-6917School: Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, 14049-900Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Humans ascending to high altitudes are submitted to sustained hypoxia (SH), activating peripheral chemoreflex with several autonomic and respiratory responses. Here we analyzed the effect of short-term SH (24 h, FIO210 on the processing of cardiovascular and respiratory reflexes using an in situ preparation of rats. SH increased both the sympatho-inhibitory and bradycardiac components of baroreflex and the sympathetic and respiratory responses of peripheral chemoreflex. Electrophysiological properties and synaptic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neurons, the first synaptic station of afferents of baroreflexes and chemoreflexes, were evaluated using brainstem slices and whole-cell patch-clamp. The second-order NTS neurons were identified by previous application of fluorescent tracer onto carotid body for chemoreceptor afferents or onto aortic depressor nerve for baroreceptor afferents. SH increased the intrinsic excitability of NTS neurons. Delayed
excitation, caused by A-type potassium current (IKA), was observed in most of NTS neurons from control rats. The IKA amplitude was higher in identified second-order NTS neurons from control than in SH rats. SH also blunted the astrocytic inhibition of IKA in NTS neurons and increased the synaptic transmission in response to afferent fibers stimulation. The frequency of spontaneous excitatory currents was also increased in neurons from SH rats, indicating that SH increased the neurotransmission by presynaptic mechanisms. Therefore, short-term SH changed the glia-neuron interaction, increasing the excitability and excitatory transmission of NTS neurons, which may contribute to the observed increase in the reflex sensitivity of baroreflex and chemoreflex in in situ preparation.
BibTeX:
@article{Accorsi-Mendonca:2015,
  author = {Accorsi-Mendonça, Daniela and Almado, Carlos E L. and Bonagamba, Leni G H. and Castania, Jaci A. and Moraes, Davi J A. and Machado, Benedito H.},
  title = {Enhanced Firing in NTS Induced by Short-Term Sustained Hypoxia Is Modulated by Glia-Neuron Interaction.},
  journal = {J Neurosci},
  school = {Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, 14049-900Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {35},
  number = {17},
  pages = {6903--6917},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4598-14.2015},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4598-14.2015}
}
Accorsi-Mendonca, D., Bonagamba, L.G.H., Leao, R.M. and Machado, B.H. Are L-glutamate and ATP cotransmitters of the peripheral chemoreflex in the rat nucleus tractus solitarius? 2009 Experimental physiology
Vol. 94, pp. 38-45 
article DOI  
Abstract: Peripheral chemoreflex activation in awake rats or in the working heart-brainstem preparation (WHBP) produces sympathoexcitation, bradycardia and an increase in the frequency of phrenic nerve activity. Our focus is the neurotransmission of the sympathoexcitatory component of the chemoreflex within the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS), and recently we verified that the simultaneous antagonism of ionotropic glutamate and purinergic P(2) receptors in the NTS blocked the pressor response and increased thoracic sympathetic activity in awake rats and WHBP, respectively, in response to peripheral chemoreflex activation. These previous data suggested the involvement of ATP and L-glutamate in the NTS in the processing of the sympathoexcitatory component of the chemoreflex by unknown mechanisms. For a better understanding of these mechanisms, here we used a patch-clamp approach in brainstem slices to evaluate the characteristics of the synaptic transmission of NTS neurons sending projections to
the ventral medulla, which include the premotor neurons involved in the generation of the sympathetic outflow. The NTS neurons sending projections to the ventral medulla were identified by previous microinjection of the membrane tracer dye, 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI), in the ventral medulla and the spontaneous (sEPSCs) and tractus solitarius (TS)-evoked excitatory postsynaptic current (TS-eEPSCs) were recorded using patch clamp. With this approach, we made the following observations on NTS neurons projecting to the ventral medulla: (i) the sEPSCs and TS-eEPSCs of DiI-labelled NTS neurons were completely abolished by 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3(1H,4H)-dione (DNQX), an antagonist of ionotropic non-NMDA glutamatergic receptors, showing that they are mediated by L-glutamate; (ii) application of ATP increased the frequency of appearance of spontaneous glutamatergic currents, reflecting an increased exocytosis of glutamatergic vesicles; and (iii) ATP decreased the peak
of TS-evoked glutamatergic currents. We conclude that L-glutamate is the main neurotransmitter of spontaneous and TS-evoked synaptic activities in the NTS neurons projecting to the ventral medulla and that ATP has a dual modulatory role on this excitatory transmission, facilitating the spontaneous glutamatergic transmission and inhibiting the TS-evoked glutamatergic transmission. These data also suggest that ATP is not acting as a cotransmitter with L-glutamate, at least at the level of this subpopulation of NTS neurons studied.
BibTeX:
@article{Accorsi-Mendonca:2009b,
  author = {Accorsi-Mendonca, Daniela and Bonagamba, Leni G. H. and Leao, Ricardo M. and Machado, Benedito H.},
  title = {Are L-glutamate and ATP cotransmitters of the peripheral chemoreflex in the rat nucleus tractus solitarius?},
  journal = {Experimental physiology},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {94},
  pages = {38-45},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.2008.043653}
}
Accorsi-Mendonça, D., Bonagamba, L.G.H., Leão, R.M. and Machado, B.H. Are L-glutamate and ATP cotransmitters of the peripheral chemoreflex in the rat nucleus tractus solitarius? 2009 Exp Physiol
Vol. 94(1), pp. 38-45School: Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Peripheral chemoreflex activation in awake rats or in the working heart-brainstem preparation (WHBP) produces sympathoexcitation, bradycardia and an increase in the frequency of phrenic nerve activity. Our focus is the neurotransmission of the sympathoexcitatory component of the chemoreflex within the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS), and recently we verified that the simultaneous antagonism of ionotropic glutamate and purinergic P(2) receptors in the NTS blocked the pressor response and increased thoracic sympathetic activity in awake rats and WHBP, respectively, in response to peripheral chemoreflex activation. These previous data suggested the involvement of ATP and L-glutamate in the NTS in the processing of the sympathoexcitatory component of the chemoreflex by unknown mechanisms. For a better understanding of these mechanisms, here we used a patch-clamp approach in brainstem slices to evaluate the characteristics of the synaptic transmission of NTS neurons sending
projections to the ventral medulla, which include the premotor neurons involved in the generation of the sympathetic outflow. The NTS neurons sending projections to the ventral medulla were identified by previous microinjection of the membrane tracer dye, 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI), in the ventral medulla and the spontaneous (sEPSCs) and tractus solitarius (TS)-evoked excitatory postsynaptic current (TS-eEPSCs) were recorded using patch clamp. With this approach, we made the following observations on NTS neurons projecting to the ventral medulla: (i) the sEPSCs and TS-eEPSCs of DiI-labelled NTS neurons were completely abolished by 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3(1H,4H)-dione (DNQX), an antagonist of ionotropic non-NMDA glutamatergic receptors, showing that they are mediated by L-glutamate; (ii) application of ATP increased the frequency of appearance of spontaneous glutamatergic currents, reflecting an increased exocytosis of glutamatergic vesicles; and (iii) ATP
decreased the peak of TS-evoked glutamatergic currents. We conclude that L-glutamate is the main neurotransmitter of spontaneous and TS-evoked synaptic activities in the NTS neurons projecting to the ventral medulla and that ATP has a dual modulatory role on this excitatory transmission, facilitating the spontaneous glutamatergic transmission and inhibiting the TS-evoked glutamatergic transmission. These data also suggest that ATP is not acting as a cotransmitter with L-glutamate, at least at the level of this subpopulation of NTS neurons studied.
BibTeX:
@article{Accorsi-Mendonca:2009,
  author = {Daniela Accorsi-Mendonça and Leni G H Bonagamba and Ricardo M Leão and Benedito H Machado},
  title = {Are L-glutamate and ATP cotransmitters of the peripheral chemoreflex in the rat nucleus tractus solitarius?},
  journal = {Exp Physiol},
  school = {Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {94},
  number = {1},
  pages = {38--45},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.2008.043653},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.2008.043653}
}
Accorsi-Mendonça, D., Bonagamba, L.G.H., Leão, R.M. and Machado, B.H. Are L-glutamate and ATP cotransmitters of the peripheral chemoreflex in the rat nucleus tractus solitarius? 2009 Exp Physiol
Vol. 94(1), pp. 38-45School: Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Peripheral chemoreflex activation in awake rats or in the working heart-brainstem preparation (WHBP) produces sympathoexcitation, bradycardia and an increase in the frequency of phrenic nerve activity. Our focus is the neurotransmission of the sympathoexcitatory component of the chemoreflex within the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS), and recently we verified that the simultaneous antagonism of ionotropic glutamate and purinergic P(2) receptors in the NTS blocked the pressor response and increased thoracic sympathetic activity in awake rats and WHBP, respectively, in response to peripheral chemoreflex activation. These previous data suggested the involvement of ATP and L-glutamate in the NTS in the processing of the sympathoexcitatory component of the chemoreflex by unknown mechanisms. For a better understanding of these mechanisms, here we used a patch-clamp approach in brainstem slices to evaluate the characteristics of the synaptic transmission of NTS neurons sending projections to
the ventral medulla, which include the premotor neurons involved in the generation of the sympathetic outflow. The NTS neurons sending projections to the ventral medulla were identified by previous microinjection of the membrane tracer dye, 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI), in the ventral medulla and the spontaneous (sEPSCs) and tractus solitarius (TS)-evoked excitatory postsynaptic current (TS-eEPSCs) were recorded using patch clamp. With this approach, we made the following observations on NTS neurons projecting to the ventral medulla: (i) the sEPSCs and TS-eEPSCs of DiI-labelled NTS neurons were completely abolished by 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3(1H,4H)-dione (DNQX), an antagonist of ionotropic non-NMDA glutamatergic receptors, showing that they are mediated by L-glutamate; (ii) application of ATP increased the frequency of appearance of spontaneous glutamatergic currents, reflecting an increased exocytosis of glutamatergic vesicles; and (iii) ATP decreased the peak
of TS-evoked glutamatergic currents. We conclude that L-glutamate is the main neurotransmitter of spontaneous and TS-evoked synaptic activities in the NTS neurons projecting to the ventral medulla and that ATP has a dual modulatory role on this excitatory transmission, facilitating the spontaneous glutamatergic transmission and inhibiting the TS-evoked glutamatergic transmission. These data also suggest that ATP is not acting as a cotransmitter with L-glutamate, at least at the level of this subpopulation of NTS neurons studied.
BibTeX:
@article{Accorsi-Mendonca:2009a,
  author = {Accorsi-Mendonça, Daniela and Bonagamba, Leni G H. and Leão, Ricardo M. and Machado, Benedito H.},
  title = {Are L-glutamate and ATP cotransmitters of the peripheral chemoreflex in the rat nucleus tractus solitarius?},
  journal = {Exp Physiol},
  school = {Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {94},
  number = {1},
  pages = {38--45},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.2008.043653},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.2008.043653}
}
Accorsi-Mendonça, D. and Machado, B. Synaptic transmission of baro- and chemoreceptors afferents in the NTS second order neurons 2013 Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical
Vol. 175(1-2), pp. 3-8 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Second order neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) process and integrate the afferent information from arterial baroreceptors with high fidelity and precise timing synaptic transmission. Since 2nd-order NTS neurons receiving baroreceptors inputs are relatively well characterized, their electrophysiological profile has been accepted as a general characteristic for all 2nd-order NTS neurons involved with the processing of different sensorial inputs. On the other hand, the synaptic properties of other afferent systems in NTS, such as the peripheral chemoreceptors, are not yet well understood. In this context, in previous studies we demonstrated that in response to repetitive afferents stimulation, the chemoreceptors 2nd-order NTS neurons also presented high fidelity of synaptic transmission, but with a large variability in the latency of evoked responses. This finding is different in relation to the precise timing transmission for baroreceptor 2nd-order NTS neurons, which
was accepted as a
general characteristic profile for all 2nd order neurons in the NTS. In this brief review we discuss this new concept as an index of complexity of the sensorial inputs to NTS with focus on the synaptic processing of baro- and chemoreceptor afferents. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
BibTeX:
@article{Accorsi-Mendonca:2013,
  author = {Accorsi-Mendonça, D. and Machado, B.H.},
  title = {Synaptic transmission of baro- and chemoreceptors afferents in the NTS second order neurons},
  journal = {Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {175},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {3-8},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84877022953&partnerID=40&md5=683629a728f2545ea3d5f3c4c0f6799a},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autneu.2012.12.002}
}
Ackerley, R., Pardoe, J. and Apps, R. A novel site of synaptic relay for climbing fibre pathways relaying signals from the motor cortex to the cerebellar cortical C1 zone. 2006 J Physiol
Vol. 576(Pt 2), pp. 503-518School: Department of Physiology, school of Medical Sciences, University Walk, University of Bristol, UK. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The climbing fibre projection from the motor cortex to the cerebellar cortical C1 zone in the posterior lobe of the rat cerebellum was investigated using a combination of physiological, anatomical and neuropharmacological techniques. Electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral fore- or hindimbs or somatotopically corresponding parts of the contralateral motor cortex evoked climbing fibre field potentials at the same cerebellar recording sites. Forelimb-related responses were located in the C1 zone in the paramedian lobule or lobulus simplex and hindlimb-related responses were located in the C1 zone in the copula pyramidis. Microinjections of anterograde axonal tracer (Fluoro-Ruby or Fluoro-Emerald) were made into the fore- or hindlimb parts of the motor cortex where stimulation evoked the largest cerebellar responses. After a survival period of 7-10 days, the neuraxis was examined for anterograde labelling. No terminal labelling was ever found in the inferior olive, but labelled
terminals were consistently found in a well-localized site in the dorso-medial medulla, ventral to the gracile nucleus, termed the matrix region. Pharmacological inactivation of the matrix region (2 mm caudal to the obex) selectively reduced transmission in descending (cerebro-olivocerebellar) but not ascending (spino-olivocerebellar) paths targeting fore- or hindlimb-receiving parts of the C1 zone. Transmission in spino-olivocerebellar paths was either unaffected, or in some cases increased. The identification of a novel pre-olivary relay in cerebro-olivocerebellar paths originating from fore- and hindlimb motor cortex has implications for the regulation of transmission in climbing fibre pathways during voluntary movements and motor learning.
BibTeX:
@article{Ackerley:2006,
  author = {Rochelle Ackerley and Joanne Pardoe and Richard Apps},
  title = {A novel site of synaptic relay for climbing fibre pathways relaying signals from the motor cortex to the cerebellar cortical C1 zone.},
  journal = {J Physiol},
  school = {Department of Physiology, school of Medical Sciences, University Walk, University of Bristol, UK.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {576},
  number = {Pt 2},
  pages = {503--518},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2006.114215},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2006.114215}
}
Ackerley, R., Pardoe, J. and Apps, R. A novel site of synaptic relay for climbing fibre pathways relaying signals from the motor cortex to the cerebellar cortical C1 zone. 2006 The Journal of physiology
Vol. 576, pp. 503-18 
article DOI  
Abstract: The climbing fibre projection from the motor cortex to the cerebellar cortical C1 zone in the posterior lobe of the rat cerebellum was investigated using a combination of physiological, anatomical and neuropharmacological techniques. Electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral fore- or hindimbs or somatotopically corresponding parts of the contralateral motor cortex evoked climbing fibre field potentials at the same cerebellar recording sites. Forelimb-related responses were located in the C1 zone in the paramedian lobule or lobulus simplex and hindlimb-related responses were located in the C1 zone in the copula pyramidis. Microinjections of anterograde axonal tracer (Fluoro-Ruby or Fluoro-Emerald) were made into the fore- or hindlimb parts of the motor cortex where stimulation evoked the largest cerebellar responses. After a survival period of 7-10 days, the neuraxis was examined for anterograde labelling. No terminal labelling was ever found in the inferior olive, but labelled terminals were
consistently found in a well-localized site in the dorso-medial medulla, ventral to the gracile nucleus, termed the matrix region. Pharmacological inactivation of the matrix region (2 mm caudal to the obex) selectively reduced transmission in descending (cerebro-olivocerebellar) but not ascending (spino-olivocerebellar) paths targeting fore- or hindlimb-receiving parts of the C1 zone. Transmission in spino-olivocerebellar paths was either unaffected, or in some cases increased. The identification of a novel pre-olivary relay in cerebro-olivocerebellar paths originating from fore- and hindlimb motor cortex has implications for the regulation of transmission in climbing fibre pathways during voluntary movements and motor learning.
BibTeX:
@article{Ackerley:2006a,
  author = {Ackerley, Rochelle and Pardoe, Joanne and Apps, Richard},
  title = {A novel site of synaptic relay for climbing fibre pathways relaying signals from the motor cortex to the cerebellar cortical C1 zone.},
  journal = {The Journal of physiology},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {576},
  pages = {503-18},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2006.114215}
}
Ackerman, A., Lange, G. and Clemens, L. Effects of paraventricular lesions on sex behavior and seminal emission in male rats 1997 Physiology and Behavior
Vol. 63(1), pp. 49-53 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Oxytocinergic neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus have been implicated in modulating male sexual responses in rats. Previous investigators have shown that cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of oxytocin (OT) increased after ejaculation and that intraventricular administration of OT and electrolytic lesions of the PVN increased temporal measures of male sexual behavior. Recently, we have demonstrated that OT-immunoreactive neurons in the parvocellular subnuclei of the PVN project to lower levels of spinal cord. In the present study, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid lesions, which have been shown to destroy parvocellular PVN neurons while leaving magnocellular neurons intact, were used to evaluate the role of parvocellular neurons on male copulatory behavior and seminal emissions. OT-immunoreactive fibers were reduced in the lower lumbar spinal cord (L3-L6) following N-methyl-D-aspartic acid lesions in the PVN. This reduction was associated with a significant
decrease in seminal
emission at the time of ejaculation, but mount, intromission and ejaculatory latencies were unaffected.
BibTeX:
@article{Ackerman:1997,
  author = {Ackerman, A.E. and Lange, G.M. and Clemens, L.G.},
  title = {Effects of paraventricular lesions on sex behavior and seminal emission in male rats},
  journal = {Physiology and Behavior},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {63},
  number = {1},
  pages = {49-53},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0030717436&partnerID=40&md5=a280661c1c9a6bc8f3122d5563567b3f},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9384(97)00386-7}
}
Acosta, C.G., Fabrega, A.R., Masco, D.H. and Lopez, H.S. A sensory neuron subpopulation with unique sequential survival dependence on nerve growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor during development. 2001 The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Vol. 21, pp. 8873-85 
article  
Abstract: We characterized a subpopulation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons that were previously identified as preferential targets of enkephalins. This group, termed P-neurons after their "pear" shape, sequentially required nerve growth factor (NGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for survival in vitro during different developmental stages. Embryonic P-neurons required NGF, but not bFGF. NGF continued to promote their survival, although less potently, up to postnatal day 2 (P2). Conversely, at P5, they needed bFGF but not NGF, with either factor having similar effects at P2. This trophic switch was unique to that DRG neuronal group. In addition, neither neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) nor brain-derived neurotrophic factor influenced their survival during embryonic and postnatal stages, respectively. The expression of NGF (Trk-A) and bFGF (flg) receptors paralleled the switch in trophic requirement. No single P-neuron appeared to coexpress both Trk-A and flg. In contrast, all of them
coexpressed flg and substance P, providing a specific marker of these cells. Immunosuppression of bFGF in newborn animals greatly reduced their number, suggesting that the factor was required in vivo. bFGF was present in the DRG and spinal cord, as well as in skeletal muscle, the peripheral projection site of P-neurons, as revealed by tracer DiIC(18)3. The lack of requirement of NT-3 for survival and immunoreactivity for the neurofilament of 200 kDa distinguished them from muscle proprioceptors, suggesting that they are likely to be unmyelinated muscle fibers. Collectively, their properties indicate that P-neurons constitute a distinct subpopulation of sensory neurons for which the function may be modulated by enkephalins.
BibTeX:
@article{Acosta:2001b,
  author = {Acosta, C. G. and Fabrega, A. R. and Masco, D. H. and Lopez, H. S.},
  title = {A sensory neuron subpopulation with unique sequential survival dependence on nerve growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor during development.},
  journal = {The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {21},
  pages = {8873-85},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Acosta, C.G., Fábrega, A.R., Mascó, D.H. and López, H.S. A sensory neuron subpopulation with unique sequential survival dependence on nerve growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor during development. 2001 J Neurosci
Vol. 21(22), pp. 8873-8885School: Instituto de Investigación Médica Mercedes y Martin Ferreyra, INIMEC-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Técnicas, (5000) Córdoba, Argentina. 
article URL 
Abstract: We characterized a subpopulation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons that were previously identified as preferential targets of enkephalins. This group, termed P-neurons after their "pear" shape, sequentially required nerve growth factor (NGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for survival in vitro during different developmental stages. Embryonic P-neurons required NGF, but not bFGF. NGF continued to promote their survival, although less potently, up to postnatal day 2 (P2). Conversely, at P5, they needed bFGF but not NGF, with either factor having similar effects at P2. This trophic switch was unique to that DRG neuronal group. In addition, neither neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) nor brain-derived neurotrophic factor influenced their survival during embryonic and postnatal stages, respectively. The expression of NGF (Trk-A) and bFGF (flg) receptors paralleled the switch in trophic requirement. No single P-neuron appeared to coexpress both Trk-A and flg. In contrast, all of them
coexpressed flg and substance P, providing a specific marker of these cells. Immunosuppression of bFGF in newborn animals greatly reduced their number, suggesting that the factor was required in vivo. bFGF was present in the DRG and spinal cord, as well as in skeletal muscle, the peripheral projection site of P-neurons, as revealed by tracer DiIC(18)3. The lack of requirement of NT-3 for survival and immunoreactivity for the neurofilament of 200 kDa distinguished them from muscle proprioceptors, suggesting that they are likely to be unmyelinated muscle fibers. Collectively, their properties indicate that P-neurons constitute a distinct subpopulation of sensory neurons for which the function may be modulated by enkephalins.
BibTeX:
@article{Acosta:2001,
  author = {Acosta, C. G. and Fábrega, A. R. and Mascó, D. H. and López, H. S.},
  title = {A sensory neuron subpopulation with unique sequential survival dependence on nerve growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor during development.},
  journal = {J Neurosci},
  school = {Instituto de Investigación Médica Mercedes y Martin Ferreyra, INIMEC-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Técnicas, (5000) Córdoba, Argentina.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {21},
  number = {22},
  pages = {8873--8885},
  url = {http://www.jneurosci.org/content/21/22/8873.long}
}
Acosta, C.G., Fábrega, A.R., Mascó, D.H. and López, H.S. A sensory neuron subpopulation with unique sequential survival dependence on nerve growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor during development. 2001 J Neurosci
Vol. 21(22), pp. 8873-8885School: Instituto de Investigación Médica Mercedes y Martin Ferreyra, INIMEC-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Técnicas, (5000) Córdoba, Argentina. 
article URL 
Abstract: We characterized a subpopulation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons that were previously identified as preferential targets of enkephalins. This group, termed P-neurons after their "pear" shape, sequentially required nerve growth factor (NGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for survival in vitro during different developmental stages. Embryonic P-neurons required NGF, but not bFGF. NGF continued to promote their survival, although less potently, up to postnatal day 2 (P2). Conversely, at P5, they needed bFGF but not NGF, with either factor having similar effects at P2. This trophic switch was unique to that DRG neuronal group. In addition, neither neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) nor brain-derived neurotrophic factor influenced their survival during embryonic and postnatal stages, respectively. The expression of NGF (Trk-A) and bFGF (flg) receptors paralleled the switch in trophic requirement. No single P-neuron appeared to coexpress both Trk-A and flg. In contrast, all of them
coexpressed flg and substance P, providing a specific marker of these cells. Immunosuppression of bFGF in newborn animals greatly reduced their number, suggesting that the factor was required in vivo. bFGF was present in the DRG and spinal cord, as well as in skeletal muscle, the peripheral projection site of P-neurons, as revealed by tracer DiIC(18)3. The lack of requirement of NT-3 for survival and immunoreactivity for the neurofilament of 200 kDa distinguished them from muscle proprioceptors, suggesting that they are likely to be unmyelinated muscle fibers. Collectively, their properties indicate that P-neurons constitute a distinct subpopulation of sensory neurons for which the function may be modulated by enkephalins.
BibTeX:
@article{Acosta:2001a,
  author = {Acosta, C. G. and Fábrega, A. R. and Mascó, D. H. and López, H. S.},
  title = {A sensory neuron subpopulation with unique sequential survival dependence on nerve growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor during development.},
  journal = {J Neurosci},
  school = {Instituto de Investigación Médica Mercedes y Martin Ferreyra, INIMEC-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Técnicas, (5000) Córdoba, Argentina.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {21},
  number = {22},
  pages = {8873--8885},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  url = {http://www.jneurosci.org/content/21/22/8873.long}
}
Acosta-Galvan, G., Yi, C.-X., van der Vliet, J., Jhamandas, J.H., Panula, P., Angeles-Castellanos, M., Del Carmen Basualdo, M., Escobar, C. and Buijs, R.M. Interaction between hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus and the suprachiasmatic nucleus determines intensity of food anticipatory behavior. 2011 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vol. 108, pp. 5813-5818 
article DOI  
Abstract: Food anticipatory behavior (FAA) is induced by limiting access to food for a few hours daily. Animals anticipate this scheduled meal event even without the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the biological clock. Consequently, a food-entrained oscillator has been proposed to be responsible for meal time estimation. Recent studies suggested the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) as the site for this food-entrained oscillator, which has led to considerable controversy in the literature. Herein we demonstrate by means of c-Fos immunohistochemistry that the neuronal activity of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which signals the rest phase in nocturnal animals, is reduced when animals anticipate the scheduled food and, simultaneously, neuronal activity within the DMH increases. Using retrograde tracing and confocal analysis, we show that inhibition of SCN neuronal activity is the consequence of activation of GABA-containing neurons in the DMH that project to the SCN. Next, we show that DMH lesions result in a loss or diminution of FAA, simultaneous with increased activity in the SCN. A subsequent lesion of the SCN restored FAA. We conclude that in intact animals, FAA may only occur when the DMH inhibits the activity of the SCN, thus permitting locomotor activity. As a result, FAA originates from a neuronal network comprising an interaction between the DMH and SCN. Moreover, this study shows that the DMH-SCN interaction may serve as an intrahypothalamic system to gate activity instead of rest overriding circadian predetermined temporal patterns.
BibTeX:
@article{Acosta-Galvan:2011,
  author = {Acosta-Galvan, Guadalupe and Yi, Chun-Xia and van der Vliet, Jan and Jhamandas, Jack H and Panula, Pertti and Angeles-Castellanos, Manuel and Del Carmen Basualdo, María and Escobar, Carolina and Buijs, Ruud M},
  title = {Interaction between hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus and the suprachiasmatic nucleus determines intensity of food anticipatory behavior.},
  journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {108},
  pages = {5813--5818},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1015551108}
}
Acquas, E., Fenu, S., Loddo, P. and Di Chiara, G. A within-subjects microdialysis/behavioural study of the role of striatal acetylcholine in D1-dependent turning 1999 Behavioural Brain Research
Vol. 103(2), pp. 219-228 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: In rats lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) the effect of the noncompetitive N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK-801, the dopamine (DA) D2 receptor agonist quinpirole and the A(2A) adenosine antagonist SCH 58261 was studied on acetylcholine (ACh) release in the lesioned striatum and contralateral turning behaviour stimulated by the administration of the DA D1 receptor agonist CY 208-243. Administration of CY 208-243 (75, 100 and 200 μg/kg) to 6-OHDA-lesioned rats dose-dependently stimulated ACh release and induced contralateral turning. MK-801 (50 and 100 μg/kg) reduced basal ACh release (max 22%) and did not elicit any turning. MK-801 (50 and 100 μg/kg) potentiated the contralateral turning, but failed to modify the stimulation of ACh release elicited by 100 and 200 μg/kg of CY 208-243. MK-801 (100 μg/kg) prevented the increase in striatal ACh release evoked by the lower dose of CY 208-243 (75 μg/kg) but contralateral turning was not observed. The D2
receptor agonist
quinpirole (30 and 60 μg/kg) elicited low-intensity contralateral turning and decreased basal ACh release. Quinpirole potentiated the D1-mediated contralateral turning behaviour elicited by CY 208-243 (100 μg/kg), but failed to affect the increase in ACh release elicited by the D1 agonist. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist SCH 58261 (1 mg/kg i.v.) failed per se to elicit contralateral turning behaviour. SCH 58261 potentiated the contraversive turning induced by CY 208-243 but failed to affect the increase of ACh release. The results of the present study indicate that blockade of NMDA receptors by MK-801, stimulation of DA D2 receptors by quinpirole and blockade of adenosine A(2A) receptors by SCH 58261 potentiate the D1-mediated contralateral turning behaviour in DA denervated rats without affecting the action of the D1 agonist on ACh release. These observations do not support the hypothesis that the potentiation of D1-dependent contralateral turning by MK-801, quinpirole or SCH 58261 is mediated by
changes in D1-stimulated release of ACh in the striatum. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.
BibTeX:
@article{Acquas:1999,
  author = {Acquas, E. and Fenu, S. and Loddo, P. and Di Chiara, G.},
  title = {A within-subjects microdialysis/behavioural study of the role of striatal acetylcholine in D1-dependent turning},
  journal = {Behavioural Brain Research},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {103},
  number = {2},
  pages = {219-228},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0033198430&partnerID=40&md5=9ec500788077a15cade0bf280787fb85},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4328(99)00038-8}
}
Acsady, L., Arabadzisz, D., Katona, I. and Freund, T.F. Topographic distribution of dorsal and median raphe neurons with hippocampal, septal and dual projection. 1996 Acta biologica Hungarica
Vol. 47, pp. 9-19 
article  
Abstract: Double retrograde neuronal tracing techniques with used to determine the distribution and degree of overlap between cell population in the raphe nuclei with a projection to the medial septum and/or the hippocampus. The results of the present study showed that numerous median raphe neurons that innervated the hippocampus, sent a collateral projection to the medial septum. In contrast to that, a spatially segregated population of serotonergic neurons located caudally in the dorsal raphe nucleus projected only to the medial septum but not to the hippocampus. Our results show that the medial septum receives dual serotonergic innervation from the midbrain raphe nuclei. One projection arises from axon collaterals of neurons that contribute to the median raphe-hippocampal pathway as well. The second serotonergic input originates from the caudal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus, and innervates the medial septum, but ignores the hippocampus. These findings suggest that, in addition to the well-known
serotonergic effect of the median raphe on hippocampal electrical activity, theta rhythm in the hippocampus may also be modulated by the dorsal raphe nucleus via the medial septum.
BibTeX:
@article{Acsady:1996b,
  author = {Acsady, L. and Arabadzisz, D. and Katona, I. and Freund, T. F.},
  title = {Topographic distribution of dorsal and median raphe neurons with hippocampal, septal and dual projection.},
  journal = {Acta biologica Hungarica},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {47},
  pages = {9-19},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Acsády, L., Arabadzisz, D., Katona, I. and Freund, T.F. Topographic distribution of dorsal and median raphe neurons with hippocampal, septal and dual projection. 1996 Acta Biol Hung
Vol. 47(1-4), pp. 9-19School: Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary. 
article  
Abstract: Double retrograde neuronal tracing techniques with used to determine the distribution and degree of overlap between cell population in the raphe nuclei with a projection to the medial septum and/or the hippocampus. The results of the present study showed that numerous median raphe neurons that innervated the hippocampus, sent a collateral projection to the medial septum. In contrast to that, a spatially segregated population of serotonergic neurons located caudally in the dorsal raphe nucleus projected only to the medial septum but not to the hippocampus. Our results show that the medial septum receives dual serotonergic innervation from the midbrain raphe nuclei. One projection arises from axon collaterals of neurons that contribute to the median raphe-hippocampal pathway as well. The second serotonergic input originates from the caudal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus, and innervates the medial septum, but ignores the hippocampus. These findings suggest that, in addition to
the well-known serotonergic effect of the median raphe on hippocampal electrical activity, theta rhythm in the hippocampus may also be modulated by the dorsal raphe nucleus via the medial septum.
BibTeX:
@article{Acsady:1996,
  author = {Acsády, L. and Arabadzisz, D. and Katona, I. and Freund, T. F.},
  title = {Topographic distribution of dorsal and median raphe neurons with hippocampal, septal and dual projection.},
  journal = {Acta Biol Hung},
  school = {Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {47},
  number = {1-4},
  pages = {9--19}
}
Acsády, L., Arabadzisz, D., Katona, I. and Freund, T.F. Topographic distribution of dorsal and median raphe neurons with hippocampal, septal and dual projection. 1996 Acta Biol Hung
Vol. 47(1-4), pp. 9-19School: Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary. 
article  
Abstract: Double retrograde neuronal tracing techniques with used to determine the distribution and degree of overlap between cell population in the raphe nuclei with a projection to the medial septum and/or the hippocampus. The results of the present study showed that numerous median raphe neurons that innervated the hippocampus, sent a collateral projection to the medial septum. In contrast to that, a spatially segregated population of serotonergic neurons located caudally in the dorsal raphe nucleus projected only to the medial septum but not to the hippocampus. Our results show that the medial septum receives dual serotonergic innervation from the midbrain raphe nuclei. One projection arises from axon collaterals of neurons that contribute to the median raphe-hippocampal pathway as well. The second serotonergic input originates from the caudal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus, and innervates the medial septum, but ignores the hippocampus. These findings suggest that, in addition to the well-known
serotonergic effect of the median raphe on hippocampal electrical activity, theta rhythm in the hippocampus may also be modulated by the dorsal raphe nucleus via the medial septum.
BibTeX:
@article{Acsady:1996a,
  author = {Acsády, L. and Arabadzisz, D. and Katona, I. and Freund, T. F.},
  title = {Topographic distribution of dorsal and median raphe neurons with hippocampal, septal and dual projection.},
  journal = {Acta Biol Hung},
  school = {Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {47},
  number = {1-4},
  pages = {9--19},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Acsády, L., Halasy, K. and Freund, T.F. Calretinin is present in non-pyramidal cells of the rat hippocampus--III. Their inputs from the median raphe and medial septal nuclei. 1993 Neuroscience
Vol. 52(4), pp. 829-841School: Department of Functional Neuroanatomy, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. 
article DOI  
Abstract: The subcortical innervation of a recently described subpopulation of non-pyramidal neurons, containing the calcium binding protein, calretinin, was investigated in the rat hippocampus using the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin and double immunocytochemistry for calretinin and serotonin at the light and electron microscopic levels. Our results show that the GABAergic component of the septohippocampal pathway and the serotonergic raphe afferents establish multiple synaptic contacts with the calretinin-immunoreactive interneurons. The majority of the targets of both pathways were spine-free calretinin neurons known to innervate the dendritic region of the principal cells, but the GABAergic septal pathway was found to terminate also on the spiny neurons of stratum lucidum of the CA3 region and in the dentate hilus. The present results demonstrate that the serotonergic raphe-hippocampal and the GABAergic septohippocampal pathways are able to modulate dendritic inhibition of
principal cells via calretinin-containing GABAergic interneurons.
BibTeX:
@article{Acsady:1993,
  author = {L. Acsády and K. Halasy and T. F. Freund},
  title = {Calretinin is present in non-pyramidal cells of the rat hippocampus--III. Their inputs from the median raphe and medial septal nuclei.},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  school = {Department of Functional Neuroanatomy, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest.},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {52},
  number = {4},
  pages = {829--841},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-4522(93)90532-k}
}
Acsády, L., Halasy, K. and Freund, T.F. Calretinin is present in non-pyramidal cells of the rat hippocampus--III. Their inputs from the median raphe and medial septal nuclei. 1993 Neuroscience
Vol. 52(4), pp. 829-841School: Department of Functional Neuroanatomy, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. 
article DOI  
Abstract: The subcortical innervation of a recently described subpopulation of non-pyramidal neurons, containing the calcium binding protein, calretinin, was investigated in the rat hippocampus using the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin and double immunocytochemistry for calretinin and serotonin at the light and electron microscopic levels. Our results show that the GABAergic component of the septohippocampal pathway and the serotonergic raphe afferents establish multiple synaptic contacts with the calretinin-immunoreactive interneurons. The majority of the targets of both pathways were spine-free calretinin neurons known to innervate the dendritic region of the principal cells, but the GABAergic septal pathway was found to terminate also on the spiny neurons of stratum lucidum of the CA3 region and in the dentate hilus. The present results demonstrate that the serotonergic raphe-hippocampal and the GABAergic septohippocampal pathways are able to modulate dendritic inhibition of
principal cells via calretinin-containing GABAergic interneurons.
BibTeX:
@article{Acsady:1993a,
  author = {Acsády, L. and Halasy, K. and Freund, T. F.},
  title = {Calretinin is present in non-pyramidal cells of the rat hippocampus--III. Their inputs from the median raphe and medial septal nuclei.},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  school = {Department of Functional Neuroanatomy, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest.},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {52},
  number = {4},
  pages = {829--841},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-4522(93)90532-k}
}
Acsády, L., Pascual, M., Rocamora, N., Soriano, E. and Freund, T.F. Nerve growth factor but not neurotrophin-3 is synthesized by hippocampal GABAergic neurons that project to the medial septum. 2000 Neuroscience
Vol. 98(1), pp. 23-31School: Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, POB 67 H-1450, Budapest, Hungary. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Conventional uptake of neurotrophins takes place at axon terminals via specific receptors, and is followed by retrograde transport. Recent studies demonstrated that, with the exception of nerve growth factor, other neurotrophins may be delivered anterogradely to the region containing the receptor expressing neurons. In this study we used a triple labeling method that combines retrograde tract tracing, in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry to examine whether non-principal cells projecting from the hippocampus to the septum synthesize nerve growth factor. Our results show that, on average, 59% of the horseradish peroxidase-labeled hippocamposeptal nonpyramidal neurons also display nerve growth factor messenger RNA hybridization signal. The ratio was slightly higher in the CA1 stratum oriens and the hilus of the dentate gyrus (64 and 62 respectively) compared to stratum oriens of the CA3 region (58. In addition, we demonstrated that many nerve growth factor-positive septally
projecting neurons also contain the calcium-binding protein calbindin D-28K, whereas nerve growth factor-negative projecting cells mostly lack this neurochemical marker. In contrast to nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 has never been found in hippocamposeptal cells. Hippocamposeptal GABAergic cells are reciprocally connected with the medial septum, thus they are in a key position to regulate nerve growth factor release as a function of the activity level in the septohippocampal system. Furthermore, our results raise the intriguing possibility that nerve growth factor may be transported also in an anterograde manner. Regardless of the direction of transport, the presence of nerve growth factor in hippocamposeptal cells suggests that long distance fast synaptic mechanisms and slow neurotrophin action are coupled in these neurons.
BibTeX:
@article{Acsady:2000,
  author = {Acsády, L. and Pascual, M. and Rocamora, N. and Soriano, E. and Freund, T. F.},
  title = {Nerve growth factor but not neurotrophin-3 is synthesized by hippocampal GABAergic neurons that project to the medial septum.},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  school = {Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, POB 67 H-1450, Budapest, Hungary.},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {98},
  number = {1},
  pages = {23--31},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/s0306-4522(00)00091-9}
}
Acsády, L., Pascual, M., Rocamora, N., Soriano, E. and Freund, T.F. Nerve growth factor but not neurotrophin-3 is synthesized by hippocampal GABAergic neurons that project to the medial septum. 2000 Neuroscience
Vol. 98(1), pp. 23-31School: Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, POB 67 H-1450, Budapest, Hungary. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Conventional uptake of neurotrophins takes place at axon terminals via specific receptors, and is followed by retrograde transport. Recent studies demonstrated that, with the exception of nerve growth factor, other neurotrophins may be delivered anterogradely to the region containing the receptor expressing neurons. In this study we used a triple labeling method that combines retrograde tract tracing, in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry to examine whether non-principal cells projecting from the hippocampus to the septum synthesize nerve growth factor. Our results show that, on average, 59% of the horseradish peroxidase-labeled hippocamposeptal nonpyramidal neurons also display nerve growth factor messenger RNA hybridization signal. The ratio was slightly higher in the CA1 stratum oriens and the hilus of the dentate gyrus (64 and 62 respectively) compared to stratum oriens of the CA3 region (58. In addition, we demonstrated that many nerve growth factor-positive septally
projecting neurons also contain the calcium-binding protein calbindin D-28K, whereas nerve growth factor-negative projecting cells mostly lack this neurochemical marker. In contrast to nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 has never been found in hippocamposeptal cells. Hippocamposeptal GABAergic cells are reciprocally connected with the medial septum, thus they are in a key position to regulate nerve growth factor release as a function of the activity level in the septohippocampal system. Furthermore, our results raise the intriguing possibility that nerve growth factor may be transported also in an anterograde manner. Regardless of the direction of transport, the presence of nerve growth factor in hippocamposeptal cells suggests that long distance fast synaptic mechanisms and slow neurotrophin action are coupled in these neurons.
BibTeX:
@article{Acsady:2000a,
  author = {Acsády, L. and Pascual, M. and Rocamora, N. and Soriano, E. and Freund, T. F.},
  title = {Nerve growth factor but not neurotrophin-3 is synthesized by hippocampal GABAergic neurons that project to the medial septum.},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  school = {Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, POB 67 H-1450, Budapest, Hungary.},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {98},
  number = {1},
  pages = {23--31},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/s0306-4522(00)00091-9}
}
Acuña-Goycolea, C., Fuentealba, P. and Torrealba, F. Anatomical substrate for separate processing of ascending and descending visceral information in the nucleus of the solitary tract of the rat. 2000 Brain Res
Vol. 883(2), pp. 229-232School: Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Alameda 340, Santiago, Chile. 
article DOI  
Abstract: We examined the possible existence of divergent visceral pathways arising from the nucleus of the solitary tract, by co-injecting axonal tracers into the parabrachial nucleus and into the ventrolateral medulla. We found that around 5% of NTS neurons projected to both sites, and that neurons projecting to VLM were larger. This parallel organization allows a differential control of the ascending versus descending visceral pathways at an early stage of processing.
BibTeX:
@article{Acuna-Goycolea:2000,
  author = {C. Acuña-Goycolea and P. Fuentealba and F. Torrealba},
  title = {Anatomical substrate for separate processing of ascending and descending visceral information in the nucleus of the solitary tract of the rat.},
  journal = {Brain Res},
  school = {Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Alameda 340, Santiago, Chile.},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {883},
  number = {2},
  pages = {229--232},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(00)02845-6}
}
Acuña-Goycolea, C., Fuentealba, P. and Torrealba, F. Anatomical substrate for separate processing of ascending and descending visceral information in the nucleus of the solitary tract of the rat. 2000 Brain Res
Vol. 883(2), pp. 229-232School: Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Alameda 340, Santiago, Chile. 
article DOI  
Abstract: We examined the possible existence of divergent visceral pathways arising from the nucleus of the solitary tract, by co-injecting axonal tracers into the parabrachial nucleus and into the ventrolateral medulla. We found that around 5% of NTS neurons projected to both sites, and that neurons projecting to VLM were larger. This parallel organization allows a differential control of the ascending versus descending visceral pathways at an early stage of processing.
BibTeX:
@article{Acuna-Goycolea:2000a,
  author = {Acuña-Goycolea, C. and Fuentealba, P. and Torrealba, F.},
  title = {Anatomical substrate for separate processing of ascending and descending visceral information in the nucleus of the solitary tract of the rat.},
  journal = {Brain Res},
  school = {Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Alameda 340, Santiago, Chile.},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {883},
  number = {2},
  pages = {229--232},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(00)02845-6}
}
Acuña-Goycolea, C., Fuentealba, P. and Torrealba, F. Anatomical substrate for separate processing of ascending and descending visceral information in the nucleus of the solitary tract of the rat 2000 Brain Research
Vol. 883(2), pp. 229-232 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: We examined the possible existence of divergent visceral pathways arising from the nucleus of the solitary tract, by co-injecting axonal tracers into the parabrachial nucleus and into the ventrolateral medulla. We found that around 5% of NTS neurons projected to both sites, and that neurons projecting to VLM were larger. This parallel organization allows a differential control of the ascending versus descending visceral pathways at an early stage of processing. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.
BibTeX:
@article{Acuna-Goycolea:2000b,
  author = {Acuña-Goycolea, C. and Fuentealba, P. and Torrealba, F.},
  title = {Anatomical substrate for separate processing of ascending and descending visceral information in the nucleus of the solitary tract of the rat},
  journal = {Brain Research},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {883},
  number = {2},
  pages = {229-232},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0034680983&partnerID=40&md5=6c4677e765113645a7de3ddf8328f2fc},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-8993(00)02845-6}
}
Adachi, H., Sato, Y., Kato, R., Hisasue, S., Suzuki, K., Masumori, N., Itoh, N. and Tsukamoto, T. Direct evidence of facilitative actions of dopamine in the medial preoptic area on reflexive and noncontact erections in male rats 2003 Journal of Urology
Vol. 169(1), pp. 386-389 
article URL 
Abstract: Purpose: We examined the effects of alterations of the extracellular dopamine level in the medial preoptic area on 2 erectile contexts, namely reflexive and noncontact erections, in male rats. Materials and Methods: The extracellular dopamine level was measured in the medial preoptic area after administering the dopamine reuptake inhibitor bupropion hydrochloride (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, Missouri) into the same area through a micro-dialysis tube. We measured the frequency and latency of reflexive erections, and the frequency of noncontact erection during infusion of bupropion. Results: Administration of 10 mM. bupropion was associated with significant elevation in the extracellular dopamine level in the medial preoptic area. Bupropion (1 mM.) and Ringer's solution did not induce significant alterations in dopamine in the medial preoptic area. The number of reflexive erections significantly increased and erection latency decreased during infusion of 10 mM. bupropion into
the medial preoptic
area. The number of noncontact erections was also increased by administering 10 mM. of drug. Conclusions: The altered dopamine level in the medial preoptic area affected 2 distinct penile erectile contexts, suggesting that the dopamine levels in the medial preoptic area may be involved in the regulation of erection. These results may have important implications for the central regulation of penile erection.
BibTeX:
@article{Adachi:2003,
  author = {Adachi, H. and Sato, Y. and Kato, R. and Hisasue, S. and Suzuki, K. and Masumori, N. and Itoh, N. and Tsukamoto, T.},
  title = {Direct evidence of facilitative actions of dopamine in the medial preoptic area on reflexive and noncontact erections in male rats},
  journal = {Journal of Urology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {169},
  number = {1},
  pages = {386-389},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0037212755&partnerID=40&md5=777e88dccc3fd0c6d5d890e78e4596f7}
}
Adachi, T., Biesold, D., Inanami, O. and Sato, A. Stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert and substantia innominata produces widespread increases in cerebral blood flow in the frontal, parietal and occipital cortices 1990 Brain Research
Vol. 514(1), pp. 163-166 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The effect of a focal stimulation of the magnocellular nucleus of the basal forebrain at two different areas, the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) and the substantia innominata (SI), on local cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the frontal, parietal and occipital cortices was examined in urethane-anesthetized rats. The stimulation, either electrically or chemically, of both the NBM and SI produced significant CBF increase in all these 3 cortices ipsilateral to the stimulation site. This fact suggests that activation of neurons originating in the NBM and SI produces widespread increases in local CBF in the ipsilateral cerebral cortex. © 1990.
BibTeX:
@article{Adachi:1990,
  author = {Adachi, T. and Biesold, D. and Inanami, O. and Sato, A.},
  title = {Stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert and substantia innominata produces widespread increases in cerebral blood flow in the frontal, parietal and occipital cortices},
  journal = {Brain Research},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {514},
  number = {1},
  pages = {163-166},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0025264487&partnerID=40&md5=8120b44c8e07cda72d5798d6f985ffc1},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(90)90452-H}
}
Adachi, T., Inanami, O., Ohno, K. and Sato, A. Responses of regional cerebral blood flow following focal electrical stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert and the medial septum using the [14C]iodoantipyrine method in rats 1990 Neuroscience Letters
Vol. 112(2-3), pp. 263-268 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The effects of focal electrical stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) and the medial septum (MS) on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of the 14 brain regions were examined in halothaneanesthetized rats using the [14C]iodoantipyrine (14]IAP) method. The stimulation of the unilateral NBM (with parameters of 200 μA, 0.5 ms, 50 Hz for 60 s) produced significant increases in frontal, parietal and occipital cortical blood flows in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the stimulated NBM; no rCBFs in all other brain regions examined were influenced by the stimulation. The stimulation of the MS produced significant increases in bilateral hippocampal rCBFs, but rCBFs in other brain regions were not influenced by the stimulation. In summary, the response of increase in rCBF following focal electrical stimulation of the NBM or MS is restricted to regions that receive cholinergic nerve projections from the NBM or MS. © 1990.
BibTeX:
@article{Adachi:1990a,
  author = {Adachi, T. and Inanami, O. and Ohno, K. and Sato, A.},
  title = {Responses of regional cerebral blood flow following focal electrical stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert and the medial septum using the [14C]iodoantipyrine method in rats},
  journal = {Neuroscience Letters},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {112},
  number = {2-3},
  pages = {263-268},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0025699730&partnerID=40&md5=362c444b7c9d229be3489bf35791e2bd},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3940(90)90214-T}
}
Adaikkan, C. and Rosenblum, K. A molecular mechanism underlying gustatory memory trace for an association in the insular cortex. 2015 Elife
Vol. 4School: Center for Gene Manipulation in the Brain, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Events separated in time are associatively learned in trace conditioning, recruiting more neuronal circuits and molecular mechanisms than in delay conditioning. However, it remains unknown whether a given sensory memory trace is being maintained as a unitary item to associate. Here, we used conditioned taste aversion learning in the rat model, wherein animals associate a novel taste with visceral nausea, and demonstrate that there are two parallel memory traces of a novel taste: a short-duration robust trace, lasting approximately 3 hr, and a parallel long-duration weak one, lasting up to 8 hr, and dependent on the strong trace for its formation. Moreover, only the early robust trace is maintained by a NMDAR-dependent CaMKII- AMPAR pathway in the insular cortex. These findings suggest that a memory trace undergoes rapid modifications, and that the mechanisms underlying trace associative learning differ when items in the memory are experienced at different time points.
BibTeX:
@article{Adaikkan:2015,
  author = {Adaikkan, Chinnakkaruppan and Rosenblum, Kobi},
  title = {A molecular mechanism underlying gustatory memory trace for an association in the insular cortex.},
  journal = {Elife},
  school = {Center for Gene Manipulation in the Brain, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {4},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07582},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07582}
}
Adams, C., Mihailoff, G. and Woodward, D. A transient component of the developing corticospinal tract arises in visual cortex 1983 Neuroscience Letters
Vol. 36(3), pp. 243-248 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Following injections of tritiated leucine restricted to occipital (visual) regions of cerebral cortex during the first postnatal week (days 3-6), labeled corticofugal axons were followed caudally through the pons, medullary pyramid, pyramidal decussation and into the cervical spinal cord. However, when similar injections were made into visual cortex during the second postnatal week, labeled corticofugal axons could not be traced beyond mid-pontine levels where abundant axon terminal labeling was evident in the basilar pontine nuclei. Since axonal labeling did not subsequently appear at levels caudal to the pons during later stages of development or in the adult, it is suggested that the contribution to the corticospinal system made by visual cortical axons in the first postnatal week is a transient connection which is eventually lost either by a process of selective axon collateral elimination or cell death. © 1983.
BibTeX:
@article{Adams:1983a,
  author = {Adams, C.E. and Mihailoff, G.A. and Woodward, D.J.},
  title = {A transient component of the developing corticospinal tract arises in visual cortex},
  journal = {Neuroscience Letters},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {36},
  number = {3},
  pages = {243-248},
  note = {Transient connectivity in the newborn rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0020628206&partnerID=40&md5=1e618fc617a85a13d6f27eea1466a16a},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3940(83)90007-1}
}
Adams, J.C. Ascending projections to the inferior colliculus. 1979 J Comp Neurol
Vol. 183(3), pp. 519-538 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Cells that send ascending projections to the inferior colliculus were identified following injections of horseradish peroxidase into the colliculus. Labelled cells were found in all subcollicular auditory nuclei. Virtually all cells of the ipsilateral ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and medial superior olive appear to project to the colliculus. Very few cells in these nuclei were labelled on the contralateral side. Heavy labelling on the contralateral side was found in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and cochlear nucleus, with less labelling being found ipsilaterally in these nuclei. The lateral superior olive was approximately evenly labelled on the two sides, with about half the cells from each side projecting to each colliculus. Cells in all periolivary cell groups were labelled, with most being found adjacent to the medial superior olive. An effort was made to identify individual cell types that were labelled and some 24 cell types were identified. In the cochlear
nucleus there were marked differences between cell types in the extent of their labelling. Topographic projections matched previously described tonotopic organization of the colliculus and all major subcollicular nuclei except the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. A description of the cells in the nucleus is provided.
BibTeX:
@article{Adams:1979,
  author = {Adams, J. C.},
  title = {Ascending projections to the inferior colliculus.},
  journal = {J Comp Neurol},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {183},
  number = {3},
  pages = {519--538},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.901830305},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.901830305}
}
Adams, J.C. Multipolar cells in the ventral cochlear nucleus project to the dorsal cochlear nucleus and the inferior colliculus. 1983 Neurosci Lett
Vol. 37(3), pp. 205-208 
article DOI  
Abstract: When retrograde markers are placed in the dorsal cochlear nucleus two classes of labeled cells are found in the ventral cochlear nucleus. These are multipolar cells and granule cells. The structure and distribution of labeled multipolar cells greatly resemble those seen following injection of retrograde markers into the contralateral inferior colliculus. When one retrograde marker is placed in the dorsal cochlear nucleus and another simultaneously placed into the contralateral inferior colliculus, large numbers of multipolar cells containing both markers are found in the ventral cochlear nucleus. These findings show that all or most cells in the ventral cochlear nucleus that project to the inferior colliculus also send collaterals to the ipsilateral dorsal cochlear nucleus.
BibTeX:
@article{Adams:1983,
  author = {Adams, J. C.},
  title = {Multipolar cells in the ventral cochlear nucleus project to the dorsal cochlear nucleus and the inferior colliculus.},
  journal = {Neurosci Lett},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {37},
  number = {3},
  pages = {205--208},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3940(83)90431-7}
}
Adams, N.C. and Baker, G.E. Cells of the perireticular nucleus project to the developing neocortex of the rat. 1995 J Comp Neurol
Vol. 359(4), pp. 613-626School: Department of Human Anatomy, University of Oxford, England. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The perireticular nucleus is a recently described thin sheet of small cells among the fibres of the internal capsule, lying lateral to the thalamic reticular nucleus and medial to the globus pallidus (Clemence and Mitrofanis [1992]. J. Comp. Neurol. 322:167-180). During development, the perireticular nucleus is relatively large, lying in the path of the growing corticofugal and thalamocortical axons and filling the area of the internal capsule lateral to the thalamic reticular nucleus. After these axons have formed their connections, the perireticular nucleus rapidly decreases in size, leaving only a few cells in the adult (Mitrofanis [1992] J. Comp. Neurol. 320:161-181). In this study, we aimed to investigate the connections between the developing cortex and thalamus by making injections of tracer into the cortical plate. Injections of Horse Radish Peroxidase (HRP), Wheat Germ Agglutinin bound to HRP (WGA-HRP) and 1'dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3 tetramethycarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI)
were made in vivo between embryonic day (E) 18 and adult and DiI was placed in the fixed brains of rats aged between E16 and postnatal day (P)1. Between E17 and P10, the retrograde perikaryal labelling resulting from these injections revealed a transient projection from the perireticular nucleus to the ipsilateral cortical plate. No cells were labelled in the thalamic reticular nucleus. This suggests that the perireticular nucleus must be regarded as a group of cells distinct from the thalamic reticular nucleus and having a separate role in development. Comparisons between the perireticular cells and the cells of the cortical subplate suggest that both may be playing comparable roles in early development, possibly guiding fibres towards their end stations or serving to rearrange the complex mapped projections linking the thalamus and cortex.
BibTeX:
@article{Adams:1995,
  author = {N. C. Adams and G. E. Baker},
  title = {Cells of the perireticular nucleus project to the developing neocortex of the rat.},
  journal = {J Comp Neurol},
  school = {Department of Human Anatomy, University of Oxford, England.},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {359},
  number = {4},
  pages = {613--626},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.903590408},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.903590408}
}
Adams, N.C. and Baker, G.E. Cells of the perireticular nucleus project to the developing neocortex of the rat. 1995 The Journal of comparative neurology
Vol. 359, pp. 613-26 
article  
Abstract: The perireticular nucleus is a recently described thin sheet of small cells among the fibres of the internal capsule, lying lateral to the thalamic reticular nucleus and medial to the globus pallidus (Clemence and Mitrofanis [1992]. J. Comp. Neurol. 322:167-180). During development, the perireticular nucleus is relatively large, lying in the path of the growing corticofugal and thalamocortical axons and filling the area of the internal capsule lateral to the thalamic reticular nucleus. After these axons have formed their connections, the perireticular nucleus rapidly decreases in size, leaving only a few cells in the adult (Mitrofanis [1992] J. Comp. Neurol. 320:161-181). In this study, we aimed to investigate the connections between the developing cortex and thalamus by making injections of tracer into the cortical plate. Injections of Horse Radish Peroxidase (HRP), Wheat Germ Agglutinin bound to HRP (WGA-HRP) and 1'dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3 tetramethycarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) were made in
vivo between embryonic day (E) 18 and adult and DiI was placed in the fixed brains of rats aged between E16 and postnatal day (P)1. Between E17 and P10, the retrograde perikaryal labelling resulting from these injections revealed a transient projection from the perireticular nucleus to the ipsilateral cortical plate. No cells were labelled in the thalamic reticular nucleus. This suggests that the perireticular nucleus must be regarded as a group of cells distinct from the thalamic reticular nucleus and having a separate role in development. Comparisons between the perireticular cells and the cells of the cortical subplate suggest that both may be playing comparable roles in early development, possibly guiding fibres towards their end stations or serving to rearrange the complex mapped projections linking the thalamus and cortex.
BibTeX:
@article{Adams:1995a,
  author = {Adams, N. C. and Baker, G. E.},
  title = {Cells of the perireticular nucleus project to the developing neocortex of the rat.},
  journal = {The Journal of comparative neurology},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {359},
  pages = {613-26},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Ade, K.K. and Lovinger, D.M. Anandamide regulates postnatal development of long-term synaptic plasticity in the rat dorsolateral striatum. 2007 J Neurosci
Vol. 27(9), pp. 2403-2409School: Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20007, USA. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Long-term changes in synaptic efficacy produced by high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of glutamatergic afferents to the rat dorsolateral striatum exhibit heterogeneity during early stages of postnatal development. Whereas HFS most often induces striatal long-term potentiation (LTP) in rats postnatal day 12 (P12)-P14, the same stimulation tends to induce long-term depression (LTD) at ages P16-P34. Previous studies have shown that striatal LTD induction depends on retrograde endocannabinoid signaling and activation of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor. It is also known that levels of one of the primary endogenous CB1 receptor agonists, anandamide (AEA), increases during development in whole-brain samples. In the present study, we sought to determine whether this developmental increase in AEA also takes place in striatal tissue and whether increased AEA levels contribute to the postnatal switch in the response to HFS. We observed a pronounced increase in striatal levels of AEA, but not the other major
endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), during the postnatal period characterized by the switch from LTP to LTD. Furthermore, application of synthetic AEA during HFS in field recordings of slices from P12-P14 rats allowed for induction of LTD whereas blocking the CB1 receptor during HFS in animals P16-P34 resulted in expression of LTP. However, blocking 2-AG synthesis with the DAG-lipase inhibitor tetrahydrolipstatin did not alter HFS-induced striatal LTD. In addition, synaptic depression produced by a synthetic CB1 agonist was similar across development. Together, these findings suggest that the robust developmental increase in striatal AEA may be the key factor in the emergence of HFS-induced striatal LTD.
BibTeX:
@article{Ade:2007,
  author = {Kristen K Ade and David M Lovinger},
  title = {Anandamide regulates postnatal development of long-term synaptic plasticity in the rat dorsolateral striatum.},
  journal = {J Neurosci},
  school = {Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20007, USA.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {27},
  number = {9},
  pages = {2403--2409},
  note = {Not a tract tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2916-06.2007},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2916-06.2007}
}
Ade, K.K. and Lovinger, D.M. Anandamide regulates postnatal development of long-term synaptic plasticity in the rat dorsolateral striatum. 2007 The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Vol. 27, pp. 2403-9 
article  
Abstract: Long-term changes in synaptic efficacy produced by high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of glutamatergic afferents to the rat dorsolateral striatum exhibit heterogeneity during early stages of postnatal development. Whereas HFS most often induces striatal long-term potentiation (LTP) in rats postnatal day 12 (P12)-P14, the same stimulation tends to induce long-term depression (LTD) at ages P16-P34. Previous studies have shown that striatal LTD induction depends on retrograde endocannabinoid signaling and activation of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor. It is also known that levels of one of the primary endogenous CB1 receptor agonists, anandamide (AEA), increases during development in whole-brain samples. In the present study, we sought to determine whether this developmental increase in AEA also takes place in striatal tissue and whether increased AEA levels contribute to the postnatal switch in the response to HFS. We observed a pronounced increase in striatal levels of AEA, but not the other major
endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), during the postnatal period characterized by the switch from LTP to LTD. Furthermore, application of synthetic AEA during HFS in field recordings of slices from P12-P14 rats allowed for induction of LTD whereas blocking the CB1 receptor during HFS in animals P16-P34 resulted in expression of LTP. However, blocking 2-AG synthesis with the DAG-lipase inhibitor tetrahydrolipstatin did not alter HFS-induced striatal LTD. In addition, synaptic depression produced by a synthetic CB1 agonist was similar across development. Together, these findings suggest that the robust developmental increase in striatal AEA may be the key factor in the emergence of HFS-induced striatal LTD.
BibTeX:
@article{Ade:2007a,
  author = {Ade, Kristen K. and Lovinger, David M.},
  title = {Anandamide regulates postnatal development of long-term synaptic plasticity in the rat dorsolateral striatum.},
  journal = {The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {2403-9},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Adebayo, O., Khera, A., Sandhir, R. and Adenuga, G. Reduced expressions of calmodulin genes and protein and reduced ability of calmodulin to activate plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase in the brain of protein undernourished rats: Modulatory roles of selenium and zinc supplementation 2016 Cell Biochemistry and Function
Vol. 34(2), pp. 95-103 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The roles of protein undernutrition as well as selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) supplementation on the ability of calmodulin (CaM) to activate erythrocyte ghost membrane (EGM) Ca2+-ATPase and the calmodulin genes and protein expressions in rat's cortex and cerebellum were investigated. Rats on adequate protein diet and protein-undernourished (PU) rats were fed with diet containing 16% and 5% casein, respectively, for a period of 10weeks. The rats were then supplemented with Se and Zn at a concentration of 0.15 and 227mgl-1, respectively, in drinking water for 3weeks. The results obtained from the study showed significant reductions in synaptosomal plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) activity, Ca2+/CaM activated EGM Ca2+ATPase activity and calmodulin genes and protein expressions in PU rats. Se or Zn supplementation improved the ability of Ca2+/CaM to activate EGM Ca2+-ATPase and protein expressions. Se or Zn supplementation improved gene expression in the cerebellum but not in the
cortex. Also, the
activity of PMCA was significantly improved by Zn. In conclusion, it is postulated that Se and Zn might be beneficial antioxidants in protecting against neuronal dysfunction resulting from reduced level of calmodulin such as present in protein undernutrition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
BibTeX:
@article{Adebayo:2016,
  author = {Adebayo, O.L. and Khera, A. and Sandhir, R. and Adenuga, G.A.},
  title = {Reduced expressions of calmodulin genes and protein and reduced ability of calmodulin to activate plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase in the brain of protein undernourished rats: Modulatory roles of selenium and zinc supplementation},
  journal = {Cell Biochemistry and Function},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {34},
  number = {2},
  pages = {95-103},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84975749423&partnerID=40&md5=7f4aae9607cb8a58f2fa7d70624968cb},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cbf.3168}
}
van Adel, B.A., Kidd, S.A. and Kelly, J.B. Contribution of the commissure of Probst to binaural evoked responses in the rat's inferior colliculus: interaural time differences. 1999 Hearing research
Vol. 130, pp. 115-30 
article  
Abstract: Binaural evoked responses were recorded with glass micropipettes from the central nucleus of the rat's inferior colliculus (ICC) before and after transection of the commissure of Probst (CP) with a microsurgical knife. The peak-to-peak amplitude of the averaged evoked response was measured for binaural clicks with interaural time differences (ITDs) between -1.0 and +30.0 ms (positive values reflecting ipsilateral-leading-contralateral click pairs). Before transection, the amplitude of the evoked response decreased as the ITD was shifted in favor of larger ipsilateral lead times. After transection of the CP, acoustic stimulation of the ipsilateral ear was much less effective in reducing evoked response amplitude. Responses to both short (+/-1.0 ms) and long (1.0-30.0 ms) ITD intervals were affected. After recordings were made, both anterograde and retrograde tract tracing methods were used to verify that the CP was completely transected and that all crossed projections from the dorsal nucleus
of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) to ICC were destroyed. The surgery completely eliminated the retrograde transport of fluorogold from the ICC to the opposite DNLL and blocked the anterograde transport of biotinylated dextran to contralateral DNLL and ICC. The physiological consequences of CP transection are attributed to the complete destruction of decussating, inhibitory (GABAergic) efferent projections from the DNLL.
BibTeX:
@article{Adel:1999,
  author = {van Adel, B. A. and Kidd, S. A. and Kelly, J. B.},
  title = {Contribution of the commissure of Probst to binaural evoked responses in the rat's inferior colliculus: interaural time differences.},
  journal = {Hearing research},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {130},
  pages = {115-30},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
van Adel, B.A., Kidd, S.A. and Kelly, J.B. Contribution of the commissure of Probst to binaural evoked responses in the rat's inferior colliculus: interaural time differences. 1999 Hear Res
Vol. 130(1-2), pp. 115-130School: Laboratory of Sensory Neuroscience, Institute of Neuroscience, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ont., Canada. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Binaural evoked responses were recorded with glass micropipettes from the central nucleus of the rat's inferior colliculus (ICC) before and after transection of the commissure of Probst (CP) with a microsurgical knife. The peak-to-peak amplitude of the averaged evoked response was measured for binaural clicks with interaural time differences (ITDs) between -1.0 and +30.0 ms (positive values reflecting ipsilateral-leading-contralateral click pairs). Before transection, the amplitude of the evoked response decreased as the ITD was shifted in favor of larger ipsilateral lead times. After transection of the CP, acoustic stimulation of the ipsilateral ear was much less effective in reducing evoked response amplitude. Responses to both short (+/-1.0 ms) and long (1.0-30.0 ms) ITD intervals were affected. After recordings were made, both anterograde and retrograde tract tracing methods were used to verify that the CP was completely transected and that all crossed projections from the dorsal nucleus
of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) to ICC were destroyed. The surgery completely eliminated the retrograde transport of fluorogold from the ICC to the opposite DNLL and blocked the anterograde transport of biotinylated dextran to contralateral DNLL and ICC. The physiological consequences of CP transection are attributed to the complete destruction of decussating, inhibitory (GABAergic) efferent projections from the DNLL.
BibTeX:
@article{Adel:1999c,
  author = {van Adel, B. A. and Kidd, S. A. and Kelly, J. B.},
  title = {Contribution of the commissure of Probst to binaural evoked responses in the rat's inferior colliculus: interaural time differences.},
  journal = {Hear Res},
  school = {Laboratory of Sensory Neuroscience, Institute of Neuroscience, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ont., Canada.},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {130},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {115--130},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-5955(98)00226-3}
}
Adell, A. and Artigas, F. A microdialysis study of the in vivo release of 5-HT in the median raphe nucleus of the rat. 1998 Br J Pharmacol
Vol. 125(6), pp. 1361-1367School: Department of Neurochemistry, IIBB, CSIC, Barcelona, Spain. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The present study has examined several characteristics of the release of 5-HT in the median raphe nucleus in terms of its dependence of nerve impulse, provenance of a vesicular storage fraction as well as the regulatory role played by 5-HT1A receptors. Tetrodotoxin (1 microM) and reserpine (5 mg kg(-1), i.p.) virtually suppressed the output of 5-HT. The administration of EEDQ (10 mg kg(-1), i.p.) did not alter the basal release of 5-HT but abolished the reduction of 5-HT release induced by 8-OH-DPAT (0.1 mg kg(-1), s.c.). The perfusion of 1-100 microM of 8-OH-DPAT or the novel 5-HT1A agonist BAY x 3702 decreased the efflux of 5-HT, whereas the perfusion of the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-100635 failed to alter 5-HT release. The decrease in dialysate 5-HT induced by 100 microM 8-OH-DPAT was reversed by the concurrent perfusion of 100 microM WAY-100635. Also, the perfusion of 100 microM WAY-100635 for 2 h inhibited partly the reduction of 5-HT release evoked by the systemic administration of 8-OH-
DPAT (0.1 mg kg(-1)). These results indicate that extracellular 5-HT in the median raphe nucleus is stored in vesicles and released in an impulse-dependent manner. Also, the basal release of 5-HT in the median raphe nucleus does not appear to be under the tonic control of somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors by endogenous 5-HT. Instead, this feedback mechanism seems to be triggered when an excess of the transmitter or a 5-HT1A agonist is present in the extracellular space of the median raphe nucleus.
BibTeX:
@article{Adell:1998,
  author = {Adell, A. and Artigas, F.},
  title = {A microdialysis study of the in vivo release of 5-HT in the median raphe nucleus of the rat.},
  journal = {Br J Pharmacol},
  school = {Department of Neurochemistry, IIBB, CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {125},
  number = {6},
  pages = {1361--1367},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0702206},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0702206}
}
Adell, A., Celada, P., Abellán, M.T. and Artigas, F. Origin and functional role of the extracellular serotonin in the midbrain raphe nuclei. 2002 Brain Res Brain Res Rev
Vol. 39(2-3), pp. 154-180School: Department of Neurochemistry, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques de Barcelona, CSIC (IDIBAPS), Carrer Rosselló 161, 6th floor, E-08036 Barcelona, Spain. aacnqi@iibb.csic.es 
article DOI  
Abstract: There is considerable interest in the regulation of the extracellular compartment of the transmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in the midbrain raphe nuclei because it can control the activity of ascending serotonergic systems and the release of 5-HT in terminal areas of the forebrain. Several intrinsic and extrinsic factors of 5-HT neurons that regulate 5-HT release in the dorsal (DR) and median (MnR) raphe nucleus are reviewed in this article. Despite its high concentration in the extracellular space of the raphe nuclei, the origin of this pool of the transmitter remains to be determined. Regardless of its origin, is has been shown that the release of 5-HT in the rostral raphe nuclei is partly dependent on impulse flow and Ca(2+) ions. The release in the DR and MnR is critically dependent on the activation of 5-HT autoreceptors in these nuclei. Yet, it appears that 5-HT autoreceptors do not tonically inhibit 5-HT release in the raphe nuclei but rather play a role as sensors that
respond to an excess of the endogenous transmitter. Both DR and MnR are equally responsive to the reduction of 5-HT release elicited by the local perfusion of 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists. In contrast, the effects of selective 5-HT(1B) receptor agonists are more pronounced in the MnR than in the DR. However, the cellular localization of 5-HT(1B) receptors in the raphe nuclei remains to be established. Furthermore, endogenous noradrenaline and GABA tonically regulate the extracellular concentration of 5-HT although the degree of tonicity appears to depend upon the sleep/wake cycle and the behavioral state of the animal. Glutamate exerts a phasic facilitatory control over the release of 5-HT in the raphe nuclei through ionotropic glutamate receptors. Overall, it appears that the extracellular concentration of 5-HT in the DR and the MnR is tightly controlled by intrinsic serotonergic mechanisms as well as afferent connections.
BibTeX:
@article{Adell:2002,
  author = {Adell, Albert and Celada, Pau and Abellán, M Teresa and Artigas, Francesc},
  title = {Origin and functional role of the extracellular serotonin in the midbrain raphe nuclei.},
  journal = {Brain Res Brain Res Rev},
  school = {Department of Neurochemistry, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques de Barcelona, CSIC (IDIBAPS), Carrer Rosselló 161, 6th floor, E-08036 Barcelona, Spain. aacnqi@iibb.csic.es},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {39},
  number = {2-3},
  pages = {154--180},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/s0165-0173(02)00182-0}
}
Adelmann, G., Deller, T. and Frotscher, M. Organization of identified fiber tracts in the rat fimbria-fornix: an anterograde tracing and electron microscopic study. 1996 Anat Embryol (Berl)
Vol. 193(5), pp. 481-493School: Institute of Anatomy, University of Freiburg, Germany. 
article DOI  
Abstract: The fimbria is a major route for afferent and efferent fibers of the hippocampal formation. However, little is known about the intrinsic organization of the fimbria-fornix complex. In this study, the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHAL) was used to analyze the ultrastructure and topography of identified fiber tracts within the fimbria-fornix. Septo-hippocampal fibers are loosely distributed throughout the fimbria-fornix. Commissural fibers cross the midline in the ventral hippocampal commissure and form a tight fiber bundle in the fimbria. Crossed entorhino-hippocampal fibers cross the midline in the ventral hippocampal commissure rostral to the commissural fiber bundle, and crossed entorhino-entorhinal fibers pass through the dorsal hippocampal commissure. This suggests a topographical organization of fiber tracts within the fimbria-fornix that reflects the laminar organization of the hippocampal target structure: fibers of the diffusely terminating septohippocampal
projection are loosely distributed throughout the fimbria-fornix, while those projections that are known to terminate in specific laminae of the hippocampal formation (commissural projection, crossed entorhino-hippocampal projection) form fiber bundles within the fimbria and the ventral hippocampal commissure.
BibTeX:
@article{Adelmann:1996,
  author = {G. Adelmann and T. Deller and M. Frotscher},
  title = {Organization of identified fiber tracts in the rat fimbria-fornix: an anterograde tracing and electron microscopic study.},
  journal = {Anat Embryol (Berl)},
  school = {Institute of Anatomy, University of Freiburg, Germany.},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {193},
  number = {5},
  pages = {481--493},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00185879}
}
Adelmann, G., Deller, T. and Frotscher, M. Organization of identified fiber tracts in the rat fimbria-fornix: An anterograde tracing and electron microscopic study 1996 Anatomy and Embryology
Vol. 193(5), pp. 481-493 
article URL 
Abstract: The fimbria is a major route for afferent and efferent fibers of the hippocampal formation. However, little is known about the intrinsic organization of the fimbria-fornix complex. In this study, the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHAL) was used to analyze the ultrastructure and topography of identified fiber tracts within the fimbria-fornix. Septo-hippocampal fibers are loosely distributed throughout the fimbria-fornix. Commissural fibers cross the midline in the ventral hippocampal commissure and form a tight fiber bundle in the fimbria. Crossed entorhino-hippocampal fibers cross the midline in the ventral hippocampal commissure rostral to the commissural fiber bundle, and crossed entorhino-entorhinal fibers pass through the dorsal hippocampal commissure. This suggests a topographical organization of fiber tracts within the fimbria-fornix that reflects the laminar organization of the hippocampal target structure: fibers of the diffusely terminating septo-
hippocampal
projection are loosely distributed throughout the fimbria-fornix, while those projections that are known to terminate in specific laminae of the hippocampal formation (commissural projection, crossed entorhino-hippocampal projection) form fiber bundles within the fimbria and the ventral hippocampal commissure.
BibTeX:
@article{Adelmann:1996a,
  author = {Adelmann, G. and Deller, T. and Frotscher, M.},
  title = {Organization of identified fiber tracts in the rat fimbria-fornix: An anterograde tracing and electron microscopic study},
  journal = {Anatomy and Embryology},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {193},
  number = {5},
  pages = {481-493},
  note = {Duplicate from Scopus!},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0029966052&partnerID=40&md5=3096c623052054736afdd8a84f1e9f66}
}
Adèr, J., Postema, F. and Korf, J. Contribution of the locus coeruleus to the adrenergic innervation of the rat spinal cord: a biochemical study. 1979 J Neural Transm
Vol. 44(3), pp. 159-173 
article DOI  
Abstract: The possible existence and magnitude of a noradrenergic innervation
from the locus coeruleus (LC) to the spinal cord was investigated
in the rat with various techniques. Horseradish peroxidase, injected
into the lumbar spinal cord produced heavy labelling of presumably
noradrenaline (NA)-containing neurons in the ventral region of the
LC, while cells in the dorsal region of the LC were only lightly
labelled. The effects of electrothermic destruction and electrical
stimulation of the LC on levels of NA in various parts of the spinal
cord, the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus were studied. Fourteen
days after unilateral destruction of the LC there were decreases
in NA levels of about 85% in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus
and of about 15% in the cervical and thoracic segments of the spinal
cord (ipsilateral versus contralateral). Fourteen days after bilateral
lesioning of the LC significant decreases (about 25 in NA levels
were observed in all spinal cord segments. Unilateral stimulation
in or near the LC induced decreases of NA levels in all areas of
the central nervous system investigated. In this experiment the levels
of NA in the spinal cord were significantly lowered in the ipsilateral
cervical (16, thoracic (12 and lumbar/sacral (15 segments
of the spinal cord. These findings together indicate that a small
part (no more than 30 of the NA levels in the rat spinal cord
are dependent upon the integrity and activity of NA-containing neurons
of the predominantly ipsilaterally localized LC.
BibTeX:
@article{Ader:1979a,
  author = {Adèr, JP and Postema, F and Korf, J},
  title = {Contribution of the locus coeruleus to the adrenergic innervation of the rat spinal cord: a biochemical study.},
  journal = {J Neural Transm},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {44},
  number = {3},
  pages = {159--173},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01253060}
}
Adèr, J.P., Aizenstein, M.L., Postema, F. and Korf, J. Origin of free 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol. 1979 Journal of neural transmission
Vol. 46, pp. 279-290 
article  
Abstract: The origin of free 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG, a major metabolite of norepinephrine) in rat cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was investigated using brain and spinal cord perfusions with artificial CSF, electrical stimulation of the locus coeruleus (LC) and the technique of retrograde cell labelling with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The rates of appearance of MHPG into ventricular-cisternal and lumbar-cisternal perfusates were about 12.4 and 19.2 ng/hour respectively. Probenecid (200 mg/kg i.p.) did not alter the MHPG output in either preparation. Intravenous administration of 3 micrograms MHPG did not substantially enhance the outflow of the metabolite in the ventricular-cisternal perfusate, indicating that MHPG found in the perfusate is of central origin. Maximal activation of central norepinephrine (NE)-containing neurons of the LC by electrical stimulation induced a 50% increase of MHPG levels in the ventricular-cisternal perfusate. In addition HRP was found to be retrogradely transported from the lateral ventricle to these LC-neurons. These findings indicate that MHPG in CSF originates, at least in part from NE of nerve terminals adjacent to the cerebral ventricles, which have their origin in the LC. We calculated that the fraction of MHPG formed in the central nervous system, that was released into the CSF was about 34%. It is concluded that MHPG in CSF is a measure for changes in central NE turnover and that a considerable portion is dependent upon the activity of LC neurons.
BibTeX:
@article{Ader:1979b,
  author = {Adèr, J P and Aizenstein, M L and Postema, F and Korf, J},
  title = {Origin of free 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol.},
  journal = {Journal of neural transmission},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {46},
  pages = {279--290},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.}
}
Adèr, J.P., Postema, F. and Korf, J. Contribution of the locus coeruleus to the adrenergic innervation of the rat spinal cord: a biochemical study. 1979 J Neural Transm
Vol. 44(3), pp. 159-173 
article DOI  
Abstract: The possible existence and magnitude of a noradrenergic innervation from the locus coeruleus (LC) to the spinal cord was investigated in the rat with various techniques. Horseradish peroxidase, injected into the lumbar spinal cord produced heavy labelling of presumably noradrenaline (NA)-containing neurons in the ventral region of the LC, while cells in the dorsal region of the LC were only lightly labelled. The effects of electrothermic destruction and electrical stimulation of the LC on levels of NA in various parts of the spinal cord, the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus were studied. Fourteen days after unilateral destruction of the LC there were decreases in NA levels of about 85% in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus and of about 15% in the cervical and thoracic segments of the spinal cord (ipsilateral versus contralateral). Fourteen days after bilateral lesioning of the LC significant decreases (about 25 in NA levels were observed in all spinal cord segments. Unilateral
stimulation in or near the LC induced decreases of NA levels in all areas of the central nervous system investigated. In this experiment the levels of NA in the spinal cord were significantly lowered in the ipsilateral cervical (16, thoracic (12 and lumbar/sacral (15 segments of the spinal cord. These findings together indicate that a small part (no more than 30 of the NA levels in the rat spinal cord are dependent upon the integrity and activity of NA-containing neurons of the predominantly ipsilaterally localized LC.
BibTeX:
@article{Ader:1979,
  author = {Adèr, J. P. and Postema, F. and Korf, J.},
  title = {Contribution of the locus coeruleus to the adrenergic innervation of the rat spinal cord: a biochemical study.},
  journal = {J Neural Transm},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {44},
  number = {3},
  pages = {159--173},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01253060}
}
Adèr, J.P., Room, P., Postema, F. and Korf, J. Bilaterally diverging axon collaterals and contralateral projections from rat locus coeruleus neurons, demonstrated by fluorescent retrograde double labeling and norepinephrine metabolism. 1980 J Neural Transm
Vol. 49(4), pp. 207-208 
article DOI  
Abstract: Evans Blue (EB) and a mixture of 4'-6'-diamidino-2-phenylindol 2 HCl and primuline (DAPI-Pr), fluorescing at different wave-lengths were injected into the rat hippocampus, frontal cortex or lateral part of the thalamus. After unilateral injection either of the two substances was retrogradely transported not only to ipsilateral but also to contralateral locus coeruleus (LC) neurons. Moreover after simultaneous injections of EB and DAPI-Pr respectively into the opposite brain structures of individual animals double-labeled neurons were observed in the bilateral LC. Unilateral electrical stimulation of the LC induced significant decreases of norepinephrine and increases of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene-glycol in both the ipsi- and contralateral frontal cortex and whole forebrain, respectively. These ipsi- and contralateral alterations of the amine and its metabolite correlated highly significantly. These results indicate that several LC neurons have both contralateral and bilateral
projections to the brain areas mentioned above.
BibTeX:
@article{Ader:1980,
  author = {J. P. Adèr and P. Room and F. Postema and J. Korf},
  title = {Bilaterally diverging axon collaterals and contralateral projections from rat locus coeruleus neurons, demonstrated by fluorescent retrograde double labeling and norepinephrine metabolism.},
  journal = {J Neural Transm},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {49},
  number = {4},
  pages = {207--208},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01252126}
}
Adèr, J.P., Room, P., Postema, F. and Korf, J. Bilaterally diverging axon collaterals and contralateral projections from rat locus coeruleus neurons, demonstrated by fluorescent retrograde double labeling and norepinephrine metabolism. 1980 J Neural Transm
Vol. 49(4), pp. 207-208 
article DOI  
Abstract: Evans Blue (EB) and a mixture of 4'-6'-diamidino-2-phenylindol 2 HCl and primuline (DAPI-Pr), fluorescing at different wave-lengths were injected into the rat hippocampus, frontal cortex or lateral part of the thalamus. After unilateral injection either of the two substances was retrogradely transported not only to ipsilateral but also to contralateral locus coeruleus (LC) neurons. Moreover after simultaneous injections of EB and DAPI-Pr respectively into the opposite brain structures of individual animals double-labeled neurons were observed in the bilateral LC. Unilateral electrical stimulation of the LC induced significant decreases of norepinephrine and increases of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene-glycol in both the ipsi- and contralateral frontal cortex and whole forebrain, respectively. These ipsi- and contralateral alterations of the amine and its metabolite correlated highly significantly. These results indicate that several LC neurons have both contralateral and bilateral
projections to the brain areas mentioned above.
BibTeX:
@article{Ader:1980a,
  author = {Adèr, J. P. and Room, P. and Postema, F. and Korf, J.},
  title = {Bilaterally diverging axon collaterals and contralateral projections from rat locus coeruleus neurons, demonstrated by fluorescent retrograde double labeling and norepinephrine metabolism.},
  journal = {J Neural Transm},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {49},
  number = {4},
  pages = {207--208},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01252126}
}
Adèr, J.P., Room, P., Postema, F. and Korf, J. Bilaterally diverging axon collaterals and contralateral projections from rat locus coeruleus neurons, demonstrated by fluorescent retrograde double labeling and norepinephrine metabolism. 1980 Journal of neural transmission
Vol. 49, pp. 207-208 
article DOI  
Abstract: Evans Blue (EB) and a mixture of 4'-6'-diamidino-2-phenylindol 2 HCl and primuline (DAPI-Pr), fluorescing at different wave-lengths were injected into the rat hippocampus, frontal cortex or lateral part of the thalamus. After unilateral injection either of the two substances was retrogradely transported not only to ipsilateral but also to contralateral locus coeruleus (LC) neurons. Moreover after simultaneous injections of EB and DAPI-Pr respectively into the opposite brain structures of individual animals double-labeled neurons were observed in the bilateral LC. Unilateral electrical stimulation of the LC induced significant decreases of norepinephrine and increases of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene-glycol in both the ipsi- and contralateral frontal cortex and whole forebrain, respectively. These ipsi- and contralateral alterations of the amine and its metabolite correlated highly significantly. These results indicate that several LC neurons have both contralateral and bilateral projections to the brain areas mentioned above.
BibTeX:
@article{Ader:1980b,
  author = {Adèr, J P and Room, P and Postema, F and Korf, J},
  title = {Bilaterally diverging axon collaterals and contralateral projections from rat locus coeruleus neurons, demonstrated by fluorescent retrograde double labeling and norepinephrine metabolism.},
  journal = {Journal of neural transmission},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {49},
  pages = {207--208},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01252126}
}
Adermark, L. Modulation of endocannabinoid-mediated long-lasting disinhibition of striatal output by cholinergic interneurons. 2011 Neuropharmacology
Vol. 61, pp. 1314-1320 
article DOI  
Abstract: The frequency and duration of glutamatergic inputs to the striatum are strong determinants of the net effect of retrograde endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling, and key factors in determining if long-term depression (LTD) has a net disinhibitory or inhibitory action in striatum. Low to moderate frequency stimulation in the dorsolateral striatum elevates eCB levels to an extent that primarily depresses transmitter release at inhibitory synapses, leading to a long-lasting disinhibition (DLL) of synaptic output. The aim of this study was to further characterize the basic features of endocannabinoid-mediated DLL of striatal output induced by moderate frequency stimulation (5 Hz, 60 s). DLL was inhibited in slices treated with the group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonists MPEP (40 μM) and CPCCOEt (40 μM), the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride (5 μM), the L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine (20 μM), the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (10 μM), the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine sesquifumarate (10 μM), and strychnine (0.1 μM). Strychnine did not block DLL induced by WIN55,212-2 (250 nM), showing that glycine receptor-mediated modulation of eCB signaling occurs upstream from CB(1)R activation. Scopolamine (10 μM) restored DLL in strychnine-treated slices, suggesting that inhibition of glycine receptors on cholinergic interneurons could modulate eCB signaling by enhancing muscarinic receptor activation and reducing the opening of L-type calcium channels in response to depolarization. These data suggests that similar activation points are required for stimulation-induced DLL as for LTD at excitatory striatal synapses, and that cholinergic interneurons are key modulators of stimulation-induced eCB signaling in the striatum.
BibTeX:
@article{Adermark:2011,
  author = {Adermark, Louise},
  title = {Modulation of endocannabinoid-mediated long-lasting disinhibition of striatal output by cholinergic interneurons.},
  journal = {Neuropharmacology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {61},
  pages = {1314--1320},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.07.039}
}
Adermark, L. and Lovinger, D.M. Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling at striatal synapses requires a regulated postsynaptic release step. 2007 Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Vol. 104(51), pp. 20564-20569School: Section on Synaptic Pharmacology, Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism/National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Endocannabinoids (eCBs) mediate short- and long-term depression of synaptic strength by retrograde transsynaptic signaling. Previous studies have suggested that an eCB mobilization or release step in the postsynaptic neuron is involved in this retrograde signaling. However, it is not known whether this release process occurs automatically upon eCB synthesis or whether it is regulated by other synaptic factors. To address this issue, we loaded postsynaptic striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) with the eCBs anandamide (AEA) or 2-arachidonoylglycerol and determined the conditions necessary for presynaptic inhibition. We found that presynaptic depression of glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) induced by postsynaptic eCB loading required a certain level of afferent activation that varied between the different synaptic types. Synaptic depression at excitatory synapses was temperature-dependent and blocked by the eCB membrane
transport blockers, VDM11 and UCM707, but did not require activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors, l-calcium channels, nitric oxide, voltage-activated Na(+) channels, or intracellular calcium. Application of the CB(1)R antagonist, AM251, after depression was established, reversed the decrease in EPSC, but not in IPSC, amplitude. Direct activation of the CB(1) receptor by WIN 55,212-2 initiated synaptic depression that was independent of afferent stimulation. These findings indicate that retrograde eCB signaling requires a postsynaptic release step involving a transporter or carrier that is activated by afferent stimulation/synaptic activation.
BibTeX:
@article{Adermark:2007,
  author = {Adermark, Louise and Lovinger, David M.},
  title = {Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling at striatal synapses requires a regulated postsynaptic release step.},
  journal = {Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A},
  school = {Section on Synaptic Pharmacology, Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism/National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {104},
  number = {51},
  pages = {20564--20569},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0706873104},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0706873104}
}
Adermark, L. and Lovinger, D.M. Combined activation of L-type Ca2+ channels and synaptic transmission is sufficient to induce striatal long-term depression. 2007 J Neurosci
Vol. 27(25), pp. 6781-6787School: Section on Synaptic Pharmacology, Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Changes in synaptic strength at striatal synapses, such as long-term depression (LTD), may be involved in striatal-based learning and memory. Several molecular mechanisms have been implicated in striatal LTD, but it is not clear which mechanisms are crucial for LTD induction. We found that the activation of L-type calcium channels by 2,5-dimethyl-4-[2-(phenylmethyl)benzoyl]-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxylic acid methylester (FPL64176), combined with modest postsynaptic depolarization and synaptic activation, is sufficient to induce robust LTD (FPL-LTD). The L-channel activator 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-[2(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]pyridine-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (Bay K 8644) has a similar action. FPL-LTD occludes LTD induced by high-frequency stimulation (HFS-LTD) and requires elevated postsynaptic calcium and retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, properties similar to those of HFS-LTD. In contrast, FPL-LTD does not require the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs),
phospholipase C, or dopamine D2 receptors. FPL-LTD induction also requires afferent stimulation. These findings suggest a scenario in which L-type calcium channel activation is a crucial switch for LTD induction, and mGluRs and D2 receptors can be bypassed if this channel is activated.
BibTeX:
@article{Adermark:2007a,
  author = {Adermark, Louise and Lovinger, David M.},
  title = {Combined activation of L-type Ca2+ channels and synaptic transmission is sufficient to induce striatal long-term depression.},
  journal = {J Neurosci},
  school = {Section on Synaptic Pharmacology, Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {27},
  number = {25},
  pages = {6781--6787},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0280-07.2007},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0280-07.2007}
}
Adermark, L. and Lovinger, D.M. Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling at striatal synapses requires a regulated postsynaptic release step. 2007 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vol. 104, pp. 20564-9 
article  
Abstract: Endocannabinoids (eCBs) mediate short- and long-term depression of synaptic strength by retrograde transsynaptic signaling. Previous studies have suggested that an eCB mobilization or release step in the postsynaptic neuron is involved in this retrograde signaling. However, it is not known whether this release process occurs automatically upon eCB synthesis or whether it is regulated by other synaptic factors. To address this issue, we loaded postsynaptic striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) with the eCBs anandamide (AEA) or 2-arachidonoylglycerol and determined the conditions necessary for presynaptic inhibition. We found that presynaptic depression of glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) induced by postsynaptic eCB loading required a certain level of afferent activation that varied between the different synaptic types. Synaptic depression at excitatory synapses was temperature-dependent and blocked by the eCB membrane
transport blockers, VDM11 and UCM707, but did not require activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors, l-calcium channels, nitric oxide, voltage-activated Na(+) channels, or intracellular calcium. Application of the CB(1)R antagonist, AM251, after depression was established, reversed the decrease in EPSC, but not in IPSC, amplitude. Direct activation of the CB(1) receptor by WIN 55,212-2 initiated synaptic depression that was independent of afferent stimulation. These findings indicate that retrograde eCB signaling requires a postsynaptic release step involving a transporter or carrier that is activated by afferent stimulation/synaptic activation.
BibTeX:
@article{Adermark:2007b,
  author = {Adermark, Louise and Lovinger, David M.},
  title = {Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling at striatal synapses requires a regulated postsynaptic release step.},
  journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {104},
  pages = {20564-9},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Adesnik, H. and Scanziani, M. Lateral competition for cortical space by layer-specific horizontal circuits. 2010 Nature
Vol. 464(7292), pp. 1155-1160School: Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Center for Neural Circuits and Behavior, Neurobiology Section and Department of Neurosciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0634, USA. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The cerebral cortex constructs a coherent representation of the world by integrating distinct features of the sensory environment. Although these features are processed vertically across cortical layers, horizontal projections interconnecting neighbouring cortical domains allow these features to be processed in a context-dependent manner. Despite the wealth of physiological and psychophysical studies addressing the function of horizontal projections, how they coordinate activity among cortical domains remains poorly understood. We addressed this question by selectively activating horizontal projection neurons in mouse somatosensory cortex, and determined how the resulting spatial pattern of excitation and inhibition affects cortical activity. We found that horizontal projections suppress superficial layers while simultaneously activating deeper cortical output layers. This layer-specific modulation does not result from a spatial separation of excitation and inhibition, but from a layer-
specific ratio between these two opposing conductances. Through this mechanism, cortical domains exploit horizontal projections to compete for cortical space.
BibTeX:
@article{Adesnik:2010,
  author = {Adesnik, Hillel and Scanziani, Massimo},
  title = {Lateral competition for cortical space by layer-specific horizontal circuits.},
  journal = {Nature},
  school = {Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Center for Neural Circuits and Behavior, Neurobiology Section and Department of Neurosciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0634, USA.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {464},
  number = {7292},
  pages = {1155--1160},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature08935},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08935}
}
Adler, E.S., Hollis, J.H., Clarke, I.J., Grattan, D.R. and Oldfield, B.J. Neurochemical characterization and sexual dimorphism of projections from the brain to abdominal and subcutaneous white adipose tissue in the rat. 2012 J Neurosci
Vol. 32(45), pp. 15913-15921School: Department of Physiology, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Victoria, Australia. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (rWAT) and subcutaneous (inguinal) white adipose tissue (iWAT) are both innervated and regulated by sympathetic efferents, but the distribution and identity of the cells in the brain that regulate sympathetic outflow are poorly characterized. Our aim was to use two isogenic strains of a neurotropic virus (pseudorabies, Bartha) tagged with either green or red fluorescent reporters to identify cells in the brain that project to rWAT and/or iWAT. These viruses were injected into separate WAT depots in male and female Sprague Dawley rats. Retrogradely labeled neurons in the CNS were characterized by immunohistochemistry and PCR. For the latter, laser capture of individual virally labeled neurons was used. All virally labeled brain regions contained neurons projecting to either and both WAT depots. Neurons to abdominal fat were the most abundant in males, whereas females contained a greater proportion of neurons to subcutaneous via private lines and collateral
branches. Retrogradely labeled neurons directed to WAT expressed estrogen receptor-α (ERα), and fewer neurons to subcutaneous WAT expressed ERα in males. Regardless of sex, projections from the arcuate nucleus were predominantly from pro-opiomelanocortin cells, with a notable lack of projections from agouti-related protein-expressing neurons. Within the lateral hypothalamus, neurons directed to rWAT and iWAT expressed orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), but male rats had a predominance of MCH directed to iWAT. In conclusion, the neurochemical substrates that project through polysynaptic pathways to iWAT and rWAT are different in male and female rats, suggesting that metabolic regulation of rWAT and iWAT is sexually dimorphic.
BibTeX:
@article{Adler:2012,
  author = {Adler, Elaine S. and Hollis, Jacob H. and Clarke, Iain J. and Grattan, David R. and Oldfield, Brian J.},
  title = {Neurochemical characterization and sexual dimorphism of projections from the brain to abdominal and subcutaneous white adipose tissue in the rat.},
  journal = {J Neurosci},
  school = {Department of Physiology, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Victoria, Australia.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {32},
  number = {45},
  pages = {15913--15921},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in normal adult rats.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2591-12.2012},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2591-12.2012}
}
Adler, E.S., Hollis, J.H., Clarke, I.J., Grattan, D.R. and Oldfield, B.J. Neurochemical characterization and sexual dimorphism of projections from the brain to abdominal and subcutaneous white adipose tissue in the rat. 2012 The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Vol. 32, pp. 15913-15921 
article DOI  
Abstract: Retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (rWAT) and subcutaneous (inguinal) white adipose tissue (iWAT) are both innervated and regulated by sympathetic efferents, but the distribution and identity of the cells in the brain that regulate sympathetic outflow are poorly characterized. Our aim was to use two isogenic strains of a neurotropic virus (pseudorabies, Bartha) tagged with either green or red fluorescent reporters to identify cells in the brain that project to rWAT and/or iWAT. These viruses were injected into separate WAT depots in male and female Sprague Dawley rats. Retrogradely labeled neurons in the CNS were characterized by immunohistochemistry and PCR. For the latter, laser capture of individual virally labeled neurons was used. All virally labeled brain regions contained neurons projecting to either and both WAT depots. Neurons to abdominal fat were the most abundant in males, whereas females contained a greater proportion of neurons to subcutaneous via private lines and
collateral branches. Retrogradely labeled neurons directed to WAT expressed estrogen receptor-α (ERα), and fewer neurons to subcutaneous WAT expressed ERα in males. Regardless of sex, projections from the arcuate nucleus were predominantly from pro-opiomelanocortin cells, with a notable lack of projections from agouti-related protein-expressing neurons. Within the lateral hypothalamus, neurons directed to rWAT and iWAT expressed orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), but male rats had a predominance of MCH directed to iWAT. In conclusion, the neurochemical substrates that project through polysynaptic pathways to iWAT and rWAT are different in male and female rats, suggesting that metabolic regulation of rWAT and iWAT is sexually dimorphic.
BibTeX:
@article{Adler:2012a,
  author = {Adler, Elaine S and Hollis, Jacob H and Clarke, Iain J and Grattan, David R and Oldfield, Brian J},
  title = {Neurochemical characterization and sexual dimorphism of projections from the brain to abdominal and subcutaneous white adipose tissue in the rat.},
  journal = {The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {15913--15921},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2591-12.2012}
}
Adli, D.S., Stuesse, S.L. and Cruce, W.L. Immunohistochemistry and spinal projections of the reticular formation in the northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens. 1999 J Comp Neurol
Vol. 404(3), pp. 387-407School: Zoology Department, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Over 30 nuclei have been identified in the reticular formation of rats, but only a small number of distinct reticular nuclei have been recognized in frogs. We used immunohistochemistry, retrograde tracing, and cell morphology to identify nuclei within the brainstem of Rana pipiens. FluoroGold was injected into the spinal cord, and, in the same frogs, antibodies to enkephalin, substance P, somatostatin, and serotonin were localized in adjacent sections. We identified many previously unrecognized reticular nuclei. The rhombencephalic reticular formation contained reticularis (r.) dorsalis; r. ventralis, pars alpha and pars beta; r. magnocellularis; r. parvocellularis; r. gigantocellularis; r. paragigantocellularis lateralis and dorsalis; r. pontis caudalis, pars alpha and pars beta; nucleus visceralis secundarius; r. pontis oralis, pars medialis and pars lateralis; raphe obscurus; raphe pallidus; raphe magnus; and raphe pontis. The mesencephalic reticular formation contained locus coeruleus-
subcoeruleus, r. cuneiformis, r. subcuneiformis, raphe dorsalis-raphe centralis superior, and raphe linearis. Thus, the reticular formation of frog, which is an anamniote, is organized complexly and is similar to the reticular formation in amniotes. Because many of these nuclei may be homologous to reticular nuclei in mammals, we used mammalian terminology for frog reticular nuclei.
BibTeX:
@article{Adli:1999,
  author = {Adli, D. S. and Stuesse, S. L. and Cruce, W. L.},
  title = {Immunohistochemistry and spinal projections of the reticular formation in the northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens.},
  journal = {J Comp Neurol},
  school = {Zoology Department, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {404},
  number = {3},
  pages = {387--407},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1096-9861(19990215)404:3%3C387::aid-cne8%3E3.0.co;2-z}
}
Adli, D.S., Stuesse, S.L. and Cruce, W.L. Immunohistochemistry and spinal projections of the reticular formation in the northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens. 1999 The Journal of comparative neurology
Vol. 404, pp. 387-407 
article  
Abstract: Over 30 nuclei have been identified in the reticular formation of rats, but only a small number of distinct reticular nuclei have been recognized in frogs. We used immunohistochemistry, retrograde tracing, and cell morphology to identify nuclei within the brainstem of Rana pipiens. FluoroGold was injected into the spinal cord, and, in the same frogs, antibodies to enkephalin, substance P, somatostatin, and serotonin were localized in adjacent sections. We identified many previously unrecognized reticular nuclei. The rhombencephalic reticular formation contained reticularis (r.) dorsalis; r. ventralis, pars alpha and pars beta; r. magnocellularis; r. parvocellularis; r. gigantocellularis; r. paragigantocellularis lateralis and dorsalis; r. pontis caudalis, pars alpha and pars beta; nucleus visceralis secundarius; r. pontis oralis, pars medialis and pars lateralis; raphe obscurus; raphe pallidus; raphe magnus; and raphe pontis. The mesencephalic reticular formation contained locus coeruleus-
subcoeruleus, r. cuneiformis, r. subcuneiformis, raphe dorsalis-raphe centralis superior, and raphe linearis. Thus, the reticular formation of frog, which is an anamniote, is organized complexly and is similar to the reticular formation in amniotes. Because many of these nuclei may be homologous to reticular nuclei in mammals, we used mammalian terminology for frog reticular nuclei.
BibTeX:
@article{Adli:1999a,
  author = {Adli, D. S. and Stuesse, S. L. and Cruce, W. L.},
  title = {Immunohistochemistry and spinal projections of the reticular formation in the northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens.},
  journal = {The Journal of comparative neurology},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {404},
  pages = {387-407},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Damasio, H. and Damasio, A. Impaired recognition of emotion in facial expressions following bilateral damage to the human amygdala. 1994 Nature
Vol. 372(6507), pp. 669-672School: Department of Neurology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Studies in animals have shown that the amygdala receives highly processed visual input, contains neurons that respond selectively to faces, and that it participates in emotion and social behaviour. Although studies in epileptic patients support its role in emotion, determination of the amygdala's function in humans has been hampered by the rarity of patients with selective amygdala lesions. Here, with the help of one such rare patient, we report findings that suggest the human amygdala may be indispensable to: (1) recognize fear in facial expressions; (2) recognize multiple emotions in a single facial expression; but (3) is not required to recognize personal identity from faces. These results suggest that damage restricted to the amygdala causes very specific recognition impairments, and thus constrains the broad notion that the amygdala is involved in emotion.
BibTeX:
@article{Adolphs:1994,
  author = {R. Adolphs and D. Tranel and H. Damasio and A. Damasio},
  title = {Impaired recognition of emotion in facial expressions following bilateral damage to the human amygdala.},
  journal = {Nature},
  school = {Department of Neurology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242.},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {372},
  number = {6507},
  pages = {669--672},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/372669a0},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/372669a0}
}
Adriaensen, D., Brouns, I. and Timmermans, J.-P. Sensory input to the central nervous system from the lungs and airways: A prominent role for purinergic signalling via P2X2/3 receptors 2015 Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical  article DOI URL 
Abstract: Specific subpopulations of lung-related primary afferent neurons in dorsal root and vagal sensory ganglia have been reported to express P2X2 and P2X3 receptors both in the neuronal cell bodies and in their peripheral terminals. The afferent innervation of airways and lungs is organised as sensory receptor structures, of which at least seven types with a vagal origin and two with a spinal origin have been reported.In view of the recently suggested therapeutic promise of ATP antagonism ? specifically at P2X3 receptor expressing nociceptive fibres ? in respiratory disorders, the present work focusses on four distinct populations of pulmonary sensory receptors that have so far been reported to express P2X2/3 receptors. Three of them originate from myelinated nerve fibres that display similar mechanosensor-like morphological and neurochemical characteristics. Two of the latter concern vagal nodose sensory fibres, either related to pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs), or giving rise to smooth
muscle-associated airway receptors (SMARs); the third gives rise to visceral pleura receptors (VPRs) and most likely arises from dorsal root ganglia. The fourth population concerns C-fibre receptors (CFRs) that also derive from neuronal cell bodies located in vagal nodose ganglia.Although the majority of the airway- and lung-related sensory receptors that express P2X2/3 receptors apparently do not belong to accepted nociceptive populations, these data definitely point out that ATP may be an important player in the physiological transduction of different lung-related afferent signals from the periphery to the CNS. The observed variety within the populations of pulmonary sensory receptors that express P2X2/3 receptors argues for a critical and careful interpretation of the functional data.
BibTeX:
@article{Adriaensen:2015,
  author = {Adriaensen, Dirk and Brouns, Inge and Timmermans, Jean-Pierre},
  title = {Sensory input to the central nervous system from the lungs and airways: A prominent role for purinergic signalling via P2X2/3 receptors},
  journal = {Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Not a tract tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autneu.2015.04.006},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autneu.2015.04.006}
}
Adriaensen, D., Timmermans, J.P., Brouns, I., Berthoud, H.R., Neuhuber, W.L. and Scheuermann, D.W. Pulmonary intraepithelial vagal nodose afferent nerve terminals are confined to neuroepithelial bodies: an anterograde tracing and confocal microscopy study in adult rats. 1998 Cell Tissue Res
Vol. 293(3), pp. 395-405School: Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium. dadria@ruca.ua.ac.be 
article DOI  
Abstract: Our present understanding of the morphology of neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) in mammalian lungs is comprehensive. Several hypotheses have been put forward regarding their function but none has been proven conclusively. Microscopic data on the innervation that appears to affect the reaction of NEBs to stimuli have given rise to conflicting interpretations. The aim of this study has been to check the validity of the hypothesis that pulmonary NEBs receive an extensive vagal sensory innervation. The fluorescent neuronal tracer DiI was injected into the vagal sensory nodose ganglion and NEBs were visualized in toto by using immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy on 100-micrometer-thick frozen sections of the lungs of adult rats. The most striking finding was the extensive intraepithelial terminal arborizations of DiI-labelled vagal afferents in intrapulmonary airways, apparently always co-appearing with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive NEBs. Not all NEBs received a
traced nerve fibre. Intrapulmonary CGRP-containing nerve fibres, including those innervating NEBs, always appeared to belong to a nerve fibre population different from the DiI-traced fibres and hence did not arise from the nodose ganglion. Therefore, at least some of the pulmonary NEBs in adult rats are supplied with sensory nerve fibres that originate from the vagal nodose ganglion and form beaded ramifications between the NEB cells, thus providing support for the hypothesis of a receptor function for NEBs.
BibTeX:
@article{Adriaensen:1998,
  author = {Adriaensen, D. and Timmermans, J. P. and Brouns, I. and Berthoud, H. R. and Neuhuber, W. L. and Scheuermann, D. W.},
  title = {Pulmonary intraepithelial vagal nodose afferent nerve terminals are confined to neuroepithelial bodies: an anterograde tracing and confocal microscopy study in adult rats.},
  journal = {Cell Tissue Res},
  school = {Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium. dadria@ruca.ua.ac.be},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {293},
  number = {3},
  pages = {395--405},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s004410051131}
}
Aerts, J.J., Plenevaux, A.R., Lemaire, C.F., Giacomelli, F., Warnock, G.I., Phillips, C.L. and Luxen, A.J. Metabolism of no-carrier-added 2-[18F]fluoro-L-tyrosine in rats. 2008 BMC Med Phys
Vol. 8, pp. 4School: Centre de Recherches du Cyclotron, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgique. j.aerts@ulg.ac.be 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Several fluorine-18 labelled fluoroamino acids have been evaluated as tracers for the quantitative assessment of cerebral protein synthesis in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET). Among these, 2-[18F]fluoro-L-tyrosine (2-[18F]Tyr) has been studied in mice at a low specific activity. Its incorporation into proteins is fast and metabolism via other pathways is limited. The present in vivo study was carried out in normal awake rats using no-carrier-added 2-[18F]Tyr. Under normal physiological conditions, we have studied the incorporation into proteins and the metabolism of the tracer in different brain areas.No-carrier-added 2-[18F]Tyr was administered to awake rats equipped with chronic arterial and venous catheters. The time course of the plasma activity was studied by arterial blood sampling. The biodistribution of the activity in the main organs was studied at the end of the experiment. The distribution of radioactive species in plasma and brain regions was studied by acidic
precipitation of the proteins and HPLC analysis of the supernatant.The absolute uptake of radioactivity in brain regions was homogenous. In awake rats, no-carrier-added 2-[18F]Tyr exhibits a fast and almost quantitative incorporation into the proteins fractions of cerebellum and cortex. In striatum, this incorporation into proteins and the unchanged fraction of the tracer detected by HPLC could be lower than in other brain regions.This study confirms the potential of 2-[18F]fluoro-L-tyrosine as a tracer for the assessment of the rate of protein synthesis by positron emission tomography. The observed metabolism suggests a need for a correction for the appearance of metabolites, at least in plasma.
BibTeX:
@article{Aerts:2008,
  author = {Aerts, Joël J. and Plenevaux, Alain R. and Lemaire, Christian F. and Giacomelli, Fabrice and Warnock, Geoffrey I. and Phillips, Christophe L. and Luxen, André J.},
  title = {Metabolism of no-carrier-added 2-[18F]fluoro-L-tyrosine in rats.},
  journal = {BMC Med Phys},
  school = {Centre de Recherches du Cyclotron, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgique. j.aerts@ulg.ac.be},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {4},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-6649-8-4},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-6649-8-4}
}
Afarinesh M-R, B.G. Specific and Non-Specific Thalamocortical Afferents to the Whisker–Related Sensory Cortical Region in Rats with Congenital Hypothyroidism 2015 Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences
Vol. 22(4), pp. 355-369 
article URL 
Abstract: Background & Aims: Thyroid hormones are of great importance in the development of the central nervous system. Congenital hypothyroidism may affect the reorganization of specific and non-specific thalamocortical afferents to whisker–related sensory (wS1) corticol region in rats. Methods: Congenital hypothyroidism was induced by adding propylthiouracil (PTU) (25 ppm) to the rats’ drinking water from embryonic day 16 to postnatal day 60. Pregnant rats were divided into normal and congenital hypothyroidism groups. Wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) was injected into wS1 cortical area as tracer. Results: Following tracer injection, retrogradely labeled neurons were observed in the thalamic specific relay nuclus including ventral posterior medial (VPM), and in the nonspecific thalamic nuclei including centrolatral (CL), centromedial (CM), ventromedial (VM), posteromedial (PO), and reunion (Re). The number of VPM and PO labeled neurons significantly reduced in the
congenital hypothyroidim group compared to the normal group (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, recpectively). No significant difference was observed between the hypothyroidism group and control group in terms of the number of labeled projection neurons in CL, CM, VM, and Re nuclei. Conclusion: The present study showed that congenital hypothyroidism alters the thalamocortical projection pattern from VPM and PO thalamic nuclei to barrel cortex.
BibTeX:
@article{Afarinesh:2015,
  author = {Afarinesh M-R, Behzadi G},
  title = {Specific and Non-Specific Thalamocortical Afferents to the Whisker–Related Sensory Cortical Region in Rats with Congenital Hypothyroidism},
  journal = {Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {22},
  number = {4},
  pages = {355-369},
  url = {http://scholar.google.de/scholar_url?url=http://www.jkmu.kmu.ac.ir/en/index.php/kmus/article/viewFile/978/pdf&hl=de&sa=X&scisig=AAGBfm3orklnzEbQ4Bh9BVUO2P38Ki_CUg&nossl=1&oi=scholaralrt}
}
Afarinesh, M.R. and Behzadi, G. The pattern of thalamocortical and brain stem projections to the vibrissae-related sensory and motor cortices in de-whiskered congenital hypothyroid rats. 2017 Metabolic brain disease
Vol. 32, pp. 1223-1235 
article DOI  
Abstract: The present study is designed to investigate the plastic organization of the thalamo-cortical (TC) and brain stem afferents of whisker primary sensory (wS1) and motor (wM1) cortical areas in congenital hypothyroid (CH) pups following whisker deprivation (WD) from neonatal to adolescence period. Maternal hypothyroidism was induced by adding propylthiouracil (PTU) to the drinking water from early embryonic day 16 to postnatal day (PND) 60. Pregnant rats were divided into intact and CH groups (n = 8). In each group, the total whiskers of pups (4 of 8) were trimmed continuously from PND 1 to PND 60. Retrograde tracing technique with WGA-HRP was performed in the present study. Retrogradely labeled neurons were observed in the specific thalamic nuclei (VPM and VL) following separately WGA-HRP injections into wS1/M1 cortical areas. The number of labeled cells in the VPM, VL, VM and PO nuclei of the thalamus significantly decreased in CH offsprings rats (P < 0.05). Neonatal WD did not show any significant effects on the number of VPM, VL, VM and PO labeled projection neurons to wS1 and wM1 cortical areas. In addition, retrogradely labeled neurons in dorsal raphe (DR) and locus coeruleus (LC) nuclei were observed in all experimental groups. The number of DR and LC labeled neurons were higher in the CH and whisker deprived groups compared to their matching controls (P < 0.05). Upon our results, CH and WD had no synergic or additive effects on the TC and brain stem afferent patterns of barrel sensory and motor cortices.
BibTeX:
@article{Afarinesh:2017,
  author = {Afarinesh, Mohammad Reza and Behzadi, Gila},
  title = {The pattern of thalamocortical and brain stem projections to the vibrissae-related sensory and motor cortices in de-whiskered congenital hypothyroid rats.},
  journal = {Metabolic brain disease},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {1223--1235},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s11011-017-0027-z}
}
Afework, M., Ralevic, V. and Burnstock, G. The intra-adrenal distribution of intrinsic and extrinsic nitrergic nerve fibres in the rat. 1995 Neurosci Lett
Vol. 190(2), pp. 109-112School: Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, UK. 
article DOI  
Abstract: The intra-adrenal distribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-immunoreactive nerve fibres was studied in rats subjected to various denervations. Splanchnic nerve section eliminated the NOS-immunoreactive nerve fibres which innervate adrenal chromaffin and neuronal cells. It did not affect those innervating blood vessels and zona glomerulosa, which instead were affected by adrenal demedullation. Guanethidine, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and capsaicin treatments, however, did not produce any change. These results suggest that nitrergic nerves which innervate adrenal medullary cells are extrinsic (largely preganglionic sympathetic), whilst those innervating the zona glomerulosa and the majority of adrenal vessels are intrinsic, and that they do not belong to nerves sensitive to the sympathetic nerve neurotoxins, guanethidine and 6-OHDA, or the sensory neurotoxin, capsaicin.
BibTeX:
@article{Afework:1995,
  author = {Afework, M. and Ralevic, V. and Burnstock, G.},
  title = {The intra-adrenal distribution of intrinsic and extrinsic nitrergic nerve fibres in the rat.},
  journal = {Neurosci Lett},
  school = {Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, UK.},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {190},
  number = {2},
  pages = {109--112},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3940(95)11514-w}
}
Affleck, V.S., Coote, J.H. and Pyner, S. The projection and synaptic organisation of NTS afferent connections with presympathetic neurons, GABA and nNOS neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. 2012 Neuroscience
Vol. 219, pp. 48-61School: Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, UK. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Elevated sympathetic nerve activity, strongly associated with cardiovascular disease, is partly generated from the presympathetic neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). The PVN-presympathetic neurons regulating cardiac and vasomotor sympathetic activity receive information about cardiovascular status from receptors in the heart and circulation. These receptors signal changes via afferent neurons terminating in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), some of which may result in excitation or inhibition of PVN-presympathetic neurons. Understanding the anatomy and neurochemistry of NTS afferent connections within the PVN could provide important clues to the impairment in homeostasis cardiovascular control associated with disease. Transynaptic labelling has shown the presence of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-containing neurons and GABA interneurons that terminate on presympathetic PVN neurons any of which may be the target for NTS afferents. So far
NTS connections to these diverse neuronal pools have not been demonstrated and were investigated in this study. Anterograde (biotin dextran amine - BDA) labelling of the ascending projection from the NTS and retrograde (fluorogold - FG or cholera toxin B subunit - CTB) labelling of PVN presympathetic neurons combined with immunohistochemistry for GABA and nNOS was used to identify the terminal neuronal targets of the ascending projection from the NTS. It was shown that NTS afferent terminals are apposed to either PVN-GABA interneurons or to nitric oxide producing neurons or even directly to presympathetic neurons. Furthermore, there was evidence that some NTS axons were positive for vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGLUT2). The data provide an anatomical basis for the different functions of cardiovascular receptors that mediate their actions via the NTS-PVN pathways.
BibTeX:
@article{Affleck:2012,
  author = {Affleck, V. S. and Coote, J. H. and Pyner, S.},
  title = {The projection and synaptic organisation of NTS afferent connections with presympathetic neurons, GABA and nNOS neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  school = { Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, UK.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {219},
  pages = {48--61},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.05.070},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.05.070}
}
Afonso-Oramas, D., Cruz-Muros, I., Castro-Hernandez, J., Salas-Hernandez, J., Barroso-Chinea, P., Garcia-Hernandez, S., Lanciego, J.L. and Gonzalez-Hernandez, T. Striatal vessels receive phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase-rich innervation from midbrain dopaminergic neurons. 2014 Frontiers in neuroanatomy
Vol. 8, pp. 84 
article DOI  
Abstract: Nowadays it is assumed that besides its roles in neuronal processing, dopamine (DA) is also involved in the regulation of cerebral blood flow. However, studies on the hemodynamic actions of DA have been mainly focused on the cerebral cortex, but the possibility that vessels in deeper brain structures receive dopaminergic axons and the origin of these axons have not been investigated. Bearing in mind the evidence of changes in the blood flow of basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease (PD), and the pivotal role of the dopaminergic mesostriatal pathway in the pathophysiology of this disease, here we studied whether striatal vessels receive inputs from midbrain dopaminergic neurons. The injection of an anterograde neuronal tracer in combination with immunohistochemistry for dopaminergic, vascular and astroglial markers, and dopaminergic lesions, revealed that midbrain dopaminergic axons are in close apposition to striatal vessels and perivascular astrocytes. These axons form dense perivascular plexuses restricted to striatal regions in rats and monkeys. Interestingly, they are intensely immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylated at Ser19 and Ser40 residues. The presence of phosphorylated TH in vessel terminals indicates they are probably the main source of basal TH activity in the striatum, and that after activation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, DA release onto vessels precedes that onto neurons. Furthermore, the relative weight of this "vascular component" within the mesostriatal pathway suggests that it plays a relevant role in the pathophysiology of PD.
BibTeX:
@article{Afonso-Oramas:2014b,
  author = {Afonso-Oramas, Domingo and Cruz-Muros, Ignacio and Castro-Hernandez, Javier and Salas-Hernandez, Josmar and Barroso-Chinea, Pedro and Garcia-Hernandez, Sonia and Lanciego, Jose L. and Gonzalez-Hernandez, Tomas},
  title = {Striatal vessels receive phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase-rich innervation from midbrain dopaminergic neurons.},
  journal = {Frontiers in neuroanatomy},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {84},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2014.00084}
}
Afonso-Oramas, D., Cruz-Muros, I., Castro-Hernández, J., Salas-Hernández, J., Barroso-Chinea, P., García-Hernández, S., Lanciego, J.L. and González-Hernández, T. Striatal vessels receive phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase-rich innervation from midbrain dopaminergic neurons. 2014 Front Neuroanat
Vol. 8, pp. 84School: Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of La Laguna La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain ; Biomedical Technologies Institute (ITB, CIBICAN) La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain ; Spanish Network of Neurodegenerative Diseases (CIBERNED) Madrid, Spain. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Nowadays it is assumed that besides its roles in neuronal processing, dopamine (DA) is also involved in the regulation of cerebral blood flow. However, studies on the hemodynamic actions of DA have been mainly focused on the cerebral cortex, but the possibility that vessels in deeper brain structures receive dopaminergic axons and the origin of these axons have not been investigated. Bearing in mind the evidence of changes in the blood flow of basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease (PD), and the pivotal role of the dopaminergic mesostriatal pathway in the pathophysiology of this disease, here we studied whether striatal vessels receive inputs from midbrain dopaminergic neurons. The injection of an anterograde neuronal tracer in combination with immunohistochemistry for dopaminergic, vascular and astroglial markers, and dopaminergic lesions, revealed that midbrain dopaminergic axons are in close apposition to striatal vessels and perivascular astrocytes. These axons form dense
perivascular plexuses restricted to striatal regions in rats and monkeys. Interestingly, they are intensely immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylated at Ser19 and Ser40 residues. The presence of phosphorylated TH in vessel terminals indicates they are probably the main source of basal TH activity in the striatum, and that after activation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, DA release onto vessels precedes that onto neurons. Furthermore, the relative weight of this "vascular component" within the mesostriatal pathway suggests that it plays a relevant role in the pathophysiology of PD.
BibTeX:
@article{Afonso-Oramas:2014,
  author = {Afonso-Oramas, Domingo and Cruz-Muros, Ignacio and Castro-Hernández, Javier and Salas-Hernández, Josmar and Barroso-Chinea, Pedro and García-Hernández, Sonia and Lanciego, José L. and González-Hernández, Tomás},
  title = {Striatal vessels receive phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase-rich innervation from midbrain dopaminergic neurons.},
  journal = {Front Neuroanat},
  school = {Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of La Laguna La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain ; Biomedical Technologies Institute (ITB, CIBICAN) La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain ; Spanish Network of Neurodegenerative Diseases (CIBERNED) Madrid, Spain.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {84},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2014.00084},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2014.00084}
}
Afonso-Oramas, D., Cruz-Muros, I., Castro-Hernández, J., Salas-Hernández, J., Barroso-Chinea, P., García-Hernández, S., Lanciego, J.L. and González-Hernández, T. Striatal vessels receive phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase-rich innervation from midbrain dopaminergic neurons. 2014 Front Neuroanat
Vol. 8, pp. 84School: Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of La Laguna La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain ; Biomedical Technologies Institute (ITB, CIBICAN) La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain ; Spanish Network of Neurodegenerative Diseases (CIBERNED) Madrid, Spain. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Nowadays it is assumed that besides its roles in neuronal processing, dopamine (DA) is also involved in the regulation of cerebral blood flow. However, studies on the hemodynamic actions of DA have been mainly focused on the cerebral cortex, but the possibility that vessels in deeper brain structures receive dopaminergic axons and the origin of these axons have not been investigated. Bearing in mind the evidence of changes in the blood flow of basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease (PD), and the pivotal role of the dopaminergic mesostriatal pathway in the pathophysiology of this disease, here we studied whether striatal vessels receive inputs from midbrain dopaminergic neurons. The injection of an anterograde neuronal tracer in combination with immunohistochemistry for dopaminergic, vascular and astroglial markers, and dopaminergic lesions, revealed that midbrain dopaminergic axons are in close apposition to striatal vessels and perivascular astrocytes. These axons form dense perivascular
plexuses restricted to striatal regions in rats and monkeys. Interestingly, they are intensely immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylated at Ser19 and Ser40 residues. The presence of phosphorylated TH in vessel terminals indicates they are probably the main source of basal TH activity in the striatum, and that after activation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, DA release onto vessels precedes that onto neurons. Furthermore, the relative weight of this "vascular component" within the mesostriatal pathway suggests that it plays a relevant role in the pathophysiology of PD.
BibTeX:
@article{Afonso-Oramas:2014a,
  author = {Afonso-Oramas, Domingo and Cruz-Muros, Ignacio and Castro-Hernández, Javier and Salas-Hernández, Josmar and Barroso-Chinea, Pedro and García-Hernández, Sonia and Lanciego, José L. and González-Hernández, Tomás},
  title = {Striatal vessels receive phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase-rich innervation from midbrain dopaminergic neurons.},
  journal = {Front Neuroanat},
  school = {Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of La Laguna La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain ; Biomedical Technologies Institute (ITB, CIBICAN) La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain ; Spanish Network of Neurodegenerative Diseases (CIBERNED) Madrid, Spain.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {84},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2014.00084},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2014.00084}
}
Afsharpour, A. Topographical projections of the cerebral cortex to the subthalamic nucleus 1985 Journal of Comparative Neurology
Vol. 236(1), pp. 14-28 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Corticosubthalamic projections in the rat were investigated using the autoradiographic anterograde axonal tracing technique. After unilateral injections of tritiated amino acids in the cerebral cortex, projections to the ipsilateral subthalamic nucleus (STH) could be found arising only from the frontal agranular cortex and the zone of MI-SI overlap. Injections into granular areas of the cortex (e.g., somatosensory and visual areas) did not result in labeling in STH. Following injections in the frontal agranular cortex, labeling was present in the ipsilateral but not the contralateral STH. In general, injections that involved the lateral agranular field of frontal cortex, as defined by Donoghue and Wise ('82), resulted in a greater amount of labeling in STH than injections within the medial agranular area or the zone of MI-SI overlap. The projection from the frontal agranular areas to STH is topographically organized. The rostral part of the lateral agranular cortex projects to the lateral
portion
of the rostral two-thirds of STH, and the caudal part of this field projects to the ventral aspect of the middle third of STH. Injections in the rostral part of the medial agranular cortex resulted in labeling throughout the ventral two-thirds of the medial half of STH. The caudal part of the medial agranular cortex projects to the dorsolateral part of the caudal two-thirds of STH. The present results reveal projections from only the frontal agranular cortex and the zone of MI-SI overlap to STH in the rat. The cortico-STH projection is ipsilateral and terminates in a topographical manner in all parts of STH.
BibTeX:
@article{Afsharpour:1985a,
  author = {Afsharpour, A.},
  title = {Topographical projections of the cerebral cortex to the subthalamic nucleus},
  journal = {Journal of Comparative Neurology},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {236},
  number = {1},
  pages = {14-28},
  note = {Duplicate from Scopus!},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0021878883&partnerID=40&md5=7167785599e3f467d4fc6fa60ea6131e},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.902360103}
}
Afsharpour, S. Topographical projections of the cerebral cortex to the subthalamic nucleus. 1985 J Comp Neurol
Vol. 236(1), pp. 14-28 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Corticosubthalamic projections in the rat were investigated using the autoradiographic anterograde axonal tracing technique. After unilateral injections of tritiated amino acids in the cerebral cortex, projections to the ipsilateral subthalamic nucleus (STH) could be found arising only from the frontal agranular cortex and the zone of MI-SI overlap. Injections into granular areas of the cortex (e.g., somatosensory and visual areas) did not result in labeling in STH. Following injections in the frontal agranular cortex, labeling was present in the ipsilateral but not the contralateral STH. In general, injections that involved the lateral agranular field of frontal cortex, as defined by Donoghue and Wise ('82), resulted in a greater amount of labeling in STH than injections within the medial agranular area or the zone of MI-SI overlap. The projection from the frontal agranular areas to STH is topographically organized. The rostral part of the lateral agranular cortex projects to
the lateral portion of the rostral two-thirds of STH, and the caudal part of this field projects to the ventral aspect of the middle third of STH. Injections in the rostral part of the medial agranular cortex resulted in labeling throughout the ventral two-thirds of the medial half of STH. The caudal part of the medial agranular cortex projects to the dorsolateral part of the caudal two-thirds of STH. The present results reveal projections from only the frontal agranular cortex and the zone of MI-SI overlap to STH in the rat. The cortico-STH projection is ipsilateral and terminates in a topographical manner in all parts of STH.
BibTeX:
@article{Afsharpour:1985,
  author = {S. Afsharpour},
  title = {Topographical projections of the cerebral cortex to the subthalamic nucleus.},
  journal = {J Comp Neurol},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {236},
  number = {1},
  pages = {14--28},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.902360103},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.902360103}
}
Afsharpour, S. Topographical projections of the cerebral cortex to the subthalamic nucleus. 1985 The Journal of comparative neurology
Vol. 236, pp. 14-28 
article  
Abstract: Corticosubthalamic projections in the rat were investigated using the autoradiographic anterograde axonal tracing technique. After unilateral injections of tritiated amino acids in the cerebral cortex, projections to the ipsilateral subthalamic nucleus (STH) could be found arising only from the frontal agranular cortex and the zone of MI-SI overlap. Injections into granular areas of the cortex (e.g., somatosensory and visual areas) did not result in labeling in STH. Following injections in the frontal agranular cortex, labeling was present in the ipsilateral but not the contralateral STH. In general, injections that involved the lateral agranular field of frontal cortex, as defined by Donoghue and Wise ('82), resulted in a greater amount of labeling in STH than injections within the medial agranular area or the zone of MI-SI overlap. The projection from the frontal agranular areas to STH is topographically organized. The rostral part of the lateral agranular cortex projects to the lateral
portion of the rostral two-thirds of STH, and the caudal part of this field projects to the ventral aspect of the middle third of STH. Injections in the rostral part of the medial agranular cortex resulted in labeling throughout the ventral two-thirds of the medial half of STH. The caudal part of the medial agranular cortex projects to the dorsolateral part of the caudal two-thirds of STH. The present results reveal projections from only the frontal agranular cortex and the zone of MI-SI overlap to STH in the rat. The cortico-STH projection is ipsilateral and terminates in a topographical manner in all parts of STH.
BibTeX:
@article{Afsharpour:1985b,
  author = {Afsharpour, S.},
  title = {Topographical projections of the cerebral cortex to the subthalamic nucleus.},
  journal = {The Journal of comparative neurology},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {236},
  pages = {14-28},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Agarwal, S.K. and Calaresu, F.R. Electrical stimulation of nucleus tractus solitarius excites vagal preganglionic cardiomotor neurons of the nucleus ambiguus in rats. 1992 Brain Res
Vol. 574(1-2), pp. 320-324School: Department of Physiology, University of Western Ontario London, Canada. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Recent evidence indicates that the cell bodies of vagal cardioinhibitory neurons are located principally in the external formation of the nucleus ambiguus (NA). As activation of baroreceptor afferent fibers projecting to the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) elicits a decrease in heart rate it is likely that there is a connection between the NTS and NA. To test the hypothesis that stimulation of the NTS can excite vagal preganglionic cardiomotor neurons (VPCN) in the NA, activity from 78 neurons in the NA was recorded extracellularly before and during stimulation of a depressor site in the NTS (1 Hz, 0.1 ms) in urethan anesthetized and artificially ventilated male Wistar rats. Sixteen neurons were characterized as vagal preganglionic cardiomotor neurons (VPCN) because they were excited by baroreceptor activation (1-3 micrograms phenylephrine i.v.) and showed rhythmicity of their spontaneous activity in synchrony with the cardiac cycle. Stimulation of the NTS increased the firing rate of all
these VPCN. The remaining 62 neurons could not be considered as VPCN because they either had respiratory rhythmicity or were not sensitive to baroreceptor activation, or they were sensitive to baroreceptor activation but did not display cardiac cycle related rhythmicity. These results provide evidence for the existence of an excitatory pathway from NTS to vagal preganglionic cardiomotor neurons in the NA.
BibTeX:
@article{Agarwal:1992,
  author = {Agarwal, S. K. and Calaresu, F. R.},
  title = {Electrical stimulation of nucleus tractus solitarius excites vagal preganglionic cardiomotor neurons of the nucleus ambiguus in rats.},
  journal = {Brain Res},
  school = {Department of Physiology, University of Western Ontario London, Canada.},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {574},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {320--324},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(92)90833-u}
}
Agarwal, S.K. and Calaresu, F.R. Supramedullary inputs to cardiovascular neurons of rostral ventrolateral medulla in rats. 1993 Am J Physiol
Vol. 265(1 Pt 2), pp. R111-R116School: Department of Physiology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada. 
article URL 
Abstract: Experiments were done to test the hypothesis that selective activation of cell bodies in different nuclei known to be involved in central cardiovascular control could excite or inhibit the discharge of neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). It is known that chemical stimulation of the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN), locus ceruleus (LC), and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) in anesthetized animals elicits increases (LPBN) or decreases (LC and LHA) in arterial pressure. We therefore recorded extracellularly spontaneous activity from RVLM units in urethan-anesthetized rats and monitored the changes in firing frequency of these neurons during chemical stimulation of one of LPBN, LC, and LHA. Thirty-two units were classified as cardiovascular neurons because their activity was inhibited by baroreceptor activation (1-3 micrograms phenylephrine iv) and displayed a cardiac cycle-related rhythmicity. Chemical stimulation with sodium glutamate of arterial pressor sites in the
ipsilateral LPBN increased the firing frequency (40.3 +/- 1.3 of 11 cardiovascular neurons. Activation of cell bodies in arterial depressor sites in the ipsilateral LC inhibited the firing rate (59.1 +/- 7.1 of 10 cardiovascular neurons and excited 1 unit. Activation of cell bodies in arterial depressor sites in the ipsilateral LHA inhibited the discharge rate (25.4 +/- 4.7 of six cardiovascular neurons, excited one unit, and did not alter the rate of the remaining three units. These results provide direct evidence for the existence of excitatory and inhibitory pathways from neurons located in the LPBN, LC, and LHA to cardiovascular neurons in the RVLM.
BibTeX:
@article{Agarwal:1993,
  author = {Agarwal, S. K. and Calaresu, F. R.},
  title = {Supramedullary inputs to cardiovascular neurons of rostral ventrolateral medulla in rats.},
  journal = {Am J Physiol},
  school = {Department of Physiology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {265},
  number = {1 Pt 2},
  pages = {R111--R116},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://ajpregu.physiology.org/content/ajpregu/265/1/R111.full.pdf}
}
Agassandian, K., Fazan, V.P.S., Adanina, V. and Talman, W.T. Direct projections from the cardiovascular nucleus tractus solitarii to pontine preganglionic parasympathetic neurons: a link to cerebrovascular regulation. 2002 J Comp Neurol
Vol. 452(3), pp. 242-254School: Department of Neurology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Peripheral or central interruption of the baroreflex or the parasympathetic innervation of cerebral vessels leads to similar changes in regulation of cerebral blood flow. Therefore, we sought to test the hypothesis that the cardiovascular nucleus tractus solitarii, the site of termination of arterial baroreceptor nerves, projects to pontine preganglionic neurons whose stimulation elicits cerebral vasodilatation. The current study utilized both light and electron microscopic techniques to analyze anterograde tracing from the cardiovascular nucleus tractus solitarii to preganglionic parasympathetic neurons in the pons. We further used retrograde tracing from that same pontine region to the cardiovascular nucleus tractus solitarii and evaluated the confluence of tracing from the cardiovascular nucleus tractus solitarii to pontine preganglionic neurons labeled retrogradely from the pterygopalatine ganglia. The cardiovascular nucleus tractus solitarii projected to pontine
preganglionic parasympathetic neurons, but more rostral and caudal regions of nucleus tractus solitarii did not. In contrast, all three regions of nucleus tractus solitarii projected to the nucleus ambiguus and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. Although not projecting to pontine preganglionic parasympathetic neurons, regions lateral, rostral, and caudal to cardiovascular nucleus tractus solitarii sent projections through the pons medial to the preganglionics. The study establishes the presence of a direct monosynaptic pathway from neurons in the cardiovascular nucleus tractus solitarii to pontine preganglionic parasympathetic neurons that project to the pterygopalatine ganglia, the source of nitroxidergic vasodilatory innervation of cerebral blood vessels. It provides evidence that activation of those preganglionic neurons can cause cerebral vasodilatation and increased cerebral blood flow. Finally, it demonstrates differential innervation of medullary and pontine preganglionic parasympathetic neurons by
different regions of the nucleus tractus solitarii.
BibTeX:
@article{Agassandian:2002,
  author = {Agassandian, Khristofor and Fazan, Valeria P S. and Adanina, Valentina and Talman, William T.},
  title = {Direct projections from the cardiovascular nucleus tractus solitarii to pontine preganglionic parasympathetic neurons: a link to cerebrovascular regulation.},
  journal = {J Comp Neurol},
  school = {Department of Neurology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {452},
  number = {3},
  pages = {242--254},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.10372},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.10372}
}
Agassandian, K., Fazan, V.P.S., Adanina, V. and Talman, W.T. Direct projections from the cardiovascular nucleus tractus solitarii to pontine preganglionic parasympathetic neurons: a link to cerebrovascular regulation. 2002 The Journal of comparative neurology
Vol. 452, pp. 242-54 
article  
Abstract: Peripheral or central interruption of the baroreflex or the parasympathetic innervation of cerebral vessels leads to similar changes in regulation of cerebral blood flow. Therefore, we sought to test the hypothesis that the cardiovascular nucleus tractus solitarii, the site of termination of arterial baroreceptor nerves, projects to pontine preganglionic neurons whose stimulation elicits cerebral vasodilatation. The current study utilized both light and electron microscopic techniques to analyze anterograde tracing from the cardiovascular nucleus tractus solitarii to preganglionic parasympathetic neurons in the pons. We further used retrograde tracing from that same pontine region to the cardiovascular nucleus tractus solitarii and evaluated the confluence of tracing from the cardiovascular nucleus tractus solitarii to pontine preganglionic neurons labeled retrogradely from the pterygopalatine ganglia. The cardiovascular nucleus tractus solitarii projected to pontine preganglionic
parasympathetic neurons, but more rostral and caudal regions of nucleus tractus solitarii did not. In contrast, all three regions of nucleus tractus solitarii projected to the nucleus ambiguus and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. Although not projecting to pontine preganglionic parasympathetic neurons, regions lateral, rostral, and caudal to cardiovascular nucleus tractus solitarii sent projections through the pons medial to the preganglionics. The study establishes the presence of a direct monosynaptic pathway from neurons in the cardiovascular nucleus tractus solitarii to pontine preganglionic parasympathetic neurons that project to the pterygopalatine ganglia, the source of nitroxidergic vasodilatory innervation of cerebral blood vessels. It provides evidence that activation of those preganglionic neurons can cause cerebral vasodilatation and increased cerebral blood flow. Finally, it demonstrates differential innervation of medullary and pontine preganglionic parasympathetic neurons by different
regions of the nucleus tractus solitarii.
BibTeX:
@article{Agassandian:2002a,
  author = {Agassandian, Khristofor and Fazan, Valeria P. S. and Adanina, Valentina and Talman, William T.},
  title = {Direct projections from the cardiovascular nucleus tractus solitarii to pontine preganglionic parasympathetic neurons: a link to cerebrovascular regulation.},
  journal = {The Journal of comparative neurology},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {452},
  pages = {242-54},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Agassandian, K., Fazan, V.P.S., Margaryan, N., Dragon, D.N., Riley, J. and Talman, W.T. A novel central pathway links arterial baroreceptors and pontine parasympathetic neurons in cerebrovascular control. 2003 Cell Mol Neurobiol
Vol. 23(4-5), pp. 463-478School: Laboratory of Neurobiology, Department of Neurology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA. 
article URL 
Abstract: 1. We tested the hypothesis that arterial baroreceptor reflexes modulate cerebrovascular tone through a pathway that connects the cardiovascular nucleus tractus solitarii with parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in the pons. 2. Anesthetized rats were used in all studies. Laser flowmetry was used to measure cerebral blood flow. We assessed cerebrovascular responses to increases in arterial blood pressure in animals with lesions of baroreceptor nerves, the nucleus tractus solitarii itself, the pontine preganglionic parasympathetic neurons, or the parasympathetic ganglionic nerves to the cerebral vessels. Similar assessments were made in animals after blockade of synthesis of nitric oxide, which is released by the parasympathetic nerves from the pterygopalatine ganglia. Finally the effects on cerebral blood flow of glutamate stimulation of pontine preganglionic parasympathetic neurons were evaluated. 3. We found that lesions at any one of the sites in the putative pathway or
interruption of nitric oxide synthesis led to prolongation of autoregulation as mean arterial pressure was increased to levels as high as 200 mmHg. Conversely, stimulation of pontine parasympathetic preganglionic neurons led to cerebral vasodilatation. The second series of studies utilized classic anatomical tracing methods to determine at the light and electron microscopic level whether neurons in the cardiovascular nucleus tractus solitarii, the site of termination of baroreceptor afferents, projected to the pontine preganglionic neurons. Fibers were traced with anterograde tracer from the nucleus tractus solitarii to the pons and with retrograde tracer from the pons to the nucleus tractus solitarii. Using double labeling techniques we further studied synapses made between labeled projections from the nucleus tractus solitarii and preganglionic neurons that were themselves labeled with retrograde tracer placed into the pterygopalatine ganglion. 4. These anatomical studies showed that the nucleus tractus
solitarii directly projects to pontine preganglionic neurons and makes asymmetric, seemingly excitatory, synapses with those neurons. These studies provide strong evidence that arterial baroreceptors may modulate cerebral blood flow through direct connections with pontine parasympathetic neurons. Further study is needed to clarify the role this pathway plays in integrative physiology.
BibTeX:
@article{Agassandian:2003,
  author = {Agassandian, Khristofor and Fazan, Valeria P S. and Margaryan, Naira and Dragon, Deidre Nitschke and Riley, Jeffrey and Talman, William T.},
  title = {A novel central pathway links arterial baroreceptors and pontine parasympathetic neurons in cerebrovascular control.},
  journal = {Cell Mol Neurobiol},
  school = {Laboratory of Neurobiology, Department of Neurology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {23},
  number = {4-5},
  pages = {463--478},
  url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A%3A1025059710382}
}
Agassandian, K., Fazan, V.P.S., Margaryan, N., Dragon, D.N., Riley, J. and Talman, W.T. A novel central pathway links arterial baroreceptors and pontine parasympathetic neurons in cerebrovascular control. 2003 Cellular and molecular neurobiology
Vol. 23, pp. 463-478 
article  
Abstract: 1. We tested the hypothesis that arterial baroreceptor reflexes modulate cerebrovascular tone through a pathway that connects the cardiovascular nucleus tractus solitarii with parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in the pons. 2. Anesthetized rats were used in all studies. Laser flowmetry was used to measure cerebral blood flow. We assessed cerebrovascular responses to increases in arterial blood pressure in animals with lesions of baroreceptor nerves, the nucleus tractus solitarii itself, the pontine preganglionic parasympathetic neurons, or the parasympathetic ganglionic nerves to the cerebral vessels. Similar assessments were made in animals after blockade of synthesis of nitric oxide, which is released by the parasympathetic nerves from the pterygopalatine ganglia. Finally the effects on cerebral blood flow of glutamate stimulation of pontine preganglionic parasympathetic neurons were evaluated. 3. We found that lesions at any one of the sites in the putative pathway or interruption of nitric oxide synthesis led to prolongation of autoregulation as mean arterial pressure was increased to levels as high as 200 mmHg. Conversely, stimulation of pontine parasympathetic preganglionic neurons led to cerebral vasodilatation. The second series of studies utilized classic anatomical tracing methods to determine at the light and electron microscopic level whether neurons in the cardiovascular nucleus tractus solitarii, the site of termination of baroreceptor afferents, projected to the pontine preganglionic neurons. Fibers were traced with anterograde tracer from the nucleus tractus solitarii to the pons and with retrograde tracer from the pons to the nucleus tractus solitarii. Using double labeling techniques we further studied synapses made between labeled projections from the nucleus tractus solitarii and preganglionic neurons that were themselves labeled with retrograde tracer placed into the pterygopalatine ganglion. 4. These anatomical studies showed that the nucleus tractus solitarii directly projects to pontine preganglionic neurons and makes asymmetric, seemingly excitatory, synapses with those neurons. These studies provide strong evidence that arterial baroreceptors may modulate cerebral blood flow through direct connections with pontine parasympathetic neurons. Further study is needed to clarify the role this pathway plays in integrative physiology.
BibTeX:
@article{Agassandian:2003a,
  author = {Agassandian, Khristofor and Fazan, Valeria P S and Margaryan, Naira and Dragon, Deidre Nitschke and Riley, Jeffrey and Talman, William T},
  title = {A novel central pathway links arterial baroreceptors and pontine parasympathetic neurons in cerebrovascular control.},
  journal = {Cellular and molecular neurobiology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {23},
  pages = {463--478},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Agassandian, K., Shan, Z., Raizada, M., Sved, A.F. and Card, J.P. C1 catecholamine neurons form local circuit synaptic connections within the rostroventrolateral medulla of rat. 2012 Neuroscience
Vol. 227, pp. 247-259School: Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, United States. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: C1 catecholamine neurons reside within the rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM), an area that plays an integral role in blood pressure regulation through reticulospinal projections to sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the thoracic spinal cord. In a previous investigation we mapped the efferent projections of C1 neurons, documenting supraspinal projections to cell groups in the preautonomic network that contribute to the control of cardiovascular function. Light microscopic study also revealed putative local circuit connections within RVLM. In this investigation we tested the hypothesis that RVLM C1 neurons elaborate a local circuit synaptic network that permits communication between C1 neurons giving rise to supraspinal and reticulospinal projections. A replication defective lentivirus vector that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of a synthetic dopamine beta hydroxylase (D?H) promoter was used to label C1 neurons and their processes.
Confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrated thin varicose axons immunopositive for EGFP and tyrosine hydroxylase that formed close appositions to C1 somata and dendrites throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the C1 area. Dual-labeled electron microscopic analysis revealed axosomatic, axodendritic and axospinous synaptic contacts with C1 and non-C1 neurons with a distribution recapitulating that observed in the light microscopic analysis. Labeled boutons were large, contained light axoplasm, lucent spherical vesicles, and formed asymmetric synaptic contacts. Collectively these data demonstrate that C1 neurons form a synaptic network within the C1 area that may function to coordinate activity among projection-specific subpopulations of neurons. The data also suggest that the boundaries of RVLM should be defined on the basis of function criteria rather than the C1 phenotype of neurons.
BibTeX:
@article{Agassandian:2012,
  author = {Agassandian, K. and Shan, Z. and Raizada, M. and Sved, A. F. and Card, J. P.},
  title = {C1 catecholamine neurons form local circuit synaptic connections within the rostroventrolateral medulla of rat.},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  school = {Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, United States.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {227},
  pages = {247--259},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.09.049},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.09.049}
}
Aggarwal, M., Hyland, B. and Wickens, J. Neural control of dopamine neurotransmission: Implications for reinforcement learning 2012 European Journal of Neuroscience
Vol. 35(7), pp. 1115-1123 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: In the past few decades there has been remarkable convergence of machine learning with neurobiological understanding of reinforcement learning mechanisms, exemplified by temporal difference (TD) learning models. The anatomy of the basal ganglia provides a number of potential substrates for instantiation of the TD mechanism. In contrast to the traditional concept of direct and indirect pathway outputs from the striatum, we emphasize that projection neurons of the striatum are branched and individual striatofugal neurons innervate both globus pallidus externa and globus pallidus interna/substantia nigra (GPi/SNr). This suggests that the GPi/SNr has the necessary inputs to operate as the source of a TD signal. We also discuss the mechanism for the timing processes necessary for learning in the TD framework. The TD framework has been particularly successful in analysing electrophysiogical recordings from dopamine (DA) neurons during learning, in terms of reward prediction error.
However, present
understanding of the neural control of DA release is limited, and hence the neural mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. Inhibition is very conspicuously present among the inputs to the DA neurons, with inhibitory synapses accounting for the majority of synapses on DA neurons. Furthermore, synchronous firing of the DA neuron population requires disinhibition and excitation to occur together in a coordinated manner. We conclude that the inhibitory circuits impinging directly or indirectly on the DA neurons play a central role in the control of DA neuron activity and further investigation of these circuits may provide important insight into the biological mechanisms of reinforcement learning. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
BibTeX:
@article{Aggarwal:2012,
  author = {Aggarwal, M. and Hyland, B.I. and Wickens, J.R.},
  title = {Neural control of dopamine neurotransmission: Implications for reinforcement learning},
  journal = {European Journal of Neuroscience},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {35},
  number = {7},
  pages = {1115-1123},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84859369427&partnerID=40&md5=b8b780c43a9e22761c84ce7120219751},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08055.x}
}
Aggleton, J. A description of intra-amygdaloid connections in old world monkeys. 1985 Exp Brain Res
Vol. 57(2), pp. 390-399 
article DOI  
Abstract: The intrinsic amygdaloid connections of the cynomolgus monkey were investigated using the autoradiographic method. Additional evidence concerning the origin of some intra-amygdaloid connections was provided by a series of rhesus monkeys with injections of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the amygdaloid complex. The experiments indicated that each of the major amygdaloid nuclei possesses a unique, organized set of intrinsic projections. Furthermore, there were large differences in the magnitude of the internal connections arising from or terminating in the various nuclei. The heaviest intrinsic projections arose from the lateral and basal nuclei while the central, medial, cortical, and accessory basal nuclei received the greatest number of these afferents. Thus, there was a clear trend for the bulk of these connections to run dorsally and medially within the amygdala. One important function of these intrinsic connections may be the integration of afferent sensory information from the various
association areas which project to the amygdala.
BibTeX:
@article{Aggleton:1985,
  author = {Aggleton, JP},
  title = {A description of intra-amygdaloid connections in old world monkeys.},
  journal = {Exp Brain Res},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {57},
  number = {2},
  pages = {390--399},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in normal adult rats.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00236545}
}
Aggleton, J.P., Kentridge, R.W. and Sembi, S. Lesions of the fornix but not the amygdala impair the acquisition of concurrent discriminations by rats. 1992 Behav Brain Res
Vol. 48(2), pp. 103-112School: Department of Psychology, University of Durham, UK. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Rats with lesions in either the fornix, the amygdala, or both were compared with control animals on the acquisition of three different concurrent object discrimination tasks. In the first task the animals received one trial per day on each of six pairs of stimulus objects ('spaced' condition). In the second task the animals received four trials per day on each of six stimulus pairs ('standard' condition), and in the last task the animals received 36 trials on each of two stimulus pairs in just a single day ('massed' condition). Animals with fornical lesions were impaired on all three conditions. In contrast, the amygdala lesions only affected the 'massed' condition and then only when the animals had to select the 'non-preferred' stimulus. Although animals with combined amygdala and fornical lesions were impaired on all three conditions there was no evidence that their deficit was greater than that in the animals with lesions restricted to just the fornix. In view of the evidence that
concurrent discrimination learning offers an appropriate test for anterograde amnesia these findings are seen as consistent with the notion that the hippocampus, but not the amygdala, is critically involved in the mnemonic processes disrupted by amnesia.
BibTeX:
@article{Aggleton:1992,
  author = {Aggleton, J. P. and Kentridge, R. W. and Sembi, S.},
  title = {Lesions of the fornix but not the amygdala impair the acquisition of concurrent discriminations by rats.},
  journal = {Behav Brain Res},
  school = {Department of Psychology, University of Durham, UK.},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {48},
  number = {2},
  pages = {103--112},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/s0166-4328(05)80146-9}
}
Aggleton, J.P., Kentridge, R.W. and Sembi, S. Lesions of the fornix but not the amygdala impair the acquisition of concurrent discriminations by rats. 1992 Behavioural brain research
Vol. 48, pp. 103-12 
article  
Abstract: Rats with lesions in either the fornix, the amygdala, or both were compared with control animals on the acquisition of three different concurrent object discrimination tasks. In the first task the animals received one trial per day on each of six pairs of stimulus objects ('spaced' condition). In the second task the animals received four trials per day on each of six stimulus pairs ('standard' condition), and in the last task the animals received 36 trials on each of two stimulus pairs in just a single day ('massed' condition). Animals with fornical lesions were impaired on all three conditions. In contrast, the amygdala lesions only affected the 'massed' condition and then only when the animals had to select the 'non-preferred' stimulus. Although animals with combined amygdala and fornical lesions were impaired on all three conditions there was no evidence that their deficit was greater than that in the animals with lesions restricted to just the fornix. In view of the evidence that
concurrent discrimination learning offers an appropriate test for anterograde amnesia these findings are seen as consistent with the notion that the hippocampus, but not the amygdala, is critically involved in the mnemonic processes disrupted by amnesia.
BibTeX:
@article{Aggleton:1992a,
  author = {Aggleton, J. P. and Kentridge, R. W. and Sembi, S.},
  title = {Lesions of the fornix but not the amygdala impair the acquisition of concurrent discriminations by rats.},
  journal = {Behavioural brain research},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {48},
  pages = {103-12},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Aggleton, J.P. and Sahgal, A. The contribution of the anterior thalamic nuclei to anterograde amnesia. 1993 Neuropsychologia
Vol. 31(10), pp. 1001-1019School: Department of Psychology, University of Durham, U.K. 
article DOI  
Abstract: This paper first reviews the anatomical, pathological, and neuropsychological evidence implicating the anterior thalamic nuclei in memory processes. It is concluded that there is much indirect evidence indicating that anterior thalamic dysfunction is an important factor in anterograde amnesia. More direct evidence for the involvement of the anterior thalamic nuclei in memory processes emerges from two experiments with rats that examined performance of a spatial test of working memory, delayed nonmatching-to-position. The first study revealed that neurotoxic lesions of the anterior thalamic nuclei and radiofrequency lesions of the fornix both produce equivalent performance deficits. In contrast, lesions of the mamillary bodies were without effect. A second study showed that lesions of the fornix and removal of the hippocampus produced very similar deficits. These data indicate that while the involvement of the anterior thalamic nuclei in certain memory functions depends on inputs from the
hippocampus, this involvement need not depend on indirect afferents via the mamillary bodies.
BibTeX:
@article{Aggleton:1993,
  author = {Aggleton, J. P. and Sahgal, A.},
  title = {The contribution of the anterior thalamic nuclei to anterograde amnesia.},
  journal = {Neuropsychologia},
  school = {Department of Psychology, University of Durham, U.K.},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {31},
  number = {10},
  pages = {1001--1019},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0028-3932(93)90029-y}
}
Aggleton, J.P., Vann, S.D. and Saunders, R.C. Projections from the hippocampal region to the mammillary bodies in macaque monkeys. 2005 Eur J Neurosci
Vol. 22(10), pp. 2519-2530School: School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Tower Building, Park Place, Cardiff, Wales CF10 3AT UK. aggleton@cf.ac.uk 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: A combination of anterograde and retrograde tracers mapped the direct hippocampal and parahippocampal inputs to the mammillary bodies in two species of macaque monkey. Dense projections arose from pyramidal cells in layer III of the subiculum and prosubiculum, and terminated in the medial mammillary nucleus. While there was no evidence of an input from the dentate gyrus or fields CA1-3, a small contribution arose from the presubiculum and entorhinal cortices. All of the hippocampal and parahippocampal projections to the mammillary bodies appeared to use the fornix as a route. The caudal portions of the subiculum and prosubiculum contained the greatest numbers of cells projecting to the mammillary bodies. A light contralateral projection to the medial mammillary nucleus was also observed, although this appeared to arise primarily from the more rostral portions of the subiculum and prosubiculum. There was a crude topography within the medial mammillary nucleus, with the caudal subicular
projections terminating in the mid and dorsal portions of the nucleus while the rostral subicular and entorhinal projections terminated in the ventral and lateral portions of the medial nucleus. Light ipsilateral projections throughout the lateral mammillary nucleus were sometimes observed. Comparisons with related studies of the macaque brain showed that the dense hippocampal projections to the mammillary bodies arise from a population of subicular cells separate from those that project to the anterior thalamic nuclei, even though the major output from the mammillary bodies is to the anterior thalamic nuclei. Other comparisons revealed underlying similarities with the corresponding projections in the rat brain.
BibTeX:
@article{Aggleton:2005,
  author = {John P Aggleton and Seralynne D Vann and Richard C Saunders},
  title = {Projections from the hippocampal region to the mammillary bodies in macaque monkeys.},
  journal = {Eur J Neurosci},
  school = {School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Tower Building, Park Place, Cardiff, Wales CF10 3AT UK. aggleton@cf.ac.uk},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {22},
  number = {10},
  pages = {2519--2530},
  note = {Not a tract tracing experiment in the rat. Experiment with monkey.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.04450.x},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.04450.x}
}
Aghajanian, G.K. and Wang, R.Y. Habenular and other midbrain raphe afferents demonstrated by a modified retrograde tracing technique. 1977 Brain Res
Vol. 122(2), pp. 229-242 
article DOI  
Abstract: Afferents to th midbrain dorsal and median raphe nuclei in the rat were studied by means of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) retrograde transport method. The HRP was given by means of a modified iontophoretic delivery technique. This technique permitted an efficient and localized deposition of a high concentration of HRP into the raphe nuclei. Afferents to the raphe as determined by this method could be categorized into 2 classes; those exclusively to the raphe and those also positive for adjacent reticular formation. The most striking afferent area to the raphe, both in terms of selectivity and density, was the lateral habenula. This result is in accord with previous studies using degeneration methods which indicate an habenular projection to the raphe area. There were afferents exclusively positive for the dorsal raphe nucleus emanating from the nucleus of the solitary tract. Most other raphe afferent areas were also positive for the reticular formation (e.g;, prefrontal cortex, medial
forebrain bundle, preoptic nuclei, and reticular formation). The existence of a major afferent system from the lateral habenula to the midbrain raphe is consistent with the concept of a "dorsal pathway" which might be responsible for relaying information from forebrain limbic structures to the "midbrain limbic areas".
BibTeX:
@article{Aghajanian:1977,
  author = {G. K. Aghajanian and R. Y. Wang},
  title = {Habenular and other midbrain raphe afferents demonstrated by a modified retrograde tracing technique.},
  journal = {Brain Res},
  year = {1977},
  volume = {122},
  number = {2},
  pages = {229--242},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(77)90291-8}
}
Aghajanian, G.K. and Wang, R.Y. Habenular and other midbrain raphe afferents demonstrated by a modified retrograde tracing technique. 1977 Brain research
Vol. 122, pp. 229-242 
article DOI  
Abstract: Afferents to th midbrain dorsal and median raphe nuclei in the rat were studied by means of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) retrograde transport method. The HRP was given by means of a modified iontophoretic delivery technique. This technique permitted an efficient and localized deposition of a high concentration of HRP into the raphe nuclei. Afferents to the raphe as determined by this method could be categorized into 2 classes; those exclusively to the raphe and those also positive for adjacent reticular formation. The most striking afferent area to the raphe, both in terms of selectivity and density, was the lateral habenula. This result is in accord with previous studies using degeneration methods which indicate an habenular projection to the raphe area. There were afferents exclusively positive for the dorsal raphe nucleus emanating from the nucleus of the solitary tract. Most other raphe afferent areas were also positive for the reticular formation (e.g;, prefrontal cortex, medial forebrain bundle, preoptic nuclei, and reticular formation). The existence of a major afferent system from the lateral habenula to the midbrain raphe is consistent with the concept of a "dorsal pathway" which might be responsible for relaying information from forebrain limbic structures to the "midbrain limbic areas".
BibTeX:
@article{Aghajanian:1977a,
  author = {Aghajanian, G K and Wang, R Y},
  title = {Habenular and other midbrain raphe afferents demonstrated by a modified retrograde tracing technique.},
  journal = {Brain research},
  year = {1977},
  volume = {122},
  pages = {229--242},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(77)90291-8}
}
Ågmo, A. and Villalpando, A. Central nervous stimulants facilitate sexual behavior in male rats with medial prefrontal cortex lesions 1995 Brain Research
Vol. 696(1-2), pp. 187-193 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Male rats with lesions of the cerebral cortex near the midline in the frontal region destroying most of the cingulate cortex and producing some dammage to adjacent frontal areas have very long mount and intromission latencies. Otherwise their sexual behavior is essentially normal. The dopamine releasers amfonelic acid, 0.5 mg/kg, and amphetamine, 1 mg/kg, reduced the mount and intromission latencies in males with such lesions. Caffeine, 30 mg/kg, had similar effects. None of the drugs modified sexual behavior in intact males. It has been suggested that medial prefrontal lesions reduce the animal's reactivity to environmental stimuli, and hence renders the activation of sexual behavior difficult. Present results show that stimulant drugs are capable of compensating for this reduced reactivity. The possible mechanisms behind this effect are discussed. The lesion had also a small but consistent effect on the intromission ratio, suggesting some motor impairment. The effect on
intromission ratio was not
reduced by the drugs, suggesting that the lesion's motor consequences are mediated by mechanisms different from those controlling behavioral reactivity. The noradrenaline precursor dl-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine, 10 mg/kg, in combination with carbidopa, 50 mg/kg, increased mount and intromission latencies in both intact and lesioned males. Thus, activation of noradrenergic neurotransmission had effects opposite to those found after activation of dopaminergic transmission. Noradrenergic stimulation cannot, therefore, be important for the effects of amphetamine or amfonelic acid. © 1995 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Aagmo:1995,
  author = {Ågmo, A. and Villalpando, A.},
  title = {Central nervous stimulants facilitate sexual behavior in male rats with medial prefrontal cortex lesions},
  journal = {Brain Research},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {696},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {187-193},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study i the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/000689939500853I/pdf?md5=ff9b1348edeec7e68938ef1c35bb2d82&pid=1-s2.0-000689939500853I-main.pdf},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(95)00853-I}
}
Agnati, L., Fuxe, K., Hökfelt, T., Benfenati, F., Calza, L., Johansson, O. and De Mey, J. Morphometric characterization of transmitter-identified nerve cell groups: Analysis of mesencephalic 5-HT nerve cell bodies 1982 Brain Research Bulletin
Vol. 9(1-6), pp. 45-51 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Morphometric techniques have been used to introduce criteria to objectively define transmitter-identified nerve cell groups and subpopulations of nerve cells within such groups. The present method is exemplified on two coronal sections of the midbrain, in which 5-HT immunoreactive nerve cell bodies have been visualized. The reliability of the method is shown by the fact that it makes it possible not only to recognize groups B7, B8 and B9 of Dahlström and Fuxe [5] but also to assess the existence of two subpopulations within group B7 as previously suggested by Fuxe and Jonsson [11] based on subjective evaluations. Furthermore, the suggestion could be made that a small assembly of 5-HT nerve cell bodies in the dorsal part of the mesencephalic tegmentum may form a new 5-HT cell group. Hence, the present method offers the advantage of assessing the existence of transmitter-identified nerve cell groups on the basis of objective criteria and to describe them in a quantitative fashion.
Therefore, it
allows quantitation of morphological changes occurring in transmitter-identified neurons under different experimental and pathological conditions. © 1982.
BibTeX:
@article{Agnati:1982,
  author = {Agnati, L.F. and Fuxe, K. and Hökfelt, T. and Benfenati, F. and Calza, L. and Johansson, O. and De Mey, J.},
  title = {Morphometric characterization of transmitter-identified nerve cell groups: Analysis of mesencephalic 5-HT nerve cell bodies},
  journal = {Brain Research Bulletin},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {9},
  number = {1-6},
  pages = {45-51},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0020384506&partnerID=40&md5=764e27e7adb4d22dda570e98b6863e07},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0361-9230(82)90119-8}
}
Agnati, L., Fuxe, K., Zoli, M., Davalli, P., Corti, A., Zini, I. and Toffano, G. Effects of neurotoxic and mechanical lesions of the mesostriatal dopamine pathway on striatal polyamine levels in the rat: Modulation by chronic ganglioside GM1 treatment 1985 Neuroscience Letters
Vol. 61(3), pp. 339-344 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: In male rats, partial hemitransections but not 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced lesions of the mesostriatal dopamine (DA) pathway produce after 7 days a marked and a modest increase of striatal putrescine and spermidine levels, respectively, on the lesioned side. Following chronic ganglioside GM1 treatment of partially hemitransected rats, an increase of striatal polyamine levels was observed also on the intact side. It is suggested that retrograde cell body changes produced by hemitransection may induce striatal ornithine decarboxylase activity and in this way increase striatal putrescine levels, favoring regenerative mechanisms. The increase of striatal polyamine levels by GM1 treatment on the intact side of both 6-OHDA and mechanically lesioned rats compared with intact unoperated rats may also reflect an increased synthesis of striatal polyamines. © 1985.
BibTeX:
@article{Agnati:1985a,
  author = {Agnati, L.F. and Fuxe, K. and Zoli, M. and Davalli, P. and Corti, A. and Zini, I. and Toffano, G.},
  title = {Effects of neurotoxic and mechanical lesions of the mesostriatal dopamine pathway on striatal polyamine levels in the rat: Modulation by chronic ganglioside GM1 treatment},
  journal = {Neuroscience Letters},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {61},
  number = {3},
  pages = {339-344},
  note = {Duplicate from Scopus!},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0022373507&partnerID=40&md5=ee7b99480768635ccd287b983477fe50},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3940(85)90487-2}
}
AGNATI, L., K., FUXE, GIARDINO, L., CALZA, L., M., ZOLI, BATTISTINI, N., BENFENATI, F., VANDERHAEGHEN, J., GUIDOLIN, D., RUGGERI, M. and GOLDSTEIN, M. Evidence for Cholecystokinin‐Dopamine Receptor Interactions in the Central Nervous System of the Adult and Old Rat: Studies on Their Functional Meaning 1985 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Vol. 448(1), pp. 315-333 
article DOI URL 
BibTeX:
@article{AGNATI:1985,
  author = {AGNATI, L.F. and FUXE, K. and GIARDINO, L. and CALZA, L. and ZOLI, M. and BATTISTINI, N. and BENFENATI, F. and VANDERHAEGHEN, J.‐J. and GUIDOLIN, D. and RUGGERI, M. and GOLDSTEIN, M.},
  title = {Evidence for Cholecystokinin‐Dopamine Receptor Interactions in the Central Nervous System of the Adult and Old Rat: Studies on Their Functional Meaning},
  journal = {Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {448},
  number = {1},
  pages = {315-333},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0022271293&partnerID=40&md5=0706aa0846334594241fe265709bc83d},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1985.tb29927.x}
}
Agnati, L.F., Fuxe, K., Benfenati, F., Zoli, M., Owman, C., Diemer, N.H., Kahrstrom, J., Toffano, G. and Cimino, M. Effects of ganglioside GM1 treatment on striatal glucose metabolism, blood flow, and protein phosphorylation of the rat. 1985 Acta physiologica Scandinavica
Vol. 125, pp. 43-53 
article  
Abstract: Effects of ganglioside GM1 administration have been studied in unilaterally partially hemitransected rats on striatal energy metabolism, using the radioactive deoxyglucose (DG) technique, on striatal blood flow, using radiolabelled iodoantipyrine (IAP) as tracer, and on cyclic AMP (cAMP) and Ca2+ induced protein phosphorylation in striatal membranes (P2 fraction). Ganglioside GM1 treatment counteracted the imbalance in striatal energy metabolism, in striatal blood flow, as well as in protein phosphorylation found between the striata of the lesioned and unlesioned side, possibly due to excitatory effects on the lesioned side and inhibitory effects on the unlesioned side. In intact animals, GM1 treatment produced a reduction in cAMP and Ca2+ induced striatal protein phosphorylation. Facilitatory actions of the ganglioside GM1 dominate following a lesion, probably due to its possible function as a modulator of receptors for neuronotrophic factors, leading to restoration of metabolic rate and of
cAMP and Ca2+ induced protein phosphorylation in the striatum of the lesioned side. The results emphasize that ganglioside GM1 treatment can restore the metabolism of a partially innervated striatum towards normal, as evaluated both at the level of the entire striatal structure by means of the DG and IAP techniques and at the molecular level by means of studies on the cAMP and Ca2+ induced protein phosphorylation.
BibTeX:
@article{Agnati:1985b,
  author = {Agnati, L. F. and Fuxe, K. and Benfenati, F. and Zoli, M. and Owman, C. and Diemer, N. H. and Kahrstrom, J. and Toffano, G. and Cimino, M.},
  title = {Effects of ganglioside GM1 treatment on striatal glucose metabolism, blood flow, and protein phosphorylation of the rat.},
  journal = {Acta physiologica Scandinavica},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {125},
  pages = {43-53},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.}
}
Agnati, L.F., Fuxe, K., Zoli, M., Davalli, P., Corti, A., Zini, I. and Toffano, G. Effects of neurotoxic and mechanical lesions of the mesostriatal dopamine pathway on striatal polyamine levels in the rat: modulation by chronic ganglioside GM1 treatment. 1985 Neurosci Lett
Vol. 61(3), pp. 339-344 
article DOI  
Abstract: In male rats, partial hemitransections but not 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced lesions of the mesostriatal dopamine (DA) pathway produce after 7 days a marked and a modest increase of striatal putrescine and spermidine levels, respectively, on the lesioned side. Following chronic ganglioside GM1 treatment of partially hemitransected rats, an increase of striatal polyamine levels was observed also on the intact side. It is suggested that retrograde cell body changes produced by hemitransection may induce striatal ornithine decarboxylase activity and in this way increase striatal putrescine levels, favoring regenerative mechanisms. The increase of striatal polyamine levels by GM1 treatment on the intact side of both 6-OHDA and mechanically lesioned rats compared with intact unoperated rats may also reflect an increased synthesis of striatal polyamines.
BibTeX:
@article{Agnati:1985,
  author = {L. F. Agnati and K. Fuxe and M. Zoli and P. Davalli and A. Corti and I. Zini and G. Toffano},
  title = {Effects of neurotoxic and mechanical lesions of the mesostriatal dopamine pathway on striatal polyamine levels in the rat: modulation by chronic ganglioside GM1 treatment.},
  journal = {Neurosci Lett},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {61},
  number = {3},
  pages = {339--344},
  note = {Not a tract tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3940(85)90487-2}
}
Agster, K.L. and Burwell, R.D. Cortical efferents of the perirhinal, postrhinal, and entorhinal cortices of the rat. 2009 Hippocampus
Vol. 19(12), pp. 1159-1186School: Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: We investigated the cortical efferents of the parahippocampal region by placing injections of the anterograde tracers, Phaseolus vulgaris-leuccoagglutinin, and biotinylated dextran amine, throughout the perirhinal (PER), postrhinal (POR), and entorhinal cortices of the rat brain. The resulting density of labeled fibers was evaluated in 25 subregions of the piriform, frontal, insular, temporal, cingulate, parietal, and occipital areas. The locations of labeled terminal fibers differed substantially depending on whether the location of the injection site was in PER area 35, PER area 36, POR, or the lateral or the medial entorhinal (LEA and MEA). The differences were greater for sensory regions. For example, the POR efferents preferentially target visual and spatial regions, whereas the PER efferents target all sensory modalities. The cortical efferents of each region largely reciprocate the cortical afferents, though the degree of reciprocity varied across originating and target
regions. The laminar pattern of terminal fibers was consistent with the notion that the efferents are feedback projections. The density and amount of labeled fibers also differed substantially depending on the regional location of injection sites. PER area 36 and POR give rise to a greater number of heavy projections, followed by PER area 35. LEA also gives rise to widespread cortical efferents, arising mainly from a narrow band of cortex adjacent to the PER. In contrast, the remainder of the LEA and the MEA provides only weak efferents to cortical regions. Prior work has shown that nonspatial and spatial information is transmitted to the hippocampus via the PER-LEA and POR-MEA pathways, respectively. Our findings suggest that the return projections follow the same pathways, though perhaps with less segregration.
BibTeX:
@article{Agster:2009,
  author = {Kara L Agster and Rebecca D Burwell},
  title = {Cortical efferents of the perirhinal, postrhinal, and entorhinal cortices of the rat.},
  journal = {Hippocampus},
  school = {Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {19},
  number = {12},
  pages = {1159--1186},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hipo.20578},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/hipo.20578}
}
Agster, K.L. and Burwell, R.D. Hippocampal and subicular efferents and afferents of the perirhinal, postrhinal, and entorhinal cortices of the rat. 2013 Behav Brain Res
Vol. 254, pp. 50-64School: Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Available evidence suggests there is functional differentiation among hippocampal and parahippocampal subregions and along the dorsoventral (septotemporal) axis of the hippocampus. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the efferent and afferent connections of perirhinal areas 35 and 36, postrhinal cortex, and the lateral and medial entorhinal areas (LEA and MEA) with dorsal and ventral components of the hippocampal formation (dentate gyrus, hippocampus cornu ammonis fields, and subiculum) as well as the presubiculum, and the parasubiculum. The entorhinal connections were also characterized with respect to the LEA and MEA dentate gyrus-projecting bands. In general, the entorhinal connections with the hippocampal formation are much stronger than the perirhinal and postrhinal connections. The entorhinal cortex projects strongly to all components of the hippocampal formation, whereas the perirhinal and postrhinal cortices project weakly and only to CA1 and the
subiculum. In addition, the postrhinal cortex preferentially targets the dorsal CA1 and subiculum, whereas the perirhinal cortex targets ventral subiculum. Similarly, the perirhinal cortex receives more input from ventral hippocampal formation structures and the postrhinal cortex receives more input from dorsal hippocampal structures. The LEA and the MEA medial band are more strongly interconnected with ventral hippocampal structures, whereas the MEA lateral band is more interconnected with dorsal hippocampal structures. With regard to the presubiculum and parasubiculum, the postrhinal cortex and the MEA lateral band receive stronger input from the dorsal presubiculum and caudal parasubiculum. In contrast, the LEA and MEA medial bands receive stronger input from the ventral presubiculum and rostral parasubiculum.
BibTeX:
@article{Agster:2013,
  author = {Agster, Kara L. and Burwell, Rebecca D.},
  title = {Hippocampal and subicular efferents and afferents of the perirhinal, postrhinal, and entorhinal cortices of the rat.},
  journal = {Behav Brain Res},
  school = {Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {254},
  pages = {50--64},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2013.07.005},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2013.07.005}
}
Agster, K.L. and Burwell, R.D. Hippocampal and subicular efferents and afferents of the perirhinal, postrhinal, and entorhinal cortices of the rat. 2013 Behavioural brain research
Vol. 254, pp. 50-64 
article DOI  
Abstract: Available evidence suggests there is functional differentiation among hippocampal and parahippocampal subregions and along the dorsoventral (septotemporal) axis of the hippocampus. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the efferent and afferent connections of perirhinal areas 35 and 36, postrhinal cortex, and the lateral and medial entorhinal areas (LEA and MEA) with dorsal and ventral components of the hippocampal formation (dentate gyrus, hippocampus cornu ammonis fields, and subiculum) as well as the presubiculum, and the parasubiculum. The entorhinal connections were also characterized with respect to the LEA and MEA dentate gyrus-projecting bands. In general, the entorhinal connections with the hippocampal formation are much stronger than the perirhinal and postrhinal connections. The entorhinal cortex projects strongly to all components of the hippocampal formation, whereas the perirhinal and postrhinal cortices project weakly and only to CA1 and the subiculum. In addition, the postrhinal cortex preferentially targets the dorsal CA1 and subiculum, whereas the perirhinal cortex targets ventral subiculum. Similarly, the perirhinal cortex receives more input from ventral hippocampal formation structures and the postrhinal cortex receives more input from dorsal hippocampal structures. The LEA and the MEA medial band are more strongly interconnected with ventral hippocampal structures, whereas the MEA lateral band is more interconnected with dorsal hippocampal structures. With regard to the presubiculum and parasubiculum, the postrhinal cortex and the MEA lateral band receive stronger input from the dorsal presubiculum and caudal parasubiculum. In contrast, the LEA and MEA medial bands receive stronger input from the ventral presubiculum and rostral parasubiculum.
BibTeX:
@article{Agster:2013a,
  author = {Agster, Kara L and Burwell, Rebecca D},
  title = {Hippocampal and subicular efferents and afferents of the perirhinal, postrhinal, and entorhinal cortices of the rat.},
  journal = {Behavioural brain research},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {254},
  pages = {50--64},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2013.07.005}
}
Agster, K.L., Tomás Pereira, I., Saddoris, M.P. and Burwell, R.D. Subcortical connections of the perirhinal, postrhinal, and entorhinal cortices of the rat. II. efferents. 2016 HippocampusSchool: Department of Cognitive, Linguistic, and Psychological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, 02912.  article DOI URL 
Abstract: This is the second of two studies detailing the subcortical connections of the perirhinal (PER), the postrhinal (POR) and entorhinal (EC) cortices of the rat. In the present study, we analyzed the subcortical efferents of the rat PER areas 35 and 36, POR, and the lateral and medial entorhinal areas (LEA and MEA). Anterograde tracers were injected into these five regions, and the resulting density of fiber labeling was quantified in an extensive set of subcortical structures. Density and topography of fiber labeling were quantitatively assessed in 36 subcortical areas, including olfactory structures, claustrum, amygdala nuclei, septal nuclei, basal ganglia, thalamic nuclei, and hypothalamic structures. In addition to reporting the density of labeled fibers, we incorporated a new method for quantifying the size of anterograde projections that takes into account the volume of the target subcortical structure as well as the density of fiber labeling. The PER, POR and EC displayed
unique patterns of projections to subcortical areas. Interestingly, all regions examined provided strong input to the basal ganglia, although the projections arising in the PER and LEA were stronger and more widespread. PER areas 35 and 36 exhibited similar pattern of projections with some differences. PER area 36 projects more heavily to the lateral amygdala and much more heavily to thalamic nuclei including the lateral posterior nucleus, the posterior complex, and the nucleus reuniens. Area 35 projects more heavily to olfactory structures. The LEA provides the strongest and most widespread projections to subcortical structures including all those targeted by the PER as well as the medial and posterior septal nuclei. POR shows fewer subcortical projections overall, but contributes substantial input to the lateral posterior nucleus of the thalamus. The MEA projections are even weaker. Our results suggest that the PER and LEA have greater influence over olfactory, amygdala, and septal nuclei, whereas PER area
36 and the POR have greater influence over thalamic nuclei. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Agster:2016,
  author = {Agster, Kara L. and Tomás Pereira, Inês and Saddoris, Michael P. and Burwell, Rebecca D.},
  title = {Subcortical connections of the perirhinal, postrhinal, and entorhinal cortices of the rat. II. efferents.},
  journal = {Hippocampus},
  school = {Department of Cognitive, Linguistic, and Psychological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, 02912.},
  year = {2016},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hipo.22600},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/hipo.22600}
}
Aguado, L.I. Role of the central and peripheral nervous system in the ovarian function. 2002 Microsc Res Tech
Vol. 59(6), pp. 462-473School: Laboratorio de Biología de la Reproducción (LABIR), Facultad de Química, Facultad de Química y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis, Argentina 5700. labir@unsl.edu.ar 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: This review attempts to give a comprehensive overview of ovarian innervation, considering the whole nervous system and its different levels that may modify the ovarian function. The connection between the ovary and the central nervous system through the autonomic pathways, including the peripheral ganglia, is highlighted. The evidence obtained over the last years highlights the role of the superior ovarian nerve (SON) in the ovarian phenomena. Besides, the effect on the ovary of conventional neurotransmitters and others such as indolamines and peptides, which have been found in this organ, are discussed. Various reproductive diseases have been studied almost exclusively from the endocrine point of view. It is evident that a better knowledge about the role of the neural factors involved in the ovarian physiology may facilitate the understanding of some of these. A review of the concepts and an update of some experimental designs is made that permits clarifying several aspects of the
relationship between the neural system and the ovary. At present, there is no doubt that the innervation of the ovary is involved in several physiological aspects of this gland function. However, the relationship of some levels of the nervous system and the ovary offer a wide avenue for future research.
BibTeX:
@article{Aguado:2002,
  author = {Aguado, Luis I.},
  title = {Role of the central and peripheral nervous system in the ovarian function.},
  journal = {Microsc Res Tech},
  school = {Laboratorio de Biología de la Reproducción (LABIR), Facultad de Química, Facultad de Química y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis, Argentina 5700. labir@unsl.edu.ar},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {59},
  number = {6},
  pages = {462--473},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.10232},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/jemt.10232}
}
Aguayo, A.J. Axonal regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system: anatomical and functional studies 1986 Molecular genetics in developmental neurobiology Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo, pp. 259-274  article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Aguayo:1986,
  author = {Aguayo, ALBERT J},
  title = {Axonal regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system: anatomical and functional studies},
  journal = {Molecular genetics in developmental neurobiology Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo},
  year = {1986},
  pages = {259--274},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A%3A1025059710382}
}
Aguayo, A.J., David, S. and Bray, G.M. Influences of the glial environment on the elongation of axons after injury: transplantation studies in adult rodents. 1981 J Exp Biol
Vol. 95, pp. 231-240 
article URL 
Abstract: Tissue transplantation methods, previously used to study neural development, myelination and inherited disorders of myelin can be applied also to the investigation of repair and regeneration in the mammalian CNS. The elongation of axons from injured peripheral nerve of CNS has been studied in adult mice and rats by observing the growth of axons into PNS or CNS tissue grafts. Following spinal cord injury and also after transplantation of optic nerves into the PNS there is axonal sprouting but these neuronal processes fail to elongate more than a few mm into the surrounding glia. On the other hand if segments of a peripheral nerve are grafted into the transected spinal cord, axons arising from spinal neurons and dorsal root ganglia become associated with the transplanted Schwann cells and elongate along the graft, approximately 1 cm. Recently the elongation of axons from spinal and medullary neurones was studied using a new experimental model which employed PNS grafts as 'bridges' to connect
the spinal cord and the brain stem. In a series of adult C57BL/6J mice and Sprague Dawley rats, autologous segments of sciatic nerve were used to create 'bridges' between the lower cervical or upper thoracic spinal cord and the medulla oblongata. The spinal cord between these two levels was left intact. Grafted segments examined by light and electron microscope 1-7 months after surgery were well innervated by Schwann cell ensheathed axons that had grown the entire length of the graft (2 cm in mice and 3.5 cm in rats). The origin and termination of these axons were determined by transecting the regenerated grafts and applying horseradish peroxidase to the cut ends. Retrogradely labelled neurones were found to be distributed widely in the gray matter of the spinal cord and medulla near the sites of insertion of the graft. Anterogradely labelled fibres coursing within the graft penetrated the CNS for short distances, approximately 2 mm. These new results indicate that following CNS injury a conducive glial
environment does allow spinal and brain stem neurones to elongate axons for distances that can be greater than those they usually extend for in the intact animal. This evidence that the regenerative response of similar axons differs in CNS and PNS neuroglia supports the hypothesis that influences arising from the environment play an important role in the success or failure of regeneration. The regenerative potentiality of central neurones may be expressed only when the CNS neuroglial environment is changed to resemble that in the PNS.
BibTeX:
@article{Aguayo:1981,
  author = {Aguayo, A. J. and David, S. and Bray, G. M.},
  title = {Influences of the glial environment on the elongation of axons after injury: transplantation studies in adult rodents.},
  journal = {J Exp Biol},
  year = {1981},
  volume = {95},
  pages = {231--240},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://jeb.biologists.org/content/95/1/231.long}
}
Aguayo, A.J., Rasminsky, M., Bray, G.M., Carbonetto, S., McKerracher, L., Villegas-Pérez, M.P., Vidal-Sanz, M. and Carter, D.A. Degenerative and regenerative responses of injured neurons in the central nervous system of adult mammals. 1991 Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Vol. 331(1261), pp. 337-343School: Centre for Research in Neuroscience, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: In adult mammals, the severing of the optic nerve near the eye is followed by a loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and a failure of axons to regrow into the brain. Experimental manipulations of the non-neuronal environment of injured RGCs enhance neuronal survival and make possible a lengthy axonal regeneration that restores functional connections with the superior colliculus. These effects suggest that injured nerve cells in the mature central nervous system (CNS) are strongly influenced by interactions with components of their immediate environment as well as their targets. Under these conditions, injured CNS neurons can express capacities for growth and differentiation that resemble those of normally developing neurons. An understanding of this regeneration in the context of the cellular and molecular events that influence the interactions of axonal growth cones with their non-neuronal substrates and neuronal targets should help in the further elucidation of the capacities of neuronal
systems to recover from injury.
BibTeX:
@article{Aguayo:1991,
  author = {Aguayo, A. J. and Rasminsky, M. and Bray, G. M. and Carbonetto, S. and McKerracher, L. and Villegas-Pérez, M. P. and Vidal-Sanz, M. and Carter, D. A.},
  title = {Degenerative and regenerative responses of injured neurons in the central nervous system of adult mammals.},
  journal = {Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci},
  school = {Centre for Research in Neuroscience, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {331},
  number = {1261},
  pages = {337--343},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1991.0025},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1991.0025}
}
Agudo, M., Pérez-Marín, M.C., Sobrado-Calvo, P., Lönngren, U., Salinas-Navarro, M., Cánovas, I., Nadal-Nicolás, F.M., Miralles-Imperial, J., Hallböök, F. and Vidal-Sanz, M. Immediate upregulation of proteins belonging to different branches of the apoptotic cascade in the retina after optic nerve transection and optic nerve crush. 2009 Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
Vol. 50(1), pp. 424-431School: Departamento de Oftalmología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain. martabar@um.es 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: To further investigate the molecular signals underlying optic nerve (ON) injury, the authors analyzed in adult control, ON-transected, and ON-crushed retinas the expression pattern and time-course regulation of the following proteins, all of which are linked to apoptosis through different pathways: Stat 1, caspase 11 (inflammation and death), cathepsins C and B (lysosomal death pathway), calpain 1 (endoplasmic reticulum stress), calreticulin (apoptosis marker), Jun (early response), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (cell cycle arrest).Adult female rats were subjected to intraorbital optic nerve transection (IONT) or intraorbital optic nerve crush (IONC). Protein from naive and ON-injured adult rat retinas was extracted at different times postlesion, and Western blotting experiments were performed. For immunohistofluorescence analyses, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were retrogradely identified with fluorogold applied to the superior colliculi 1 week before injury.Western blotting
analyses revealed upregulation of all the analyzed proteins as early as 12 hours postlesion (hpl), peaking at 48 hpl, in agreement with our previous RNA study findings. Furthermore, immunohistofluorescence to radial sections showed that all but Stat 1 were expressed by the primarily injured neurons, the RGCs, as seen by colocalization with fluorogold.All analyzed proteins were upregulated in the retina after IONT or IONC as early as 12 hpl, indicating that ON injury regulates several branches of the apoptotic cascade and suggesting that commitment to death might be an earlier event than previously anticipated.
BibTeX:
@article{Agudo:2009,
  author = {Agudo, Marta and Pérez-Marín, Maria C. and Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma and Lönngren, Ulrika and Salinas-Navarro, Manuel and Cánovas, Isabel and Nadal-Nicolás, Francisco M. and Miralles-Imperial, Jaime and Hallböök, Finn and Vidal-Sanz, Manuel},
  title = {Immediate upregulation of proteins belonging to different branches of the apoptotic cascade in the retina after optic nerve transection and optic nerve crush.},
  journal = {Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci},
  school = {Departamento de Oftalmología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain. martabar@um.es},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {50},
  number = {1},
  pages = {424--431},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.08-2404},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.08-2404}
}
Aguiar, P., Sousa, M. and Szucs, P. Versatile morphometric analysis and visualization of the three-dimensional structure of neurons. 2013 Neuroinformatics
Vol. 11(4), pp. 393-403School: Centro de Matemática da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007, Porto, Portugal, pauloaguiar@fc.up.pt. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The computational properties of a neuron are intimately related to its morphology. However, unlike electrophysiological properties, it is not straightforward to collapse the complexity of the three-dimensional (3D) structure into a small set of measurements accurately describing the structural properties. This strong limitation leads to the fact that many studies involving morphology related questions often rely solely on empirical analysis and qualitative description. It is possible however to acquire hierarchical lists of positions and diameters of points describing the spatial structure of the neuron. While there is a number of both commercially and freely available solutions to import and analyze this data, few are extendable in the sense of providing the possibility to define novel morphometric measurements in an easy to use programming environment. Fewer are capable of performing morphometric analysis where the output is defined over the topology of the neuron, which naturally requires
powerful visualization tools. The computer application presented here, Py3DN, is an open-source solution providing novel tools to analyze and visualize 3D data collected with the widely used Neurolucida (MBF) system. It allows the construction of mathematical representations of neuronal topology, detailed visualization and the possibility to define non-standard morphometric analysis on the neuronal structures. Above all, it provides a flexible and extendable environment where new types of analyses can be easily set up allowing a high degree of freedom to formulate and test new hypotheses. The application was developed in Python and uses Blender (open-source software) to produce detailed 3D data representations.
BibTeX:
@article{Aguiar:2013,
  author = {Aguiar, Paulo and Sousa, Mafalda and Szucs, Peter},
  title = {Versatile morphometric analysis and visualization of the three-dimensional structure of neurons.},
  journal = {Neuroinformatics},
  school = {Centro de Matemática da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007, Porto, Portugal, pauloaguiar@fc.up.pt.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {11},
  number = {4},
  pages = {393--403},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12021-013-9188-z},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s12021-013-9188-z}
}
Aguilar, J.R. and Castro-Alamancos, M.A. Spatiotemporal gating of sensory inputs in thalamus during quiescent and activated states. 2005 J Neurosci
Vol. 25(47), pp. 10990-11002School: Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19129, USA. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The main role of the thalamus is to relay sensory inputs to the neocortex according to the regulations dictated by behavioral state. Hence, changes in behavioral state are likely to transform the temporal and spatial properties of thalamocortical receptive fields. We compared the receptive fields of single cells in the ventroposterior medial thalamus (VPM) of urethane-anesthetized rats during quiescent states and during aroused (activated) states. During quiescent states, VPM cells respond to stimulation of a principal whisker (PW) and may respond modestly to one or a few adjacent whiskers (AWs). During either generalized forebrain activation or selective thalamic activation caused by carbachol infusion in the VPM, the responses to AWs enhance so that VPM receptive fields become much larger. Such enlargement is not observed at the level of the principal trigeminal nucleus, indicating that it originates within the thalamus. Interestingly, despite the increase in AW responses during activation,
simultaneous deflection of the PW and AWs produced VPM responses that resembled the PW response, as if the AWs were not stimulated. This nonlinear summation of sensory responses was present during both quiescent and activated states. In conclusion, the thalamus suppresses the excitatory surround (AWs) of the receptive field during quiescent states and enlarges this surround during arousal. But, thalamocortical cells represent only the center (PW) of the receptive field when the center (PW) and surround (AWs) are stimulated simultaneously.
BibTeX:
@article{Aguilar:2005,
  author = {Aguilar, Juan R. and Castro-Alamancos, Manuel A.},
  title = {Spatiotemporal gating of sensory inputs in thalamus during quiescent and activated states.},
  journal = {J Neurosci},
  school = {Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19129, USA.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {25},
  number = {47},
  pages = {10990--11002},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3229-05.2005},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3229-05.2005}
}
Aguilar-Roblero, R., Verduzco-Carbajal, L., Rodríguez, C., Mendez-Franco, J., Morán, J. and de la Mora, M. Circadian rhythmicity in the GABAergic system in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the rat 1993 Neuroscience Letters
Vol. 157(2), pp. 199-202 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The participation of GABAergic mechanisms in the regulation of circadian rhythmicity by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) has been suggested from different lines of evidence. Little is known, however, whether GABA synthesis, release, uptake or content within the SCN may show a circadian pattern. The present results show that the activity of the GABAergic system within the SCN region of the rat exhibits circadian rhythmicity, which is manifested by correlative changes of the GABA content and the glutamic acid decarboxylase activity under the light/dark cycle, and by changes in the GABA content in animals kept under constant darkness. © 1993.
BibTeX:
@article{Aguilar-Roblero:1993,
  author = {Aguilar-Roblero, R. and Verduzco-Carbajal, L. and Rodríguez, C. and Mendez-Franco, J. and Morán, J. and de la Mora, M.P.},
  title = {Circadian rhythmicity in the GABAergic system in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the rat},
  journal = {Neuroscience Letters},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {157},
  number = {2},
  pages = {199-202},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0027234388&partnerID=40&md5=7b8c210023e6b5dc6bcb5eef92b9621b},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3940(93)90736-5}
}
Aguilera, G., Harwood, J., Wilson, J., Morell, J., Brown, J. and Catt, K. Mechanisms of action of corticotropin-releasing factor and other regulators of corticotropin release in rat pituitary cells. 1983 J Biol Chem
Vol. 258(13), pp. 8039-8045 
article  
Abstract: The role of cyclic AMP in the stimulation of corticotropin (ACTH)
release by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), angiotensin II (AII),
vasopressin (VP), and norepinephrine (NE) was examined in cultured
rat anterior pituitary cells. Synthetic CRF rapidly stimulated cyclic
AMP production, from 4- to 6-fold in 3 min to a maximum of 10- to
15-fold at 30 min. Stimulation of ACTH release by increasing concentrations
of CRF was accompanied by a parallel increase in cyclic AMP formation,
with ED50 values of 0.5 and 1.3 nM CRF for ACTH and cyclic AMP, respectively.
A good correlation between cyclic AMP formation and ACTH release
was also found when pituitary cells were incubated with the synthetic
CRF(15-41) fragment, which displayed full agonist activity on both
cyclic AMP and ACTH release with about 0.1% of the potency of the
intact peptide. In contrast, the CRF(21-41) and CRF(36-41) fragments
were completely inactive. The other regulators were less effective
stimuli of ACTH release and caused either no change in cyclic AMP
(AII and VP) or a 50% decrease in cyclic AMP (NE). Addition of the
phosphodiesterase inhibitor, methylisobutylxanthine, increased the
sensitivity of the ACTH response to CRF but did not change the responses
to AII, VP, and NE. In pituitary membranes, adenylate cyclase activity
was stimulated by CRF in a dose-dependent manner with ED50 of 0.28
nM, indicating that the CRF-induced elevation of cyclic AMP production
in intact pituitary cells is due to increased cyclic AMP biosynthesis.
The intermediate role of cyclic AMP in the stimulation of ACTH release
by CRF was further indicated by the dose-related increase in cyclic
AMP-dependent protein kinase activity in pituitary cells stimulated
by CRF with ED50 of 1.1 nM. These data demonstrate that the action
of CRF on ACTH release is mediated by the adenylate cyclase-protein
kinase pathway and that the sequence requirement for bioactivity
includes the COOH-terminal 27 amino acid residues of the molecule.
The other recognized regulators of ACTH release are less effective
stimuli than CRF and do not exert their actions on the corticotroph
through cyclic AMP-dependent mechanisms.
BibTeX:
@article{Aguilera:1983,
  author = {Aguilera, G and Harwood, JP and Wilson, JX and Morell, J and Brown, JH and Catt, KJ},
  title = {Mechanisms of action of corticotropin-releasing factor and other regulators of corticotropin release in rat pituitary cells.},
  journal = {J Biol Chem},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {258},
  number = {13},
  pages = {8039--8045},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.}
}
Ahlenius, S. Enhanced suppression of a conditioned avoidance response by haloperidol but not phenoxybenzamine in rats with bilateral parafascicular lesions 1980 Exp Brain Res
Vol. 40(2), pp. 164-169 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Ahlenius:1980,
  author = {Ahlenius, S},
  title = {Enhanced suppression of a conditioned avoidance response by haloperidol but not phenoxybenzamine in rats with bilateral parafascicular lesions},
  journal = {Exp Brain Res},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {40},
  number = {2},
  pages = {164--169},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CCoQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Flink.springer.com%2Fcontent%2Fpdf%2F10.1007%2FBF00237534.pdf&ei=fSdXVKuBJM7laJH-gogE&usg=AFQjCNFIlX052HnfU4XmgKXyAxWYZioMDA&bvm=bv.78677474,d.d2s&cad=rja}
}
Ahlenius, S., Andén, N.E. and Grabowska-Andén, M. Apomorphine-induced ipsilateral turning in rats with unilateral lesions of the parafascicular nucleus. 1982 Exp Brain Res
Vol. 47(2), pp. 270-276 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ahlenius:1982,
  author = {Ahlenius, S. and Andén, N. E. and Grabowska-Andén, M.},
  title = {Apomorphine-induced ipsilateral turning in rats with unilateral lesions of the parafascicular nucleus.},
  journal = {Exp Brain Res},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {47},
  number = {2},
  pages = {270--276},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00239386}
}
Ahlenius, S., Hillegaart, V., Thorell, G., Magnusson, O. and Fowler, C.J. Suppression of exploratory locomotor activity and increase in dopamine turnover following the local application of cis-flupenthixol into limbic projection areas of the rat striatum. 1987 Brain Res
Vol. 402(1), pp. 131-138 
article DOI  
Abstract: Recent neuroanatomical tracer studies have demonstrated the topography of 'limbic' (A10) projections into the striatum of the rat (see Introduction). The target areas include the nucleus accumbens and the ventromedial part of the neostriatum, whereas the dorsolateral part of the neostriatum does not receive such afferents. Taking this topography into account, the present results show that local application of cis-flupenthixol (10-40 micrograms/side) into the nucleus accumbens or the ventromedial, but not the dorsolateral, neostriatum produces suppression of exploratory locomotor activity in the rat. trans-Flupenthixol (40 micrograms/side) was completely ineffective when locally applied into the nucleus accumbens. Measurements of the concentrations of the dopamine metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) at the site of injection, and in neighboring areas at different times after cis-flupenthixol administration, indicated that there was little or no
diffusion of the drug from the injection sites. Much higher concentrations of DOPAC and HVA in a given area were found after systemic administration of cis-flupenthixol as compared with local application of the drug to the same area.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahlenius:1987,
  author = {S. Ahlenius and V. Hillegaart and G. Thorell and O. Magnusson and C. J. Fowler},
  title = {Suppression of exploratory locomotor activity and increase in dopamine turnover following the local application of cis-flupenthixol into limbic projection areas of the rat striatum.},
  journal = {Brain Res},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {402},
  number = {1},
  pages = {131--138},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(87)91055-9}
}
Ahlenius, S., Hillegaart, V., Thorell, G., Magnusson, O. and Fowler, C.J. Suppression of exploratory locomotor activity and increase in dopamine turnover following the local application of cis-flupenthixol into limbic projection areas of the rat striatum. 1987 Brain research
Vol. 402, pp. 131-8 
article  
Abstract: Recent neuroanatomical tracer studies have demonstrated the topography of 'limbic' (A10) projections into the striatum of the rat (see Introduction). The target areas include the nucleus accumbens and the ventromedial part of the neostriatum, whereas the dorsolateral part of the neostriatum does not receive such afferents. Taking this topography into account, the present results show that local application of cis-flupenthixol (10-40 micrograms/side) into the nucleus accumbens or the ventromedial, but not the dorsolateral, neostriatum produces suppression of exploratory locomotor activity in the rat. trans-Flupenthixol (40 micrograms/side) was completely ineffective when locally applied into the nucleus accumbens. Measurements of the concentrations of the dopamine metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) at the site of injection, and in neighboring areas at different times after cis-flupenthixol administration, indicated that there was little or no
diffusion of the drug from the injection sites. Much higher concentrations of DOPAC and HVA in a given area were found after systemic administration of cis-flupenthixol as compared with local application of the drug to the same area.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahlenius:1987a,
  author = {Ahlenius, S. and Hillegaart, V. and Thorell, G. and Magnusson, O. and Fowler, C. J.},
  title = {Suppression of exploratory locomotor activity and increase in dopamine turnover following the local application of cis-flupenthixol into limbic projection areas of the rat striatum.},
  journal = {Brain research},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {402},
  pages = {131-8},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Ahlenius, S. and Nordberg, A. Effects of Lesions in the Parafascicular Nucleus on Catecholamine Synthesis and Number of Muscarinic Receptor Binding Sites in the Striatum of the Rat 1982 Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica
Vol. 51(3), pp. 182-186 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Abstract: Unilateral radio‐frequency lesions of the parafascicular nucleus were performed in rats. Seven days, but not 24 hrs, postoperatively the following effects were observed in the ipsilateral striatum: (A) an increase in dopamine synthesis as estimated by the accumulation of DOPA following inhibition of cerebral aromatic L‐amino acid decarboxylase; (B) an increase in dopamine levels and (C) a decrease in the number of muscarinic receptors binding sites using [3H] QNB as receptor ligand. 1982 Nordic Pharmacological Society
BibTeX:
@article{Ahlenius:1982a,
  author = {Ahlenius, S. and Nordberg, A.},
  title = {Effects of Lesions in the Parafascicular Nucleus on Catecholamine Synthesis and Number of Muscarinic Receptor Binding Sites in the Striatum of the Rat},
  journal = {Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {51},
  number = {3},
  pages = {182-186},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0019992329&partnerID=40&md5=f16c33044c1c892099641308d2a4dd6e},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0773.1982.tb01012.x}
}
Ahlgren, J.K. and Hayward, L.F. Role of lateral parabrachial opioid receptors in exercise-induced modulation of the hypotensive hemorrhage response in conscious male rats. 2012 Behav Brain Res
Vol. 226(2), pp. 404-410School: University of Florida, College of Veterinary Medicine, Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Gainesville, FL 32610, United States. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Some of the benefits of exercise appear to be mediated through modulation of neuronal excitability in central autonomic control circuits. Previously, we identified that six weeks of voluntary wheel running had a protective effect during hemorrhage (HEM), limiting both the hypotensive phase of HEM and enhancing recovery. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of opioid release in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) on the response to severe HEM in chronically exercised (EX, voluntary) versus sedentary (SED) controls. Male Sprague Dawley rats were allowed either free access to running wheels (EX) or normal cage conditions (SED). After 6 weeks of "training" animals were instrumented with a bilateral cannula directed toward the dorsolateral pons and arterial catheters. After a recovery period, animals underwent central microinjection of either vehicle (VEH; n=3/group) or the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (NAL; n=6/group) followed by withdrawal of 30% of their total
estimated blood volume. Following VEH injection, the drop in MAP during and following HEM was significantly attenuated in the EX vs SED animals. Alternatively, NAL microinjection in the dorsolateral pons (20 ?M, 200-500 nl) reversed the beneficial effect of EX on the HEM response. NAL microinjection in SED rats did not significantly alter the response to HEM. These data suggest chronic voluntary EX has a beneficial effect on the autonomic response to severe HEM which is mediated, in part, via EX-induced plasticity of the opioid system within the dorsolateral pons.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahlgren:2012,
  author = {Ahlgren, Joslyn K. and Hayward, Linda F.},
  title = {Role of lateral parabrachial opioid receptors in exercise-induced modulation of the hypotensive hemorrhage response in conscious male rats.},
  journal = {Behav Brain Res},
  school = {University of Florida, College of Veterinary Medicine, Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Gainesville, FL 32610, United States.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {226},
  number = {2},
  pages = {404--410},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2011.09.036},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2011.09.036}
}
Ahlgren, S., Li, G. and Olsson, Y. Accumulation of β-amyloid precursor protein and ubiquitin in axons after spinal cord trauma in humans: Immunohistochemical observations on autopsy material 1996 Acta Neuropathologica
Vol. 92(1), pp. 48-55 
article URL 
Abstract: We evaluated by immunohistochemistry the presence of β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP) and ubiquitin-like material which may accumulate in axons of the human spinal cord subjected to injury. Autopsy material was obtained from nine cases with different types of trauma: breech delivery with neonatal spinal injury, compression of the cord induced by fractures of the vertebral column, haematomas or intradural meningioma. The posttrauma period ranged from 10 days to several years. The spinal cord of six control cases without evidence of injury presented βAPP immunoreactivity in nerve cell bodies and in a few axonal profiles but not in dendrites. Seven of the nine cases with spinal cord trauma showed an accumulation of βAPP-immunoreactive material in axons of the longitudinal tracts at the site of the injury. Five cases presented similar axonal immunoreactivity in the grey matter of the cord. Ubiquitin-like immunoreactivity was present in expanded axons in cases with spinal cord
injury. Cases with
spinal cord trauma thus present βAPP-immunoreactive axons particularly of the longitudinal tracts in the same way as in trauma to rat spinal cord and in various brain injuries. The aggregation of βAPP-immunoreactive material indicates disturbed axonal transport of βAPP. Accumulation of ubiquitin-like immunoreactive material in expanded axons at the site of trauma may be one prerequisite for degradation of abnormal proteins by the ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic pathway.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahlgren:1996,
  author = {Ahlgren, S. and Li, G.L. and Olsson, Y.},
  title = {Accumulation of β-amyloid precursor protein and ubiquitin in axons after spinal cord trauma in humans: Immunohistochemical observations on autopsy material},
  journal = {Acta Neuropathologica},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {92},
  number = {1},
  pages = {48-55},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0029984013&partnerID=40&md5=eb72e89355e6d36568fe6fb6326fe2d7}
}
Ahlsen, G., Grant, K. and Lindström, S. Monosynaptic excitation of principal cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus by corticofugal fibers. 1982 Brain Res
Vol. 234(2), pp. 454-458 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ahlsen:1982,
  author = {Ahlsen, G. and Grant, K. and Lindström, S.},
  title = {Monosynaptic excitation of principal cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus by corticofugal fibers.},
  journal = {Brain Res},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {234},
  number = {2},
  pages = {454--458},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(82)90886-1}
}
Ahmad, A., Khan, M.M., Ishrat, T., Khan, M.B., Khuwaja, G., Raza, S.S., Shrivastava, P. and Islam, F. Synergistic effect of selenium and melatonin on neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia in rats. 2011 Biol Trace Elem Res
Vol. 139(1), pp. 81-96School: Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062, India. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The synergistic scavenger effects of selenium and melatonin collectively we called Se-Mel was studied on the prevention of neuronal injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion. Male Wistar rats were treated with sodium selenite (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) and melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before the middle carotid artery occlusion (MCAO) and immediately after MCAO to male Wistar rats and was continued for 3 days once daily at the interval of 24 h. Behavioral activity (spontaneous motor activity and motor deficit) was improved in Se-Mel-treated rats as compared to MCAO group rats. The level of glutathione and the activity of antioxidant enzymes was depleted significantly while the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, protein carbonyl, and nitric oxide radical (NO(·)) was increased significantly in MCAO group. Systemic administration of Se-Mel ameliorated oxidative stress and improves ischemia/reperfusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia. Se-Mel also inhibited inducible nitric oxide
synthase expression in Se-Mel+MCAO group as compared to MCAO group rats. Thus, Se-Mel has shown an excellent neuroprotective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury through an anti-ischemic pathway. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the pretreatment with Se-Mel at the onset of reperfusion, reduced post-ischemic damage, and improved neurological outcome following transient focal cerebral ischemia in male Wistar rat.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahmad:2011,
  author = {Ahmad, Ajmal and Khan, Mohd Moshahid and Ishrat, Tauheed and Khan, M Badruzzaman and Khuwaja, Gulrana and Raza, Syed Shadab and Shrivastava, Pallavi and Islam, Fakhrul},
  title = {Synergistic effect of selenium and melatonin on neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia in rats.},
  journal = {Biol Trace Elem Res},
  school = {Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062, India.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {139},
  number = {1},
  pages = {81--96},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-010-8643-z},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-010-8643-z}
}
Ahmadi, S., Lippross, S., Neuhuber, W.L. and Zeilhofer, H.U. PGE(2) selectively blocks inhibitory glycinergic neurotransmission onto rat superficial dorsal horn neurons. 2002 Nat Neurosci
Vol. 5(1), pp. 34-40School: Institut für Experimentelle und Klinische Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Emil-Fischer-Zentrum, Fahrstrasse 17, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Despite the crucial role that prostaglandins (PGs) have in the sensitization of the central nervous system to pain, their cellular and molecular targets leading to increased pain perception have remained elusive. Here we investigated the effects of PGE(2) on fast synaptic transmission onto neurons in the rat spinal cord dorsal horn, the first site of synaptic integration in the pain pathway. We identified the inhibitory (strychnine-sensitive) glycine receptor as a specific target of PGE(2). PGE(2), but not PGF(2 alpha), PGD(2) or PGI(2), reduced inhibitory glycinergic synaptic transmission in low nanomolar concentrations, whereas GABAA, AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated transmission remained unaffected. Inhibition of glycine receptors occurred via a postsynaptic mechanism involving the activation of EP2 receptors, cholera-toxin-sensitive G-proteins and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Via this mechanism, PGE(2) may facilitate the transmission of nociceptive input through the spinal cord dorsal
horn to higher brain areas where pain becomes conscious.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahmadi:2002,
  author = {Ahmadi, Seifollah and Lippross, Sebastian and Neuhuber, Winfried L and Zeilhofer, Hanns U},
  title = {PGE(2) selectively blocks inhibitory glycinergic neurotransmission onto rat superficial dorsal horn neurons.},
  journal = {Nat Neurosci},
  school = {Institut für Experimentelle und Klinische Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Emil-Fischer-Zentrum, Fahrstrasse 17, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {5},
  number = {1},
  pages = {34--40},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn778},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/nn778}
}
Ahmed, A., Dong, K., Sugioka, K. and Yamadori, T. Afferent projections to the cingulate cortex in albino rats: a study with a retrograde labeling method using fluoro-gold. 1995 The Kobe journal of medical sciences
Vol. 41(6), pp. 247-255 
article URL 
Abstract: We studied the neuronal populations that project their axons to the cingulate cortex in albino rats using the retrograde fluorescent dye of 4% Fluoro-Gold injected into the anterior, middle and posterior portions of the cingulate cortex. The result showed that the following ipsilateral structures are sending fibers to these three portions: the prefrontal cortex, frontoparietal motor cortex, indusium griseum, dorsal endopiriform nucleus, lateral part of medial mammillary nucleus, nuclei of diagonal band of Broca, anterior pretectum, anterior part of caudate-putamen, hippocampal formation, anteroventral, anteromedial, lateroposterior, ventroposterior and dorsomedial thalamic nuclei. The anterior portion of the cingulate cortex receives inputs from the following ipsi- and contralateral structures: the accessory olfactory bulbs, anterior olfactory nuclei, middle and posterior portions of the cingulate cortex. The middle cingulate cortex receives fibers only from the ipsilateral
dorsal part of the
lateral septal nucleus in addition from the ipsi- and contralateral anterior and posterior portions of the cingulate cortex. While the posterior portion of the cingulate cortex receives separate inputs from the following ipsilateral structures: anterodorsal thalamic nucleus, temporal cortex, entorhinal cortex, areas 17 and 18, as well as from the ipsi- and contralateral anterior and middle portions of the cingulate cortex. The present study shows that the cingulate cortex receives various kinds of inputs from the other parts of the brain which are involved in emotion, memory, vision and motion, and also suggests that there are differences in afferent projections among the anterior, middle and posterior portions of the cingulate cortex.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahmed:1995d,
  author = {Ahmed, A.K. and Dong, K. and Sugioka, K. and Yamadori, T.},
  title = {Afferent projections to the cingulate cortex in albino rats: a study with a retrograde labeling method using fluoro-gold.},
  journal = {The Kobe journal of medical sciences},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {41},
  number = {6},
  pages = {247-255},
  note = {Duplicate from Scopus!},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0029421250&partnerID=40&md5=d73f022c9c25cbc2d0ee651f408ec5ee}
}
Ahmed, A.K., Dong, K., Setsu, T. and Yamadori, T. Correlation between different types of retinal ganglion cells and their projection pattern in the albino rat. 1996 Brain Res
Vol. 706(1), pp. 163-168School: First Department of Anatomy, Kobe University School of Medicine, Japan. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Injecting Fluoro-Gold (FG) and Evans-Blue (EB) into the right dLGN and SC in the adult albino rat, ipsilaterally projecting double-labeled retinal ganglion cells were mainly seen in the ventrotemporal crescent. They were mainly large sized cells. The ipsilaterally projecting double-labeled cells tended to have larger somata than the single- and double-labeled cells projecting to the contralateral superior colliculus and/or dorsal nucleus of the lateral geniculate body.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahmed:1996a,
  author = {Ahmed, A. K. and Dong, K. and Setsu, T. and Yamadori, T.},
  title = {Correlation between different types of retinal ganglion cells and their projection pattern in the albino rat.},
  journal = {Brain Res},
  school = {First Department of Anatomy, Kobe University School of Medicine, Japan.},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {706},
  number = {1},
  pages = {163--168},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(95)01283-4}
}
Ahmed, A.K., Dong, K., Sugioka, K. and Yamadori, T. Afferent projections to the cingulate cortex in albino rats: a study with a retrograde labeling method using fluoro-gold. 1995 Kobe J Med Sci
Vol. 41(6), pp. 247-255School: Department of Anatomy, Kobe University School of Medicine. 
article  
Abstract: We studied the neuronal populations that project their axons to the cingulate cortex in albino rats using the retrograde fluorescent dye of 4% Fluoro-Gold injected into the anterior, middle and posterior portions of the cingulate cortex. The result showed that the following ipsilateral structures are sending fibers to these three portions: the prefrontal cortex, frontoparietal motor cortex, indusium griseum, dorsal endopiriform nucleus, lateral part of medial mammillary nucleus, nuclei of diagonal band of Broca, anterior pretectum, anterior part of caudate-putamen, hippocampal formation, anteroventral, anteromedial, lateroposterior, ventroposterior and dorsomedial thalamic nuclei. The anterior portion of the cingulate cortex receives inputs from the following ipsi- and contralateral structures: the accessory olfactory bulbs, anterior olfactory nuclei, middle and posterior portions of the cingulate cortex. The middle cingulate cortex receives fibers only from the ipsilateral
dorsal part of the lateral septal nucleus in addition from the ipsi- and contralateral anterior and posterior portions of the cingulate cortex. While the posterior portion of the cingulate cortex receives separate inputs from the following ipsilateral structures: anterodorsal thalamic nucleus, temporal cortex, entorhinal cortex, areas 17 and 18, as well as from the ipsi- and contralateral anterior and middle portions of the cingulate cortex. The present study shows that the cingulate cortex receives various kinds of inputs from the other parts of the brain which are involved in emotion, memory, vision and motion, and also suggests that there are differences in afferent projections among the anterior, middle and posterior portions of the cingulate cortex.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahmed:1995b,
  author = {Ahmed, A. K. and Dong, K. and Sugioka, K. and Yamadori, T.},
  title = {Afferent projections to the cingulate cortex in albino rats: a study with a retrograde labeling method using fluoro-gold.},
  journal = {Kobe J Med Sci},
  school = {Department of Anatomy, Kobe University School of Medicine.},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {41},
  number = {6},
  pages = {247--255}
}
Ahmed, A.K., Dong, K. and Yamadori, T. A retrograde double-labelling study of retinal ganglion cells that project ipsilaterally to vLGN and LPN rather than dLGN and SC, in albino rat. 1995 Brain Res
Vol. 674(2), pp. 275-282School: First Department of Anatomy, Kobe University School of Medicine, Japan. 
article DOI  
Abstract: We studied ipsilaterally projecting, double-labeled retinal ganglion cells that have bifurcating axons by retrograde fluorescent double-labeling in albino rats. Ten albino (Wistar, Japan Ceca) rats of either sex, weighing 350-400 g were used. With the rats in a state of deep anesthesia, we pressure-injected 0.02 microliter of 15% Evans blue (EB) into the right ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (vLGN), and 4% Fluoro-gold (FG) iontophoretically into the right posterior lateral thalamic nucleus (LP). The animals were perfused with formol-saline 48-72 h later and both the brain and eyes were exercised. The brain was sectioned coronally, and each retina was removed and mounted flat on a glass slide. Double-labeled cells were found in the ventral temporal crescent of the retina. In one animal and total number of ipsilaterally labeled cells was 566, and the percentage of double-labeled vLGN and LP projecting cells, single-labeled vLGN projecting cells, and single-labeled LP projecting cells were
29.8, 58.8 and 11.3, respectively.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahmed:1995,
  author = {A. K. Ahmed and K. Dong and T. Yamadori},
  title = {A retrograde double-labelling study of retinal ganglion cells that project ipsilaterally to vLGN and LPN rather than dLGN and SC, in albino rat.},
  journal = {Brain Res},
  school = {First Department of Anatomy, Kobe University School of Medicine, Japan.},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {674},
  number = {2},
  pages = {275--282},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(94)01452-n}
}
Ahmed, A.K., Dong, K. and Yamadori, T. A retrograde double-labelling study of retinal ganglion cells that project ipsilaterally to vLGN and LPN rather than dLGN and SC, in albino rat. 1995 Brain research
Vol. 674, pp. 275-82 
article  
Abstract: We studied ipsilaterally projecting, double-labeled retinal ganglion cells that have bifurcating axons by retrograde fluorescent double-labeling in albino rats. Ten albino (Wistar, Japan Ceca) rats of either sex, weighing 350-400 g were used. With the rats in a state of deep anesthesia, we pressure-injected 0.02 microliter of 15% Evans blue (EB) into the right ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (vLGN), and 4% Fluoro-gold (FG) iontophoretically into the right posterior lateral thalamic nucleus (LP). The animals were perfused with formol-saline 48-72 h later and both the brain and eyes were exercised. The brain was sectioned coronally, and each retina was removed and mounted flat on a glass slide. Double-labeled cells were found in the ventral temporal crescent of the retina. In one animal and total number of ipsilaterally labeled cells was 566, and the percentage of double-labeled vLGN and LP projecting cells, single-labeled vLGN projecting cells, and single-labeled LP projecting cells were 29.
8, 58.8 and 11.3, respectively.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahmed:1995e,
  author = {Ahmed, A. K. and Dong, K. and Yamadori, T.},
  title = {A retrograde double-labelling study of retinal ganglion cells that project ipsilaterally to vLGN and LPN rather than dLGN and SC, in albino rat.},
  journal = {Brain research},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {674},
  pages = {275-82},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Ahmed, A.K., Guison, N.G. and Yamadori, T. A retrograde fluorescent-labeling study of direct relationship between the limbic (anterodorsal and anteroventral thalamic nuclei) and the visual system in the albino rat. 1996 Brain Res
Vol. 729(1), pp. 119-123School: First Department of Anatomy, Kobe University School of Medicine, Japan. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Injecting different fluorescent tracers into the right anterodorsal (AD)/anteroventral (AV) or AD/AV and the primary visual nuclei of dorsal lateral geniculate (dLGN) or superior colliculus (SC), a direct projection from the left retina to these anterior thalamic nuclei was ascertained in the central part of ventro-nasal retinal quadrant. Single-labeled cells were of small type. No double-labeled cells were demonstrated.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahmed:1996,
  author = {A. K. Ahmed and N. G. Guison and T. Yamadori},
  title = {A retrograde fluorescent-labeling study of direct relationship between the limbic (anterodorsal and anteroventral thalamic nuclei) and the visual system in the albino rat.},
  journal = {Brain Res},
  school = {First Department of Anatomy, Kobe University School of Medicine, Japan.},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {729},
  number = {1},
  pages = {119--123},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(96)00283-1}
}
Ahmed, A.K., Guison, N.G. and Yamadori, T. A retrograde fluorescent-labeling study of direct relationship between the limbic (anterodorsal and anteroventral thalamic nuclei) and the visual system in the albino rat. 1996 Brain research
Vol. 729, pp. 119-23 
article  
Abstract: Injecting different fluorescent tracers into the right anterodorsal (AD)/anteroventral (AV) or AD/AV and the primary visual nuclei of dorsal lateral geniculate (dLGN) or superior colliculus (SC), a direct projection from the left retina to these anterior thalamic nuclei was ascertained in the central part of ventro-nasal retinal quadrant. Single-labeled cells were of small type. No double-labeled cells were demonstrated.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahmed:1996b,
  author = {Ahmed, A. K. and Guison, N. G. and Yamadori, T.},
  title = {A retrograde fluorescent-labeling study of direct relationship between the limbic (anterodorsal and anteroventral thalamic nuclei) and the visual system in the albino rat.},
  journal = {Brain research},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {729},
  pages = {119-23},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Ahmed, A.K., Sugioka, K., Dong, K. and Yamadori, T. A study of double-labeled retinal ganglion cells from the superior colliculus in the developing albino rat. 1995 Brain Res Dev Brain Res
Vol. 85(1), pp. 71-79School: First Department of Anatomy, Kobe University School of Medicine, Japan. 
article DOI  
Abstract: We studied the distribution pattern and percentage of bilaterally projecting, double-labeled retinal ganglion cells in the albino rat by the retrograde fluorescent double labeling. Forty-five albino (Wistar, Japan Clea) rats of either sex and of different stage of development ranging in age from the day of birth (Day 0) to Day 30, were used. With the rats under deep anesthesia, we pressure injected 0.02 microliter of 15% Evans blue (EB) and 0.02 microliter of 4% Fluoro-gold (FG) into the right and left superior colliculi, respectively; for rats older than 5 days, the volume of each tracer was 0.04 microliter. The animals were perfused with formol-saline 48 to 72 h later and the brain and eyeballs were excised and sectioned. Double-labeled cells were found over almost the entire retina, with the concentration in the lower temporal crescent in rats up to day 1; concentration gradually shifted to the ventral half between days 5 and 10. After day 15, double-labeled cells were found only in the
ventral-temporal crescent of the retina, which is the pattern in the adult rats. The percentages of retinal ganglion cells that were double-labeled at days 0, 1, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 were 60.2, 51.6, 60.5, 57.6, 62.2, 60.7, 55.7, 45.2, and 39.1, respectively. After day 10, the percentage of such cells decreased steadily.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahmed:1995c,
  author = {A. K. Ahmed and K. Sugioka and K. Dong and T. Yamadori},
  title = {A study of double-labeled retinal ganglion cells from the superior colliculus in the developing albino rat.},
  journal = {Brain Res Dev Brain Res},
  school = {First Department of Anatomy, Kobe University School of Medicine, Japan.},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {85},
  number = {1},
  pages = {71--79},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-3806(94)00191-2}
}
Ahmed, A.K., Sugioka, K., Dong, K. and Yamadori, T. A study of double-labeled retinal ganglion cells from the superior colliculus in the developing albino rat. 1995 Brain research. Developmental brain research
Vol. 85, pp. 71-9 
article  
Abstract: We studied the distribution pattern and percentage of bilaterally projecting, double-labeled retinal ganglion cells in the albino rat by the retrograde fluorescent double labeling. Forty-five albino (Wistar, Japan Clea) rats of either sex and of different stage of development ranging in age from the day of birth (Day 0) to Day 30, were used. With the rats under deep anesthesia, we pressure injected 0.02 microliter of 15% Evans blue (EB) and 0.02 microliter of 4% Fluoro-gold (FG) into the right and left superior colliculi, respectively; for rats older than 5 days, the volume of each tracer was 0.04 microliter. The animals were perfused with formol-saline 48 to 72 h later and the brain and eyeballs were excised and sectioned. Double-labeled cells were found over almost the entire retina, with the concentration in the lower temporal crescent in rats up to day 1; concentration gradually shifted to the ventral half between days 5 and 10. After day 15, double-labeled cells were found only in the
ventral-temporal crescent of the retina, which is the pattern in the adult rats. The percentages of retinal ganglion cells that were double-labeled at days 0, 1, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 were 60.2, 51.6, 60.5, 57.6, 62.2, 60.7, 55.7, 45.2, and 39.1, respectively. After day 10, the percentage of such cells decreased steadily.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahmed:1995f,
  author = {Ahmed, A. K. and Sugioka, K. and Dong, K. and Yamadori, T.},
  title = {A study of double-labeled retinal ganglion cells from the superior colliculus in the developing albino rat.},
  journal = {Brain research. Developmental brain research},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {85},
  pages = {71-9},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Ahmed, A.K.F., Dong, K. and Yamadori, T. A retrograde double-labeling study of uni- and bilaterally projecting retinal ganglion cells that project to the superior colliculi after unilateral eye removal at birth in the albino rat. 1995 Brain Res
Vol. 704(2), pp. 307-312School: First Department of Anatomy, Kobe University School of Medicine, Japan. 
article DOI  
Abstract: By injecting Fluoro-Gold and Evans-Blue into the right and left superior colliculi of the normal adult albino rats, bilaterally projecting retinal ganglion cells were labeled in the ventrotemporal crescent accounting for 37.9% of all the labeled cells, whereas in 0- and 5-day unilaterally enucleated rats these were found in the lower half of the retina accounting for 64.8% and 80.6 respectively. Furthermore, they tended to have larger somata (type I cells).
BibTeX:
@article{Ahmed:1995a,
  author = {A. K. Farid Ahmed and K. Dong and T. Yamadori},
  title = {A retrograde double-labeling study of uni- and bilaterally projecting retinal ganglion cells that project to the superior colliculi after unilateral eye removal at birth in the albino rat.},
  journal = {Brain Res},
  school = {First Department of Anatomy, Kobe University School of Medicine, Japan.},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {704},
  number = {2},
  pages = {307--312},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(95)01282-6}
}
Ahmed, F., MacArthur, L., De Bernardi, M.A. and Mocchetti, I. Retrograde and anterograde transport of HIV protein gp120 in the nervous system. 2009 Brain Behav Immun
Vol. 23(3), pp. 355-364School: Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Research Building, Room EP04 Box 571464, 3970 Reservoir Rd, NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Neurodegeneration and gliosis are prominent pathological features of subjects with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dementia complex (HAD). In these patients, neurodegeneration occurs in uninfected neurons. In addition, these patients develop sensory neuropathy despite the antiretroviral therapy. The HIV protein gp120, which mimics some of the pathological alterations seen in HAD, is retrogradely transported in rodent neurons. However, it is still unclear whether gp120 can also be transported anterogradely and whether axonal transport can occur in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). To determine whether gp120 is transported retrogradely and/or anterogradely, we injected gp120IIIB together with the retrograde tracer fluoro-ruby (FR) or the anterograde tracer 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyamine perchlorate (DiI) into the rat superior colliculi. We discovered that gp120 is retrogradely transported with FR along a direct pathway from the superior colliculus to
the retina and anterogradely transported with DiI to several areas of the occipital cortex. To determine whether gp120 is also axonally transported in the peripheral nerves, gp120 and FR were injected into the sciatic nerve. No gp120 immunoreactivity was found in the sciatic nerve or dorsal root ganglia, suggesting that gp120 axonal transport does not occur in the PNS. Gp120 axonal transport may play a role in neuronal injury. Therefore, we examined apoptosis at various time points after gp120 injection. Activated caspase-3 was evident within neurons transporting gp120. These results indicate that axonal transport of gp120 might exacerbate the pathogenesis of HIV-1.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahmed:2009,
  author = {Ahmed, Farid and MacArthur, Linda and De Bernardi, Maria A. and Mocchetti, Italo},
  title = {Retrograde and anterograde transport of HIV protein gp120 in the nervous system.},
  journal = {Brain Behav Immun},
  school = {Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Research Building, Room EP04 Box 571464, 3970 Reservoir Rd, NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {23},
  number = {3},
  pages = {355--364},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2008.11.007},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2008.11.007}
}
Ahmed, F., MacArthur, L., De Bernardi, M.A. and Mocchetti, I. Retrograde and anterograde transport of HIV protein gp120 in the nervous system. 2009 Brain, behavior, and immunity
Vol. 23, pp. 355-364 
article DOI  
Abstract: Neurodegeneration and gliosis are prominent pathological features of subjects with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dementia complex (HAD). In these patients, neurodegeneration occurs in uninfected neurons. In addition, these patients develop sensory neuropathy despite the antiretroviral therapy. The HIV protein gp120, which mimics some of the pathological alterations seen in HAD, is retrogradely transported in rodent neurons. However, it is still unclear whether gp120 can also be transported anterogradely and whether axonal transport can occur in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). To determine whether gp120 is transported retrogradely and/or anterogradely, we injected gp120IIIB together with the retrograde tracer fluoro-ruby (FR) or the anterograde tracer 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyamine perchlorate (DiI) into the rat superior colliculi. We discovered that gp120 is retrogradely transported with FR along a direct pathway from the superior colliculus to the
retina and anterogradely transported with DiI to several areas of the occipital cortex. To determine whether gp120 is also axonally transported in the peripheral nerves, gp120 and FR were injected into the sciatic nerve. No gp120 immunoreactivity was found in the sciatic nerve or dorsal root ganglia, suggesting that gp120 axonal transport does not occur in the PNS. Gp120 axonal transport may play a role in neuronal injury. Therefore, we examined apoptosis at various time points after gp120 injection. Activated caspase-3 was evident within neurons transporting gp120. These results indicate that axonal transport of gp120 might exacerbate the pathogenesis of HIV-1.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahmed:2009a,
  author = {Ahmed, Farid and MacArthur, Linda and De Bernardi, Maria A and Mocchetti, Italo},
  title = {Retrograde and anterograde transport of HIV protein gp120 in the nervous system.},
  journal = {Brain, behavior, and immunity},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {23},
  pages = {355--364},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2008.11.007}
}
Ahmed, J. and Engbretson, G. Disk shedding in the absence of a pigment epithelium in the lizard parietal eye 1993 Vision Research
Vol. 33(18), pp. 2637-2643 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The photoreceptors and pigment epithelia of vertebrate retinas rhythmically synthesize and degrade photosensitive membrane, but the origin of the signal to shed the outer segment tips remains unknown. The parietal eye of lizards contains cone-like photoreceptors but no pigment epithelium. Parietal eye photoreceptors synthesize new disk membrane in a manner similar to rods and cones and also shed their tips rhythmically. The shed material is then engulfed by lumenal macrophages. The signal to shed must originate in, or be transduced by, the photoreceptor. © 1993.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahmed:1993,
  author = {Ahmed, J. and Engbretson, G.A.},
  title = {Disk shedding in the absence of a pigment epithelium in the lizard parietal eye},
  journal = {Vision Research},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {33},
  number = {18},
  pages = {2637-2643},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0027420603&partnerID=40&md5=36385e3f1ddd5a4e6bcd639780a09263},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0042-6989(93)90222-I}
}
Ahmed, M.U., Cheng, L. and Dietrich, S. Establishment of the epaxial-hypaxial boundary in the avian myotome. 2006 Dev Dyn
Vol. 235(7), pp. 1884-1894School: Department of Craniofacial Development, King's College London, Guy's Hospital, London Bridge, London, United Kingdom. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Trunk skeletal muscles are segregated into dorsomedial epaxial and ventrolateral hypaxial muscles, separated by a myoseptum. In amniotes, they are generated from a transient structure, the dermomyotome, which lays down muscle, namely the myotome underneath. However, the dermomyotome and myotome are dorsoventrally continuous, with no morphologically defined epaxial-hypaxial boundary. The transcription factors En1 and Sim1 have been shown to molecularly subdivide the amniote dermomyotome, with En1 labeling the epaxial dermomyotome and Sim1 the hypaxial counterpart. Here, we demonstrate that En1 and Sim1 expression persists in cells leaving the dermomyotome, superimposing the expression boundary onto muscle and skin. En1-expressing cells colonize the myotome initially from the rostral and caudal lips, and slightly later, directly from the de-epithelializing dermomyotomal center. En1 expression in the myotome is concomitant with the appearance of Fgfr4/Pax7-expressing mitotically active
myoblasts. This finding suggests that Fgfr4+/Pax7+/En1+ cells carry their expression with them when entering the myotome. Furthermore, it suggests that the epaxial-hypaxial boundary of the myotome is established through the late arising, mitotically active myoblasts.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahmed:2006,
  author = {Ahmed, Mohi U. and Cheng, Louise and Dietrich, Susanne},
  title = {Establishment of the epaxial-hypaxial boundary in the avian myotome.},
  journal = {Dev Dyn},
  school = {Department of Craniofacial Development, King's College London, Guy's Hospital, London Bridge, London, United Kingdom.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {235},
  number = {7},
  pages = {1884--1894},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.20832},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.20832}
}
Ahn, K., Nishiyama, A., Mierke, D. and Kendall, D. Hydrophobic residues in helix 8 of cannabinoid receptor 1 are critical for structural and functional Properties 2010 Biochemistry
Vol. 49(3), pp. 502-511 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: In addition to the heptahelical transmembrane domain shared by all G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), many class A GPCRs adopt a helical domain, termed helix 8, in the membrane-proximal region of the C terminus. We investigated the role of residues in the hydrophobic and hydrophilic faces of amphiphilic helix 8 of human cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). To differentiate between a role for specific residues and global features, we made two key mutants: one involving replacement of the highly hydrophobic groups, Leu404, Phe408, and Phe412, all with alanine and the second involving substitution of the basic residues, Lys402, Arg405, and Arg409, all with the neutral glutamine. The former showed a very low Bmax based on binding isotherms, a minimal Emax based on GTPγS binding analysis, and defective localization relative to the wild-type CB1 receptor as revealed by confocal microscopy. However, the latter mutant and the wild-type receptors were indistinguishable. Circular dichroism
spectroscopy of
purified peptides with corresponding sequences indicated that the highly hydrophobic residues are critical for maintaining a strong helical structure in detergent, whereas the positively charged residues are not. Further investigation of mutant receptors revealed that CB1 localization requires a threshold level of hydrophobicity but not specific amino acids. Moreover, mutant receptors carrying two- to six-residue insertions amino-terminal to helix 8 revealed a graded decrease in Bmax values. Our results identify the key helix 8 components (including hydrophobicity of specific residues, structure, and location relative to TM7) determinant for receptor localization leading to robust ligand binding and G protein activation. ©2009 American Chemical Society.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahn:2010,
  author = {Ahn, K.H. and Nishiyama, A. and Mierke, D.F. and Kendall, D.A.},
  title = {Hydrophobic residues in helix 8 of cannabinoid receptor 1 are critical for structural and functional Properties},
  journal = {Biochemistry},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {49},
  number = {3},
  pages = {502-511},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-74949128254&partnerID=40&md5=7de8e378846375e9fffc41592147c4ff},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1021/bi901619r}
}
Ahn, S. and Phillips, A.G. Independent modulation of basal and feeding-evoked dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex by the central and basolateral amygdalar nuclei in the rat. 2003 Neuroscience
Vol. 116(1), pp. 295-305School: Department of Psychiatry and the Brain Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A1, Canada. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Interactions of the central and basolateral nuclei of the amygdala with the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system are implicated in the acquisition and performance of conditioned responses for food reward. This study investigated whether dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens and the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat is influenced by the amygdala and if so, to assess the significance of the interaction in free feeding of a palatable food. To this end, we examined the effects of reverse-dialysis of the sodium channel blocker lidocaine into either the central or basolateral on dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens and the medial prefrontal cortex as determined by microdialysis and high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The present results revealed for the first time that inactivation of the central decreased basal levels of dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens, but not in the medial prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, administration of lidocaine into the
central significantly attenuated feeding-evoked increases in dopamine efflux in both terminal regions. These neurochemical effects were accompanied by feeding-related behaviours akin to the Klüver-Bucy syndrome. In contrast, inactivation of the basolateral affected neither food intake nor dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens, but triggered dramatic long-lasting oscillations in dopamine efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex, irrespective of whether food was presented or not. Overall, these findings indicate that the central and basolateral independently modulate dopamine transmission in both terminal regions of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. The central, in particular, and its influence on the dopamine system, may be involved in the regulation of food intake.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahn:2003,
  author = {Ahn, S. and Phillips, A. G.},
  title = {Independent modulation of basal and feeding-evoked dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex by the central and basolateral amygdalar nuclei in the rat.},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  school = {Department of Psychiatry and the Brain Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A1, Canada.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {116},
  number = {1},
  pages = {295--305},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/s0306-4522(02)00551-1}
}
Ahnaou, A., Langlois, X., Steckler, T., Bartolome-Nebreda, J. and Drinkenburg, W.H.I.M. Negative versus positive allosteric modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR5): indices for potential pro-cognitive drug properties based on EEG network oscillations and sleep-wake organization in rats. 2015 Psychopharmacology (Berl)
Vol. 232(6), pp. 1107-1122School: Department of Neuroscience, Janssen Research and Development, Turnhoutseweg 30, 2340, Beerse, Belgium, aahnaou@its.jnj.com. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Evidence is emerging that positive and negative modulation of the metabotropic glutamate (mGluR5) receptors has the potential for treating cognitive deficits and neuroprotection associated with psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, respectively. Sleep and synchronisation of disparate neuronal networks are critically involved in neuronal plasticity, and disturbance in vigilance states and cortical network connectivity contribute significantly to cognitive deficits described in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Here, we examined the circadian changes of mGluR5 density and the functional response to modulation of mGluR5 signaling.The current study carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats quantified the density of mGluR5 across the light-dark cycle with autoradiography. The central activity of mGluR5 negative allosteric modulators (2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) and [(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl]pyridine (MTEP) and positive allosteric modulators (S-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-3-[3-(
4-fluoro-phenyl)-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-5-yl]-piperidin-1-yl-methanone (ADX47273) and (7S)-3-tert-butyl-7-[3-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine (LSN2814617) was examined on sleep-wake architecture. The functional effect of mGluR5 modulation on cortical networks communication was described in freely moving animals.The density of mGluR5 in the striatal, cortical, hippocampal and thalamic structures was unchanged across the light-dark cycle. Allosteric blockade of mGluR5 consistently consolidated deep sleep, enhanced sleep efficiency and elicited prominent functional coherent network activity in slow theta and gamma oscillations. However, allosteric activation of mGluR5 increased waking, decreased deep sleep and reduced functional network connectivity following the activation of slow alpha oscillatory activity.This functional study differentiates the pharmacology of allosteric blockade of mGluR5 from that of allosteric activation and suggests that mGluR5 blockade
enhances sleep and facilitates oscillatory network connectivity, both processes being known to have relevance in cognition processes.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahnaou:2015,
  author = {Ahnaou, A and Langlois, X and Steckler, T and Bartolome-Nebreda, JM and Drinkenburg, W H I M},
  title = {Negative versus positive allosteric modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR5): indices for potential pro-cognitive drug properties based on EEG network oscillations and sleep-wake organization in rats.},
  journal = {Psychopharmacology (Berl)},
  school = {Department of Neuroscience, Janssen Research and Development, Turnhoutseweg 30, 2340, Beerse, Belgium, aahnaou@its.jnj.com.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {232},
  number = {6},
  pages = {1107--1122},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-014-3746-4},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-014-3746-4}
}
Ahumada, J., Fernández de Sevilla, D., Couve, A., Buño, W. and Fuenzalida, M. Long-term depression of inhibitory synaptic transmission induced by spike-timing dependent plasticity requires coactivation of endocannabinoid and muscarinic receptors. 2013 Hippocampus
Vol. 23(12), pp. 1439-1452School: Centro de Neurobiología y Plasticidad Cerebral, Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Valparaíso, Chile. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The precise timing of pre-postsynaptic activity is vital for the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) or depression (LTD) at many central synapses. We show in synapses of rat CA1 pyramidal neurons in vitro that spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) protocols that induce LTP at glutamatergic synapses can evoke LTD of inhibitory postsynaptic currents or STDP-iLTD. The STDP-iLTD requires a postsynaptic Ca(2+) increase, a release of endocannabinoids (eCBs), the activation of type-1 endocananabinoid receptors and presynaptic muscarinic receptors that mediate a decreased probability of GABA release. In contrast, the STDP-iLTD is independent of the activation of nicotinic receptors, GABAB Rs and G protein-coupled postsynaptic receptors at pyramidal neurons. We determine that the downregulation of presynaptic Cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein Kinase A pathways is essential for the induction of STDP-iLTD. These results suggest a novel mechanism by which the activation of cholinergic
neurons and retrograde signaling by eCBs can modulate the efficacy of GABAergic synaptic transmission in ways that may contribute to information processing and storage in the hippocampus.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahumada:2013,
  author = {Ahumada, Juan and Fernández de Sevilla, David and Couve, Alejandro and Buño, Washington and Fuenzalida, Marco},
  title = {Long-term depression of inhibitory synaptic transmission induced by spike-timing dependent plasticity requires coactivation of endocannabinoid and muscarinic receptors.},
  journal = {Hippocampus},
  school = {Centro de Neurobiología y Plasticidad Cerebral, Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Valparaíso, Chile.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {23},
  number = {12},
  pages = {1439--1452},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hipo.22196},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/hipo.22196}
}
Ahumada, J., Fernández de Sevilla, D., Couve, A., Buño, W. and Fuenzalida, M. Long-term depression of inhibitory synaptic transmission induced by spike-timing dependent plasticity requires coactivation of endocannabinoid and muscarinic receptors. 2013 Hippocampus
Vol. 23(12), pp. 1439-1452School: Centro de Neurobiología y Plasticidad Cerebral, Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Valparaíso, Chile. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The precise timing of pre-postsynaptic activity is vital for the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) or depression (LTD) at many central synapses. We show in synapses of rat CA1 pyramidal neurons in vitro that spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) protocols that induce LTP at glutamatergic synapses can evoke LTD of inhibitory postsynaptic currents or STDP-iLTD. The STDP-iLTD requires a postsynaptic Ca(2+) increase, a release of endocannabinoids (eCBs), the activation of type-1 endocananabinoid receptors and presynaptic muscarinic receptors that mediate a decreased probability of GABA release. In contrast, the STDP-iLTD is independent of the activation of nicotinic receptors, GABAB Rs and G protein-coupled postsynaptic receptors at pyramidal neurons. We determine that the downregulation of presynaptic Cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein Kinase A pathways is essential for the induction of STDP-iLTD. These results suggest a novel mechanism by which the activation of cholinergic
neurons and retrograde signaling by eCBs can modulate the efficacy of GABAergic synaptic transmission in ways that may contribute to information processing and storage in the hippocampus.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahumada:2013a,
  author = {Ahumada, Juan and Fernández de Sevilla, David and Couve, Alejandro and Buño, Washington and Fuenzalida, Marco},
  title = {Long-term depression of inhibitory synaptic transmission induced by spike-timing dependent plasticity requires coactivation of endocannabinoid and muscarinic receptors.},
  journal = {Hippocampus},
  school = {Centro de Neurobiología y Plasticidad Cerebral, Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Valparaíso, Chile.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {23},
  number = {12},
  pages = {1439--1452},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hipo.22196},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/hipo.22196}
}
Ai, J., Epstein, P.N., Gozal, D., Yang, B., Wurster, R. and Cheng, Z.J. Morphology and topography of nucleus ambiguus projections to cardiac ganglia in rats and mice. 2007 Neuroscience
Vol. 149(4), pp. 845-860School: Biomolecular Science Center, Burnett College of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Vagal efferent axons from the nucleus ambiguus (NA) innervate ganglionated plexuses in the dorsal surface of cardiac atria, which in turn, may have different functional roles in cardiac regulation. However, the morphology and topography of vagal efferent projections to these ganglionated plexuses in rats and mice have not been well delineated. In the present study, we injected the tracer 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3' tetramethylindocarbocyanine methanesulfonate (DiI) into the left NA to label vagal efferent axons and terminals in cardiac ganglia and administered Fluoro-Gold (FG) i.p. to stain cardiac ganglia. Then, we used confocal microscopy and a Neurolucida 3-D Digitization System to qualitatively and quantitatively examine the distribution and structure of cardiac ganglia, and NA efferent projections to cardiac ganglia in the whole-mounts of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and FVB mice. Our observations were: 1) Cardiac ganglia of different shapes and sizes were distributed in the
sinoatrial (SA) node, atrioventricular (AV) node, and lower pulmonary vein (LPV) regions on the dorsal surface of the atria. In each region, several ganglia formed a ganglionated plexus. The plexuses at different locations were interconnected by nerves. 2) Vagal efferent fibers ramified within cardiac ganglia, formed a complex network of axons, and innervated cardiac ganglia with very dense basket endings around individual cardiac principal neurons (PNs). 3) The percent of the PNs in cardiac ganglia which were innervated by DiI-labeled axons was 54.3+/-3.2% in mice vs. 53.2+/-3.2% in rats (P>0.10). 4) The density of axonal putative-synaptic varicosities on the surface of PNs was 0.15+/-0.02/microm(2) in mice vs. 0.16+/-0.02/microm(2) in rats (P>0.10). Thus, the distributions of cardiac ganglia and vagal efferent projections to cardiac ganglia in mice and rats were quite similar both qualitatively and quantitatively. Our study provides the structural foundation for future investigation of functional
differentiation of ganglionated plexuses and the brain-heart circuitry in rodent models of human disease.
BibTeX:
@article{Ai:2007,
  author = {Ai, J. and Epstein, P. N. and Gozal, D. and Yang, B. and Wurster, R. and Cheng, Z. J.},
  title = {Morphology and topography of nucleus ambiguus projections to cardiac ganglia in rats and mice.},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  school = {Biomolecular Science Center, Burnett College of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {149},
  number = {4},
  pages = {845--860},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.07.062},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.07.062}
}
Ai, J., Gozal, D., Li, L., Wead, W.B., Chapleau, M.W., Wurster, R., Yang, B., Li, H., Liu, R. and Cheng, Z. Degeneration of vagal efferent axons and terminals in cardiac ganglia of aged rats. 2007 J Comp Neurol
Vol. 504(1), pp. 74-88School: Biomolecular Science Center, Burnett College of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816, USA. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Baroreflex control of the heart rate is significantly reduced during aging. However, neural mechanisms that underlie such a functional reduction are not fully understood. We injected the tracer DiI into the left nucleus ambiguus (NA), then used confocal microscopy and a Neurolucida Digitization System to examine qualitatively and quantitatively vagal efferent projections to cardiac ganglia of young adult (5-6 months) and aged (24-25 months) rats (Sprague Dawley). Fluoro-Gold was injected intraperitoneally to counterstain cardiac ganglionic principal neurons (PNs). In aged, as in young rats, NA axons projected to all cardiac ganglia and formed numerous basket endings around PNs in the hearts. However, significant structural changes were found in aged rats compared with young rats. Vagal efferent axons contained abnormally swollen axonal segments and exhibited reduced or even absent synaptic-like terminals around PNs, such that the numbers of vagal fibers and basket endings around
PNs were substantially reduced (P < 0.01). Furthermore, synaptic-like varicose contacts of vagal cardiac axons with PNs were significantly reduced by approximately 50% (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that vagal efferents continue to maintain homeostatic control over the heart during aging. However, the marked morphological reorganization of vagal efferent axons and terminals in cardiac ganglia may represent the structural substrate for reduced vagal control of the heart rate and attenuated baroreflex function during aging.
BibTeX:
@article{Ai:2007a,
  author = {Ai, Jing and Gozal, David and Li, Lihua and Wead, William B. and Chapleau, Mark W. and Wurster, Robert and Yang, Baofeng and Li, Hulun and Liu, Rugao and Cheng, Zixi},
  title = {Degeneration of vagal efferent axons and terminals in cardiac ganglia of aged rats.},
  journal = {J Comp Neurol},
  school = {Biomolecular Science Center, Burnett College of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816, USA.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {504},
  number = {1},
  pages = {74--88},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.21431},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.21431}
}
Ai, J., Gozal, D., Li, L., Wead, W.B., Chapleau, M.W., Wurster, R., Yang, B., Li, H., Liu, R. and Cheng, Z. Degeneration of vagal efferent axons and terminals in cardiac ganglia of aged rats. 2007 The Journal of comparative neurology
Vol. 504, pp. 74-88 
article DOI  
Abstract: Baroreflex control of the heart rate is significantly reduced during aging. However, neural mechanisms that underlie such a functional reduction are not fully understood. We injected the tracer DiI into the left nucleus ambiguus (NA), then used confocal microscopy and a Neurolucida Digitization System to examine qualitatively and quantitatively vagal efferent projections to cardiac ganglia of young adult (5-6 months) and aged (24-25 months) rats (Sprague Dawley). Fluoro-Gold was injected intraperitoneally to counterstain cardiac ganglionic principal neurons (PNs). In aged, as in young rats, NA axons projected to all cardiac ganglia and formed numerous basket endings around PNs in the hearts. However, significant structural changes were found in aged rats compared with young rats. Vagal efferent axons contained abnormally swollen axonal segments and exhibited reduced or even absent synaptic-like terminals around PNs, such that the numbers of vagal fibers and basket endings around PNs were substantially reduced (P < 0.01). Furthermore, synaptic-like varicose contacts of vagal cardiac axons with PNs were significantly reduced by approximately 50% (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that vagal efferents continue to maintain homeostatic control over the heart during aging. However, the marked morphological reorganization of vagal efferent axons and terminals in cardiac ganglia may represent the structural substrate for reduced vagal control of the heart rate and attenuated baroreflex function during aging.
BibTeX:
@article{Ai:2007b,
  author = {Ai, Jing and Gozal, David and Li, Lihua and Wead, William B and Chapleau, Mark W and Wurster, Robert and Yang, Baofeng and Li, Hulun and Liu, Rugao and Cheng, Zixi},
  title = {Degeneration of vagal efferent axons and terminals in cardiac ganglia of aged rats.},
  journal = {The Journal of comparative neurology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {504},
  pages = {74--88},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.21431}
}
Ai, J., Wurster, R.D., Harden, S.W. and Cheng, Z.J. Vagal afferent innervation and remodeling in the aortic arch of young-adult fischer 344 rats following chronic intermittent hypoxia. 2009 Neuroscience
Vol. 164(2), pp. 658-666School: Biomolecular Science Center, Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32816, USA. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Previously, we have shown that chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) impairs baroreflex control of heart rate and augments aortic baroreceptor afferent function. In the present study, we examined whether CIH induces structural changes of aortic afferent axons and terminals. Young-adult Fischer 344 (F344, 4 months old) rats were exposed to room air (RA) or CIH for 35-45 days. After 14-24 days of exposure, they received tracer DiI injection into the left nodose ganglion to anterogradely label vagal afferent nerves. After surgery, animals were returned to their cages to continue RA or CIH exposure. Twenty-one days after DiI injection, the animals were sacrificed and the aortic arch was examined using confocal microscopy. In both RA and CIH rats, we found that DiI-labeled vagal afferent axons entered the wall of the aortic arch, then fanned out and branched into large receptive fields with numerous terminals (flower-sprays, end-nets and free endings). Vagal afferent axons projected
much more to the anterior wall than to the posterior wall. In general, the flower-sprays, end-nets and free endings were widely and similarly distributed in the aortic arch of both groups. However, several salient differences between RA and CIH rats were found. Compared to RA control, CIH rats appeared to have larger vagal afferent receptive fields. The CIH rats had many abnormal flower-sprays, end-nets, and free endings which were intermingled and diffused into "bush-like" structures. However, the total number of flower-sprays was comparable (P>0.05). Since there was a large variance of the size of flower-sprays, we only sampled the 10 largest flower-sprays from each animal. CIH substantially increased the size of large flower-sprays (P<0.01). Numerous free endings with enlarged varicosities were identified, resembling axonal sprouting structures. Taken together, our data indicate that CIH induces significant remodeling of afferent terminal structures in the aortic arch of F344 rats. We suggest that such an
enlargement of vagal afferent terminals may contribute to altered aortic baroreceptor function following CIH.
BibTeX:
@article{Ai:2009,
  author = {Ai, J. and Wurster, R. D. and Harden, S. W. and Cheng, Z. J.},
  title = {Vagal afferent innervation and remodeling in the aortic arch of young-adult fischer 344 rats following chronic intermittent hypoxia.},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  school = {Biomolecular Science Center, Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32816, USA.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {164},
  number = {2},
  pages = {658--666},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.06.066},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.06.066}
}
Aicher, S.A., Goldberg, A., Sharma, S. and Pickel, V.M. mu-opioid receptors are present in vagal afferents and their dendritic targets in the medial nucleus tractus solitarius. 2000 J Comp Neurol
Vol. 422(2), pp. 181-190School: Division of Neurobiology, Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA. saaicher@med.cornell.edu 
article DOI  
Abstract: Ligands of the mu-opiate receptor (MOR) are known to influence many functions that involve vagal afferent input to the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), including cardiopulmonary responses, gastrointestinal activity, and cortical arousal. The current study sought to determine whether a cellular substrate exists for direct modulation of vagal afferents and/or their neuronal targets in the NTS by ligands of the MOR. Anterograde tracing of vagal afferents arising from the nodose ganglion was achieved with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA), and the MOR was detected by using antipeptide MOR antiserum. The medial subdivision of the intermediate NTS was examined by electron microscopy for the presence of peroxidase-labeled, BDA-containing vagal afferents and immunogold MOR labeling. MOR was present in both presynaptic axon terminals and at postsynaptic sites, primarily dendrites. In dendrites, MOR immunogold particles usually were located along extrasynaptic portions of the plasma membrane. Of 173
observed BDA-labeled vagal afferent axon terminals, 33% contained immunogold labeling for MOR within the axon terminal. Many of these BDA-labeled terminals formed asymmetric, excitatory-type synapses with dendrites, some of which contained MOR immunogold labeling. MORs were present in 19% of the dendrites contacted by BDA-labeled terminals but were present rarely in both the vagal afferent and its dendritic target. Together, these results suggest that MOR ligands modulate either the presynaptic release from or the postsynaptic responses to largely separate populations of vagal afferents in the intermediate NTS. These results provide a cellular substrate for direct actions of MOR ligands on primary visceral afferents and their second-order neuronal targets in NTS.
BibTeX:
@article{Aicher:2000a,
  author = {Aicher, S. A. and Goldberg, A. and Sharma, S. and Pickel, V. M.},
  title = {mu-opioid receptors are present in vagal afferents and their dendritic targets in the medial nucleus tractus solitarius.},
  journal = {J Comp Neurol},
  school = {Division of Neurobiology, Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA. saaicher@med.cornell.edu},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {422},
  number = {2},
  pages = {181--190},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1096-9861(20000626)422:2%3C181::aid-cne3%3E3.0.co;2-g}
}
Aicher, S.A., Goldberg, A., Sharma, S. and Pickel, V.M. mu-opioid receptors are present in vagal afferents and their dendritic targets in the medial nucleus tractus solitarius. 2000 The Journal of comparative neurology
Vol. 422, pp. 181-90 
article  
Abstract: Ligands of the mu-opiate receptor (MOR) are known to influence many functions that involve vagal afferent input to the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), including cardiopulmonary responses, gastrointestinal activity, and cortical arousal. The current study sought to determine whether a cellular substrate exists for direct modulation of vagal afferents and/or their neuronal targets in the NTS by ligands of the MOR. Anterograde tracing of vagal afferents arising from the nodose ganglion was achieved with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA), and the MOR was detected by using antipeptide MOR antiserum. The medial subdivision of the intermediate NTS was examined by electron microscopy for the presence of peroxidase-labeled, BDA-containing vagal afferents and immunogold MOR labeling. MOR was present in both presynaptic axon terminals and at postsynaptic sites, primarily dendrites. In dendrites, MOR immunogold particles usually were located along extrasynaptic portions of the plasma membrane. Of 173
observed BDA-labeled vagal afferent axon terminals, 33% contained immunogold labeling for MOR within the axon terminal. Many of these BDA-labeled terminals formed asymmetric, excitatory-type synapses with dendrites, some of which contained MOR immunogold labeling. MORs were present in 19% of the dendrites contacted by BDA-labeled terminals but were present rarely in both the vagal afferent and its dendritic target. Together, these results suggest that MOR ligands modulate either the presynaptic release from or the postsynaptic responses to largely separate populations of vagal afferents in the intermediate NTS. These results provide a cellular substrate for direct actions of MOR ligands on primary visceral afferents and their second-order neuronal targets in NTS.
BibTeX:
@article{Aicher:2000c,
  author = {Aicher, S. A. and Goldberg, A. and Sharma, S. and Pickel, V. M.},
  title = {mu-opioid receptors are present in vagal afferents and their dendritic targets in the medial nucleus tractus solitarius.},
  journal = {The Journal of comparative neurology},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {422},
  pages = {181-90},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Aicher, S.A., Hegarty, D.M. and Hermes, S.M. Corneal pain activates a trigemino-parabrachial pathway in rats. 2014 Brain Res
Vol. 1550, pp. 18-26School: Science University, Mail code: L334, 3181 Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239-3098, United States. Electronic address: hermess@ohsu.edu. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Corneal pain is mediated by primary afferent fibers projecting to the dorsal horn of the medulla, specifically the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. In contrast to reflex responses, the conscious perception of pain requires transmission of neural activity to higher brain centers. Ascending pain transmission is mediated primarily by pathways to either the thalamus or parabrachial nuclei. We previously showed that some corneal afferent fibers preferentially contact parabrachial-projecting neurons in the rostral pole of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis, but the role of these projection neurons in transmitting noxious information from the cornea has not been established. In the present study, we show that noxious stimulation of the corneal surface activates neurons in the rostral pole of the nucleus caudalis, including parabrachially projecting neurons that receive direct input from corneal afferent fibers. We used immunocytochemical detection of c-Fos protein as an index of neuronal
activation after noxious ocular stimulation. Animals had previously received injections of a retrograde tracer into either thalamic or parabrachial nuclei to identify projection neurons in the trigeminal dorsal horn. Noxious stimulation of the cornea induced c-Fos in neurons sending projections to parabrachial nuclei, but not thalamic nuclei. We also confirmed that corneal afferent fibers identified with cholera toxin B preferentially target trigeminal dorsal horn neurons projecting to the parabrachial nucleus. The parabrachial region sends ascending projections to brain regions involved in emotional and homeostatic responses. Activation of the ascending parabrachial system may explain the extraordinary salience of stimulation of corneal nociceptors.
BibTeX:
@article{Aicher:2014,
  author = {Aicher, Sue A. and Hegarty, Deborah M. and Hermes, Sam M.},
  title = {Corneal pain activates a trigemino-parabrachial pathway in rats.},
  journal = {Brain Res},
  school = { Science University, Mail code: L334, 3181 Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239-3098, United States. Electronic address: hermess@ohsu.edu.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {1550},
  pages = {18--26},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2014.01.002},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2014.01.002}
}
Aicher, S.A., Hegarty, D.M. and Hermes, S.M. Corneal pain activates a trigemino-parabrachial pathway in rats. 2014 Brain research
Vol. 1550, pp. 18-26 
article DOI  
Abstract: Corneal pain is mediated by primary afferent fibers projecting to the dorsal horn of the medulla, specifically the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. In contrast to reflex responses, the conscious perception of pain requires transmission of neural activity to higher brain centers. Ascending pain transmission is mediated primarily by pathways to either the thalamus or parabrachial nuclei. We previously showed that some corneal afferent fibers preferentially contact parabrachial-projecting neurons in the rostral pole of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis, but the role of these projection neurons in transmitting noxious information from the cornea has not been established. In the present study, we show that noxious stimulation of the corneal surface activates neurons in the rostral pole of the nucleus caudalis, including parabrachially projecting neurons that receive direct input from corneal afferent fibers. We used immunocytochemical detection of c-Fos protein as an index of neuronal activation after noxious ocular stimulation. Animals had previously received injections of a retrograde tracer into either thalamic or parabrachial nuclei to identify projection neurons in the trigeminal dorsal horn. Noxious stimulation of the cornea induced c-Fos in neurons sending projections to parabrachial nuclei, but not thalamic nuclei. We also confirmed that corneal afferent fibers identified with cholera toxin B preferentially target trigeminal dorsal horn neurons projecting to the parabrachial nucleus. The parabrachial region sends ascending projections to brain regions involved in emotional and homeostatic responses. Activation of the ascending parabrachial system may explain the extraordinary salience of stimulation of corneal nociceptors.
BibTeX:
@article{Aicher:2014a,
  author = {Aicher, Sue A. and Hegarty, Deborah M. and Hermes, Sam M.},
  title = {Corneal pain activates a trigemino-parabrachial pathway in rats.},
  journal = {Brain research},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {1550},
  pages = {18-26},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2014.01.002}
}
Aicher, S.A., Hermes, S.M. and Hegarty, D.M. Corneal afferents differentially target thalamic- and parabrachial-projecting neurons in spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis. 2012 NeuroscienceSchool: Science University, Mail Code: L334, 3181 Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239-3098, United States. Electronic address: aichers@ohsu.edu.  article DOI URL 
Abstract: Dorsal horn neurons send ascending projections to both thalamic nuclei and parabrachial nuclei; these pathways are thought to be critical pathways for central processing of nociceptive information. Afferents from the corneal surface of the eye mediate nociception from this tissue which is susceptible to clinically important pain syndromes. This study examined corneal afferents to the trigeminal dorsal horn and compared inputs to thalamic- and parabrachial-projecting neurons. We used anterograde tracing with cholera toxin B subunit to identify corneal afferent projections to trigeminal dorsal horn, and the retrograde tracer FluoroGold to identify projection neurons. Studies were conducted in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Our analysis was conducted at two distinct levels of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Vc) which receive corneal afferent projections. We found that corneal afferents project more densely to the rostral pole of Vc than the caudal pole. We also quantified the
number of thalamic- and parabrachial-projecting neurons in the regions of Vc that receive corneal afferents. Corneal afferent inputs to both groups of projection neurons were also more abundant in the rostral pole of Vc. Finally, by comparing the frequency of corneal afferent appositions to thalamic- versus parabrachial-projecting neurons, we found that corneal afferents preferentially target parabrachial-projecting neurons in trigeminal dorsal horn. These results suggest that nociceptive pain from the cornea may be primarily mediated by a non-thalamic ascending pathway.
BibTeX:
@article{Aicher:2012a,
  author = {Aicher, S. A. and Hermes, S. M. and Hegarty, D. M.},
  title = {Corneal afferents differentially target thalamic- and parabrachial-projecting neurons in spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis.},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  school = { Science University, Mail Code: L334, 3181 Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239-3098, United States. Electronic address: aichers@ohsu.edu.},
  year = {2012},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.11.033},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.11.033}
}
Aicher, S.A., Hermes, S.M., Whittier, K.L. and Hegarty, D.M. Descending projections from the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) to trigeminal and spinal dorsal horns are morphologically and neurochemically distinct. 2012 J Chem Neuroanat
Vol. 43(2), pp. 103-111School: Science University, Portland, OR 97239-3098, United States. aichers@ohsu.edu 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) are thought to modulate nociceptive transmission via projections to spinal and trigeminal dorsal horns. The cellular substrate for this descending modulation has been studied with regard to projections to spinal dorsal horn, but studies of the projections to trigeminal dorsal horn have been less complete. In this study, we combined anterograde tracing from RVM with immunocytochemical detection of the GABAergic synthetic enzyme, GAD67, to determine if the RVM sends inhibitory projections to trigeminal dorsal horn. We also examined the neuronal targets of this projection using immunocytochemical detection of NeuN. Finally, we used electron microscopy to verify cellular targets. We compared projections to both trigeminal and spinal dorsal horns. We found that RVM projections to both trigeminal and spinal dorsal horn were directed to postsynaptic profiles in the dorsal horn, including somata and dendrites, and not to primary afferent
terminals. We found that RVM projections to spinal dorsal horn were more likely to contact neuronal somata and were more likely to contain GAD67 than projections from RVM to trigeminal dorsal horn. These findings suggest that RVM neurons send predominantly GABAergic projections to spinal dorsal horn and provide direct input to postsynaptic neurons such as interneurons or ascending projection neurons. The RVM projection to trigeminal dorsal horn is more heavily targeted to dendrites and is only modestly GABAergic in nature. These anatomical features may underlie differences between trigeminal and spinal dorsal horns with regard to the degree of inhibition or facilitation evoked by RVM stimulation.
BibTeX:
@article{Aicher:2012,
  author = {Aicher, Sue A. and Hermes, Sam M. and Whittier, Kelsey L. and Hegarty, Deborah M.},
  title = {Descending projections from the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) to trigeminal and spinal dorsal horns are morphologically and neurochemically distinct.},
  journal = {J Chem Neuroanat},
  school = { Science University, Portland, OR 97239-3098, United States. aichers@ohsu.edu},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {43},
  number = {2},
  pages = {103--111},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2011.11.002},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2011.11.002}
}
Aicher, S.A., Hermes, S.M., Whittier, K.L. and Hegarty, D.M. Descending projections from the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) to trigeminal and spinal dorsal horns are morphologically and neurochemically distinct. 2012 Journal of chemical neuroanatomy
Vol. 43, pp. 103-11 
article DOI  
Abstract: Neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) are thought to modulate nociceptive transmission via projections to spinal and trigeminal dorsal horns. The cellular substrate for this descending modulation has been studied with regard to projections to spinal dorsal horn, but studies of the projections to trigeminal dorsal horn have been less complete. In this study, we combined anterograde tracing from RVM with immunocytochemical detection of the GABAergic synthetic enzyme, GAD67, to determine if the RVM sends inhibitory projections to trigeminal dorsal horn. We also examined the neuronal targets of this projection using immunocytochemical detection of NeuN. Finally, we used electron microscopy to verify cellular targets. We compared projections to both trigeminal and spinal dorsal horns. We found that RVM projections to both trigeminal and spinal dorsal horn were directed to postsynaptic profiles in the dorsal horn, including somata and dendrites, and not to primary afferent terminals. We found that RVM projections to spinal dorsal horn were more likely to contact neuronal somata and were more likely to contain GAD67 than projections from RVM to trigeminal dorsal horn. These findings suggest that RVM neurons send predominantly GABAergic projections to spinal dorsal horn and provide direct input to postsynaptic neurons such as interneurons or ascending projection neurons. The RVM projection to trigeminal dorsal horn is more heavily targeted to dendrites and is only modestly GABAergic in nature. These anatomical features may underlie differences between trigeminal and spinal dorsal horns with regard to the degree of inhibition or facilitation evoked by RVM stimulation.
BibTeX:
@article{Aicher:2012b,
  author = {Aicher, Sue A. and Hermes, Sam M. and Whittier, Kelsey L. and Hegarty, Deborah M.},
  title = {Descending projections from the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) to trigeminal and spinal dorsal horns are morphologically and neurochemically distinct.},
  journal = {Journal of chemical neuroanatomy},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {103-11},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2011.11.002}
}
Aicher, S.A., Kurucz, O.S., Reis, D.J. and Milner, T.A. Nucleus tractus solitarius efferent terminals synapse on neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla that project to the rostral ventrolateral medulla. 1995 Brain Res
Vol. 693(1-2), pp. 51-63School: Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA. 
article DOI  
Abstract: The caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVL) contains neurons that are vasodepressor and are a critical component of the baroreceptor reflex pathway. While electrophysiological studies suggest that CVL neurons are intercalated in the baroreceptor pathway between the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL), there is no direct evidence for this projection. Therefore, we identified CVL neurons that project to RVL by retrogradely labelling them with wheat germ agglutinin-apo-horseradish peroxidase conjugated to colloidal gold (WAHG) injected into the RVL. Retrogradely labelled neurons were seen in previously identified vasodepressor areas of the rostral CVL that are critical for the baroreceptor reflex. Double labelling for WAHG and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunocytochemistry indicated that CVL neurons that project to the RVL (CVL --> RVL neurons) are distinct from the noradrenergic neurons of the A1 cell group. To establish the presence of a direct projection
from the NTS to CVL --> RVL neurons, the retrograde tracer WAHG was pressure injected into the RVL and the anterograde tracer biocytin was iontophoresed into the NTS of anesthetized rats. After 4-6 h, anesthetized rats were perfused transcardially with 3.75% acrolein in 2% paraformaldehyde and sections through the CVL were processed for both markers. By light microscopy, numerous biocytin-labelled varicose processes overlapped neurons containing WAHG in the CVL. By electron microscopy, biocytin was found in myelinated and unmyelinated axons and in axon terminals (0.9 + 0.02 microns) that contained primarily small clear vesicles. These terminals formed predominantly asymmetric synapses on large (1.5-6.0 microns in diameter) dendrites within the CVL. Some of the post-synaptic perikarya and large dendrites contained WAHG associated with lysosomes and multivesicular bodies, indicating that they belong to neurons which project to the RVL. We conclude that CVL --> RVL neurons are (a) distinct from A1
noradrenergic cells; (b) receive direct synaptic contacts from NTS efferent terminals; (c) are potently and monosynaptically excited (asymmetric synapses) by NTS efferent terminals. These data support the hypothesis that CVL neurons are intercalated between the NTS and the RVL in the baroreceptor reflex pathway.
BibTeX:
@article{Aicher:1995a,
  author = {Aicher, S. A. and Kurucz, O. S. and Reis, D. J. and Milner, T. A.},
  title = {Nucleus tractus solitarius efferent terminals synapse on neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla that project to the rostral ventrolateral medulla.},
  journal = {Brain Res},
  school = {Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA.},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {693},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {51--63},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(95)00660-i}
}
Aicher, S.A., Kurucz, O.S., Reis, D.J. and Milner, T.A. Nucleus tractus solitarius efferent terminals synapse on neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla that project to the rostral ventrolateral medulla. 1995 Brain research
Vol. 693, pp. 51-63 
article  
Abstract: The caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVL) contains neurons that are vasodepressor and are a critical component of the baroreceptor reflex pathway. While electrophysiological studies suggest that CVL neurons are intercalated in the baroreceptor pathway between the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL), there is no direct evidence for this projection. Therefore, we identified CVL neurons that project to RVL by retrogradely labelling them with wheat germ agglutinin-apo-horseradish peroxidase conjugated to colloidal gold (WAHG) injected into the RVL. Retrogradely labelled neurons were seen in previously identified vasodepressor areas of the rostral CVL that are critical for the baroreceptor reflex. Double labelling for WAHG and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunocytochemistry indicated that CVL neurons that project to the RVL (CVL --> RVL neurons) are distinct from the noradrenergic neurons of the A1 cell group. To establish the presence of a direct projection from
the NTS to CVL --> RVL neurons, the retrograde tracer WAHG was pressure injected into the RVL and the anterograde tracer biocytin was iontophoresed into the NTS of anesthetized rats. After 4-6 h, anesthetized rats were perfused transcardially with 3.75% acrolein in 2% paraformaldehyde and sections through the CVL were processed for both markers. By light microscopy, numerous biocytin-labelled varicose processes overlapped neurons containing WAHG in the CVL. By electron microscopy, biocytin was found in myelinated and unmyelinated axons and in axon terminals (0.9 + 0.02 microns) that contained primarily small clear vesicles. These terminals formed predominantly asymmetric synapses on large (1.5-6.0 microns in diameter) dendrites within the CVL. Some of the post-synaptic perikarya and large dendrites contained WAHG associated with lysosomes and multivesicular bodies, indicating that they belong to neurons which project to the RVL. We conclude that CVL --> RVL neurons are (a) distinct from A1 noradrenergic
cells; (b) receive direct synaptic contacts from NTS efferent terminals; (c) are potently and monosynaptically excited (asymmetric synapses) by NTS efferent terminals. These data support the hypothesis that CVL neurons are intercalated between the NTS and the RVL in the baroreceptor reflex pathway.
BibTeX:
@article{Aicher:1995c,
  author = {Aicher, S. A. and Kurucz, O. S. and Reis, D. J. and Milner, T. A.},
  title = {Nucleus tractus solitarius efferent terminals synapse on neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla that project to the rostral ventrolateral medulla.},
  journal = {Brain research},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {693},
  pages = {51-63},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Aicher, S.A., Milner, T.A., Pickel, V.M. and Reis, D.J. Anatomical substrates for baroreflex sympathoinhibition in the rat. 2000 Brain Res Bull
Vol. 51(2), pp. 107-110School: Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA. saaicher@med.cornell.edu 
article DOI  
Abstract: The fundamental neuronal substrates of the arterial baroreceptor reflex have been elucidated by combining anatomical, neurophysiological, and pharmacological approaches. A serial pathway between neurons located in the nuclei of the solitary tract (NTS), the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVL), and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL) plays a critical role in inhibition of sympathetic outflow following stimulation of baroreceptor afferents. In this paper, we summarize our studies using tract-tracing and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry to define the potential functional sites for synaptic transmission within this circuitry. The results are discussed as they relate to the literature showing: (1) baroreceptor afferents excite second-order neurons in NTS through the release of glutamate; (2) these NTS neurons in turn send excitatory projections to neurons in the CVL; (3) GABAergic CVL neurons directly inhibit RVL sympathoexcitatory neurons; and (4) activation of this NTS-->CVL-->RVL
pathway leads to disfacilitation of sympathetic preganglionic neurons by promoting withdrawal of their tonic excitatory drive, which largely arises from neurons in the RVL. Baroreceptor control may also be regulated over direct reticulospinal pathways exemplified by a newly recognized sympathoinhibitory region of the medulla, the gigantocellular depressor area. This important autonomic reflex may also be influenced by parallel, multiple, and redundant networks.
BibTeX:
@article{Aicher:2000,
  author = {S. A. Aicher and T. A. Milner and V. M. Pickel and D. J. Reis},
  title = {Anatomical substrates for baroreflex sympathoinhibition in the rat.},
  journal = {Brain Res Bull},
  school = {Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA. saaicher@med.cornell.edu},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {51},
  number = {2},
  pages = {107--110},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/s0361-9230(99)00233-6}
}
Aicher, S.A., Milner, T.A., Pickel, V.M. and Reis, D.J. Anatomical substrates for baroreflex sympathoinhibition in the rat. 2000 Brain research bulletin
Vol. 51, pp. 107-10 
article  
Abstract: The fundamental neuronal substrates of the arterial baroreceptor reflex have been elucidated by combining anatomical, neurophysiological, and pharmacological approaches. A serial pathway between neurons located in the nuclei of the solitary tract (NTS), the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVL), and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL) plays a critical role in inhibition of sympathetic outflow following stimulation of baroreceptor afferents. In this paper, we summarize our studies using tract-tracing and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry to define the potential functional sites for synaptic transmission within this circuitry. The results are discussed as they relate to the literature showing: (1) baroreceptor afferents excite second-order neurons in NTS through the release of glutamate; (2) these NTS neurons in turn send excitatory projections to neurons in the CVL; (3) GABAergic CVL neurons directly inhibit RVL sympathoexcitatory neurons; and (4) activation of this NTS-->CVL-->RVL
pathway leads to disfacilitation of sympathetic preganglionic neurons by promoting withdrawal of their tonic excitatory drive, which largely arises from neurons in the RVL. Baroreceptor control may also be regulated over direct reticulospinal pathways exemplified by a newly recognized sympathoinhibitory region of the medulla, the gigantocellular depressor area. This important autonomic reflex may also be influenced by parallel, multiple, and redundant networks.
BibTeX:
@article{Aicher:2000d,
  author = {Aicher, S. A. and Milner, T. A. and Pickel, V. M. and Reis, D. J.},
  title = {Anatomical substrates for baroreflex sympathoinhibition in the rat.},
  journal = {Brain research bulletin},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {51},
  pages = {107-10},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Aicher, S.A. and Reis, D.J. Gigantocellular vasodepressor area is tonically active and distinct from caudal ventrolateral vasodepressor area. 1997 Am J Physiol
Vol. 272(3 Pt 2), pp. R731-R742School: Division of Neurobiology, Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York 10021, USA. 
article URL 
Abstract: The gigantocellular depressor area (GiDA) is a functionally defined subdivision of the medullary gigantocellular reticular formation where vasodepressor responses are evoked by glutamate microinjections (Aicher, S. A., D. J. Reis, D. A. Ruggiero, and T. A. Milner. Neuroscience 60: 761-779, 1994). The present experiments sought to determine whether the GiDA 1) tonically inhibits the sympathetic nervous system; 2) is necessary for baroreflex function; and 3) is functionally distinct from adjacent vasodepressor regions in the medullary reticular formation, including the midline raphe nuclei and the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVL). Excitotoxic lesions of the GiDA abolished the baroreflex and significantly increased sympathetic nerve activity in anesthetized rats. Equivalent injections into the midline raphe nuclei elevated sympathetic activity but did not alter baroreflex responses. Therefore, the GiDA is functionally distinct from the raphe nuclei, although both contain tonically active
sympathoinhibitory neurons. Because the effects of GiDA lesions were identical to those seen after lesions of the CVL, further studies were required to demonstrate that the GiDA and CVL are functionally and anatomically distinct. First, intramedullary injections of kynurenic acid produced hypertension and blocked the baroreflex when placed in the CVL, but not when placed in the GiDA. Second, muscimol inactivation of the RVL blocked the hypertension produced by excitotoxic lesions of the CVL, but failed to block the hypertension produced by similar lesions of the GiDA. Third, CVL neurons project to the RVL but not the spinal cord, whereas GiDA neurons project to the spinal cord but not the RVL. These studies show that the CVL and GiDA are both tonically sympathoinhibitory regions, but they are distinct with regard to their functional connectivity with other autonomic regions.
BibTeX:
@article{Aicher:1997,
  author = {Aicher, S. A. and Reis, D. J.},
  title = {Gigantocellular vasodepressor area is tonically active and distinct from caudal ventrolateral vasodepressor area.},
  journal = {Am J Physiol},
  school = {Division of Neurobiology, Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York 10021, USA.},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {272},
  number = {3 Pt 2},
  pages = {R731--R742},
  url = {http://ajpregu.physiology.org/content/ajpregu/272/3/R731.full.pdf}
}
Aicher, S.A., Reis, D.J., Nicolae, R. and Milner, T.A. Monosynaptic projections from the medullary gigantocellular reticular formation to sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the thoracic spinal cord. 1995 J Comp Neurol
Vol. 363(4), pp. 563-580School: Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York 10021, USA. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Microinjection of L-glutamate into a restricted area of the medullary gigantocellular reticular formation, the gigantocellular depressor area (GiDA), lowers arterial pressure. Unlike the nuclei tractus solitarii and the caudal ventrolateral medulla, the two principle medullary vasodepressor areas, the GiDA projects directly to the spinal cord and not to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (Aicher et al. [1994] Neuroscience 60:761-779). We investigated whether neurons within GiDA directly innervate autonomic areas of the thoracic spinal cord. Fluoro-Gold injected into the thoracic spinal cord labeled neurons within functionally defined vasodepressor sites in the GiDA in the same animal. To examine the morphology of GiDA efferents to the spinal cord, the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin was iontophoresed into the GiDA, and efferent processes in the intermediolateral cell column and nucleus intercalatus spinalis were examined by electron microscopy. Labeling was
confined to axons and axon terminals (n = 144) that usually contained primarily small clear vesicles, contacted large and small dendrites, and formed symmetric (inhibitory) synapses. To determine whether some of the postsynaptic targets of GiDA efferent terminals in the thoracic spinal cord were sympathoadrenal preganglionic neurons, these neurons were retrogradely labeled from the adrenal gland with Fluoro-Gold in rats that had deposits of the anterograde tracer, biotinylated dextran amine (BDA), in the GiDA. Some BDA-containing terminals formed symmetric synapses with dendrites containing Fluoro-Gold. We conclude that a population of neurons in the GiDA monosynaptically innervates some sympathetic preganglionic neurons. The findings suggest the presence of a novel reticulospinal sympathoinhibitory projection originating in the GiDA.
BibTeX:
@article{Aicher:1995,
  author = {Aicher, S. A. and Reis, D. J. and Nicolae, R. and Milner, T. A.},
  title = {Monosynaptic projections from the medullary gigantocellular reticular formation to sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the thoracic spinal cord.},
  journal = {J Comp Neurol},
  school = {Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York 10021, USA.},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {363},
  number = {4},
  pages = {563--580},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.903630405},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.903630405}
}
Aicher, S.A., Reis, D.J., Nicolae, R. and Milner, T.A. Monosynaptic projections from the medullary gigantocellular reticular formation to sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the thoracic spinal cord. 1995 The Journal of comparative neurology
Vol. 363, pp. 563-580 
article DOI  
Abstract: Microinjection of L-glutamate into a restricted area of the medullary gigantocellular reticular formation, the gigantocellular depressor area (GiDA), lowers arterial pressure. Unlike the nuclei tractus solitarii and the caudal ventrolateral medulla, the two principle medullary vasodepressor areas, the GiDA projects directly to the spinal cord and not to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (Aicher et al. [1994] Neuroscience 60:761-779). We investigated whether neurons within GiDA directly innervate autonomic areas of the thoracic spinal cord. Fluoro-Gold injected into the thoracic spinal cord labeled neurons within functionally defined vasodepressor sites in the GiDA in the same animal. To examine the morphology of GiDA efferents to the spinal cord, the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin was iontophoresed into the GiDA, and efferent processes in the intermediolateral cell column and nucleus intercalatus spinalis were examined by electron microscopy. Labeling was confined to axons and axon terminals (n = 144) that usually contained primarily small clear vesicles, contacted large and small dendrites, and formed symmetric (inhibitory) synapses. To determine whether some of the postsynaptic targets of GiDA efferent terminals in the thoracic spinal cord were sympathoadrenal preganglionic neurons, these neurons were retrogradely labeled from the adrenal gland with Fluoro-Gold in rats that had deposits of the anterograde tracer, biotinylated dextran amine (BDA), in the GiDA. Some BDA-containing terminals formed symmetric synapses with dendrites containing Fluoro-Gold. We conclude that a population of neurons in the GiDA monosynaptically innervates some sympathetic preganglionic neurons. The findings suggest the presence of a novel reticulospinal sympathoinhibitory projection originating in the GiDA.
BibTeX:
@article{Aicher:1995b,
  author = {Aicher, S A and Reis, D J and Nicolae, R and Milner, T A},
  title = {Monosynaptic projections from the medullary gigantocellular reticular formation to sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the thoracic spinal cord.},
  journal = {The Journal of comparative neurology},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {363},
  pages = {563--580},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.903630405}
}
Aicher, S.A., Reis, D.J., Ruggiero, D.A. and Milner, T.A. Anatomical characterization of a novel reticulospinal vasodepressor area in the rat medulla oblongata. 1994 Neuroscience
Vol. 60(3), pp. 761-779School: Cornell University Medical College, Division of Neurobiology, New York, NY 10021. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Microinjection of L-glutamate into a subregion of the gigantocellular nucleus of the rat medulla oblongata significantly lowers arterial pressure. This vasodepressor area, the gigantocellular depressor area, is topographically distinct from other vasoactive areas of the medulla. We sought to determine the efferent projections of the gigantocellular depressor area and compare these to the efferent projections of sympathoexcitatory neurons within the rostral ventrolateral medulla. The anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin was deposited into sites in the gigantocellular depressor area or rostral ventrolateral medulla (pressor area) functionally defined as vasodepressor or vasopressor by microinjections of L-glutamate. Following Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin injections into the gigantocellular depressor area, labeled punctuate fibers were seen bilaterally within distinct areas of a number of autonomic regions including the nuclei of the solitary tract, subcoeruleus area,
parabrachial complex, the medial medullary reticular formation of the medulla and pons, and laminae 7 and 10 of the thoracic spinal cord. Following deposits into the rostral ventrolateral medulla (pressor area), labeled fibers were seen in many of these same autonomic nuclei; however, efferents from the gigantocellular depressor area to the nucleus of the solitary tract, the parabrachial complex and the reticular formation were medial to rostral ventrolateral medulla (pressor area) efferents to these same areas. These data indicate that neurons within the gigantocellular depressor area and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (pressor area) project to autonomic nuclei throughout the central nervous system and further suggest a heterogeneity of function with regard to autonomic control both within the reticular formation and its efferent targets. In addition, these data support the view that the gigantocellular depressor area may be a novel reticulospinal sympathoinhibitory area.
BibTeX:
@article{Aicher:1994,
  author = {S. A. Aicher and D. J. Reis and D. A. Ruggiero and T. A. Milner},
  title = {Anatomical characterization of a novel reticulospinal vasodepressor area in the rat medulla oblongata.},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  school = {Cornell University Medical College, Division of Neurobiology, New York, NY 10021.},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {60},
  number = {3},
  pages = {761--779},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-4522(94)90503-7}
}
Aicher, S.A., Schreihofer, A.M., Kraus, J.A., Sharma, S., Milner, T.A. and Guyenet, P.G. Mu-opioid receptors are present in functionally identified sympathoexcitatory neurons in the rat rostral ventrolateral medulla. 2001 J Comp Neurol
Vol. 433(1), pp. 34-47School: Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Agonists of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) produce profound hypotension and sympathoinhibition when microinjected into the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL). These effects are likely to be mediated by the inhibition of adrenergic and other presympathetic vasomotor neurons located in the RVL. The present ultrastructural studies were designed to determine whether these vasomotor neurons, or their afferents, contain MORs. RVL bulbospinal barosensitive neurons were recorded in anesthetized rats and filled individually with biotinamide by using a juxtacellular labeling method. Biotinamide was visualized by using a peroxidase method and MOR was identified by using immunogold localization of an antipeptide antibody that recognizes the cloned MOR, MOR1. The subcellular relationship of MOR1 to RVL neurons with fast- or slow-conducting spinal axons was examined by electron microscopy. Fast- and slow-conducting cells were not morphologically distinguishable. Immunogold-labeling for MOR1 was found in
all RVL bulbospinal barosensitive neurons examined (9 of 9). MOR1 was present in 52% of the dendrites from both types of cells and in approximately half of these dendrites the MOR1 was at nonsynaptic plasmalemmal sites. A smaller portion of biotinamide-labeled dendrites (16 from both types of cells were contacted by MOR1-containing axons or axon terminals. Together, these results suggest that MOR agonists can directly influence the activity of all types of RVL sympathoexcitatory neurons and that MOR agonists may also influence the activity of afferent inputs to these cells. The heterogenous distribution of MORs within individual RVL neurons indicates that the receptor is selectively targeted to specific pre- and postsynaptic sites.
BibTeX:
@article{Aicher:2001,
  author = {Aicher, S. A. and Schreihofer, A. M. and Kraus, J. A. and Sharma, S. and Milner, T. A. and Guyenet, P. G.},
  title = {Mu-opioid receptors are present in functionally identified sympathoexcitatory neurons in the rat rostral ventrolateral medulla.},
  journal = {J Comp Neurol},
  school = {Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {433},
  number = {1},
  pages = {34--47},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.1123}
}
Aicher, S.A., Sharma, S. and Pickel, V.M. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors are present in vagal afferents and their dendritic targets in the nucleus tractus solitarius. 1999 Neuroscience
Vol. 91(1), pp. 119-132School: Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA. 
article DOI  
Abstract: N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors are present in the nodose ganglion, which contains the cell bodies of vagal afferents, and in the nucleus tractus solitarius, where these afferent fibers terminate. This suggests that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors are located presynaptically on visceral vagal afferents and/or their target neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius. To test this hypothesis, we combined anterograde transport of biotinylated dextran amine, following injections into the left nodose ganglion, with electron microscopic immunogold labeling of antipeptide antiserum against the R1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in the nucleus tractus solitarius of rat brain. Within the medial nucleus tractus solitarius, the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor R1 immunoreactivity was seen in dendrites (39% of 639 profiles), axons and axon terminals (41, and a few neuronal perikarya and glia. Many vagal afferent axons and terminals (40% of 468 profiles) contained N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor
R1 immunogold labeling. In addition, 42% of the dendrites contacted by vagal afferent terminals (n = 206) contained N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor R1 immunoreactivity. In axons and dendrites, the gold particles were occasionally seen within asymmetric postsynaptic junctions or at non-synaptic sites on the plasma membrane. More commonly, however, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor R1 labeling was seen on membranes of vesicular cytoplasmic organelles, suggesting that there is abundant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor protein available for activity-dependent mobilization to the plasmalemma. Since many vagal afferents are glutamatergic, our results implicate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in autoregulation of the presynaptic release and postsynaptic responses to glutamate at the level of the first central synapse in the nucleus tractus solitarius.
BibTeX:
@article{Aicher:1999,
  author = {S. A. Aicher and S. Sharma and V. M. Pickel},
  title = {N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors are present in vagal afferents and their dendritic targets in the nucleus tractus solitarius.},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  school = {Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA.},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {91},
  number = {1},
  pages = {119--132},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/s0306-4522(98)00530-2}
}
Aicher, S., Hahn, B.-I. and Milner, T. N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptors are found in post-synaptic targets of adrenergic terminals in the thoracic spinal cord 2000 Brain Research
Vol. 856(1-2), pp. 1-11 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Adrenergic (C1) neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL) are sympathoexcitatory and project directly to sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs) in the thoracic spinal cord. C1 neurons also contain glutamate which may mediate the excitatory effects of RVL stimulation on SPNs through the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type receptor. Dual-labeling immunocytochemistry, combined with electron microscopy, was used to determine if NMDA receptors are located post-synaptic to adrenergic terminals in the spinal cord. Adrenergic terminals were labeled using an antibody directed against phenylethanolamine-N-methyl transferase (PNMT) and the NMDA receptor was identified using an antibody directed against the R1 subunit of the receptor (NMDAR1). NMDAR1 was found primarily in large and small dendrites and a few perikarya. The presence of NMDAR1 in the dendritic targets of PNMT-containing terminals was quantified in spinal cords sectioned either horizontally or coronally. PNMT-labeled
terminals formed
asymmetric synapses on dendrites containing immunogold labeling for NMDAR1, but NMDAR1 was more often detected in the targets of PNMT terminals when spinal cords were sectioned horizontally (59%) rather than coronally (28%). This difference in prevalence of NMDAR1 in targets of PNMT terminals is likely due to the preferential orientation of SPN dendrites in the horizontal plane, since longer dendritic shafts were visible in horizontal sections. When NMDAR1 was present in the dendritic targets of many adrenergic terminals, it was usually located at sites distal to the adrenergic input. We conclude that NMDA receptor ligands are likely to modulate the activity of dendritic targets of adrenergic terminals in the spinal cord, but are not closely associated with adrenergic synaptic input. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.
BibTeX:
@article{Aicher:2000b,
  author = {Aicher, S.A. and Hahn, B.-I. and Milner, T.A.},
  title = {N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptors are found in post-synaptic targets of adrenergic terminals in the thoracic spinal cord},
  journal = {Brain Research},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {856},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {1-11},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0033955627&partnerID=40&md5=359eba4ac5455dd75410a4cdda3abd0a},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-8993(99)02145-9}
}
Aicher, S., Mitchell, J. and Mendelowitz, D. Distribution of μ-opioid receptors in rat visceral premotor neurons 2002 Neuroscience
Vol. 115(3), pp. 851-860 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Agonists of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) can modulate the activity of visceral premotor neurons, including cardiac premotor neurons. Neurons in brainstem regions containing these premotor neurons also contain dense concentrations of the MOR1. This study examined the distribution of MOR1 within two populations of visceral premotor neurons: one located in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and the other in the nucleus ambiguus. Visceral premotor neurons contained the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold following injections of the tracer into the pericardiac region of the thoracic cavity. MOR1 was localized using immunogold detection of an anti-peptide antibody. Visceral premotor neurons in both regions contained MOR1 at somatic and dendritic sites, although smaller dendrites were less likely to contain the receptor than larger dendrites, suggesting there may be selective trafficking of MOR1 within these neurons. MOR1 labeling in nucleus ambiguus neurons was more likely to be localized
to plasma membrane
sites, suggesting that ambiguus neurons may be more responsive to opioid ligands than neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. In addition, many of the dendrites of visceral premotor neurons were in direct apposition to other dendrites. MOR1 was often detected at these dendro-dendritic appositions that may be gap junctions. Together these findings indicate that the activity of individual visceral premotor neurons, as well as the coupling between neurons, may be regulated by ligands of the MOR. © 2002 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Aicher:2002,
  author = {Aicher, S.A and Mitchell, J.L and Mendelowitz, D.},
  title = {Distribution of μ-opioid receptors in rat visceral premotor neurons},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {115},
  number = {3},
  pages = {851-860},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0037049238&partnerID=40&md5=979093967ac155cdb04ce177481cbd17},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4522(02)00459-1}
}
Aicher, S., Mitchell, J., Swanson, K. and Zadina, J. Endomorphin-2 axon terminals contact mu-opioid receptor-containing dendrites in trigeminal dorsal horn 2003 Brain Research
Vol. 977(2), pp. 190-198 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The endomorphins represent a novel group of endogenous opioid peptides that have high affinity for the mu-opioid receptor (MOR1). Endomorphin-2 is present in high density in the spinal and trigeminal dorsal horns and is localized to primary afferents. If endomorphin-2 were an endogenous ligand for the MOR1, we would expect to find the receptor at cellular sites in close association with the peptide. We used dual-labeling immunocytochemical methods combined with electron microscopy to determine if a cellular substrate exists for functional interactions between endomorphin-2 and MOR1. We confirmed the localization of endomorphin-2 to unmyelinated axons and axon terminals in the trigeminal dorsal horn. A small proportion of these endomorphin-2 axons contained MOR1, but many of the dendritic targets of endomorphin-2 terminals contained MOR1. Consistent with previous studies, endomorphin-2 was contained primarily in dense core vesicles and MOR1 was located primarily at non-synaptic
sites. These
morphological characteristics are consistent with the hypothesis that peptides are released extra-synaptically and their receptors may be located at sites distal to the synaptic junction. These anatomical data support the hypothesis that endomorphin-2 is a ligand for MORs in the trigeminal dorsal horn, particularly at postsynaptic sites. © 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Aicher:2003,
  author = {Aicher, S.A. and Mitchell, J.L. and Swanson, K.C. and Zadina, J.E.},
  title = {Endomorphin-2 axon terminals contact mu-opioid receptor-containing dendrites in trigeminal dorsal horn},
  journal = {Brain Research},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {977},
  number = {2},
  pages = {190-198},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0038169088&partnerID=40&md5=dd46ebb26c339aa5e89106adce63f0c3},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-8993(03)02678-7}
}
Aigner, M., Robert Lukas, J., Denk, M., Ziya-Ghazvini, F., Kaider, A. and Mayr, R. Somatotopic organization of primary afferent perikarya of the guinea-pig extraocular muscles in the trigeminal ganglion: a post-mortem DiI-tracing study. 2000 Exp Eye Res
Vol. 70(4), pp. 411-418School: Institute of Anatomy 2, University of Vienna, Austria. martin.aigner@akh-wien.ac.at 
article DOI  
Abstract: Apart from the somatotopic organization of the trigeminal ganglion (TG) into the ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular divisions along the mediolateral axis, there exist further somatotopic organizations within these three divisions. According to literature, the cell organization in the TG and the somatotopy in the brainstem develop together, formed by naturally occurring cell death in the TG. Thus, the somatotopy of the primary afferent trigeminal perikarya is of special interest. The aim of this study was to investigate the location of the primary afferent perikarya of the extraocular muscles (EOMs) in the TG of guinea-pig. The primary afferent perikarya were labeled by post-mortem application of the carbocyanine DiI on the oculomotor nerve branches near their entrance into the single EOMs. The DiI-positive perikarya were found musculo-somatically organized in the ipsilateral ophthalmic part of the TG at a wide range along the dorsoventral axis, expressing an overlap of the representation
areas. The primary afferent perikarya of the superior rectus and the superior oblique muscles were mainly localized in the dorsal part of the ganglion while those of the inferior rectus and the inferior oblique muscle mainly in ventral part. The lateral and the medial rectus were predominantly represented in between. An organization along the mediolateral axis of the TG was not observed. Although guinea-pigs lack classical EOM proprioceptors, the somatotopic representation of the extraocular muscle primary afferent perikarya in the TG found in this study is in line with findings in species with well known encapsulated proprioceptors within the EOMs.
BibTeX:
@article{Aigner:2000,
  author = {Aigner, M. and Robert Lukas, J. and Denk, M. and Ziya-Ghazvini, F. and Kaider, A. and Mayr, R.},
  title = {Somatotopic organization of primary afferent perikarya of the guinea-pig extraocular muscles in the trigeminal ganglion: a post-mortem DiI-tracing study.},
  journal = {Exp Eye Res},
  school = {Institute of Anatomy 2, University of Vienna, Austria. martin.aigner@akh-wien.ac.at},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {70},
  number = {4},
  pages = {411--418},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1006/exer.1999.0828}
}
Aigner, M., Robert Lukas, J., Denk, M., Ziya-Ghazvini, F., Kaider, A. and Mayr, R. Somatotopic organization of primary afferent perikarya of the guinea-pig extraocular muscles in the trigeminal ganglion: a post-mortem DiI-tracing study. 2000 Experimental eye research
Vol. 70, pp. 411-8 
article  
Abstract: Apart from the somatotopic organization of the trigeminal ganglion (TG) into the ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular divisions along the mediolateral axis, there exist further somatotopic organizations within these three divisions. According to literature, the cell organization in the TG and the somatotopy in the brainstem develop together, formed by naturally occurring cell death in the TG. Thus, the somatotopy of the primary afferent trigeminal perikarya is of special interest. The aim of this study was to investigate the location of the primary afferent perikarya of the extraocular muscles (EOMs) in the TG of guinea-pig. The primary afferent perikarya were labeled by post-mortem application of the carbocyanine DiI on the oculomotor nerve branches near their entrance into the single EOMs. The DiI-positive perikarya were found musculo-somatically organized in the ipsilateral ophthalmic part of the TG at a wide range along the dorsoventral axis, expressing an overlap of the representation
areas. The primary afferent perikarya of the superior rectus and the superior oblique muscles were mainly localized in the dorsal part of the ganglion while those of the inferior rectus and the inferior oblique muscle mainly in ventral part. The lateral and the medial rectus were predominantly represented in between. An organization along the mediolateral axis of the TG was not observed. Although guinea-pigs lack classical EOM proprioceptors, the somatotopic representation of the extraocular muscle primary afferent perikarya in the TG found in this study is in line with findings in species with well known encapsulated proprioceptors within the EOMs.
BibTeX:
@article{Aigner:2000a,
  author = {Aigner, M. and Robert Lukas, J. and Denk, M. and Ziya-Ghazvini, F. and Kaider, A. and Mayr, R.},
  title = {Somatotopic organization of primary afferent perikarya of the guinea-pig extraocular muscles in the trigeminal ganglion: a post-mortem DiI-tracing study.},
  journal = {Experimental eye research},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {70},
  pages = {411-8},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Aimi, Y., Fujimura, M., Vincent, S.R. and Kimura, H. Localization of NADPH-diaphorase-containing neurons in sensory ganglia of the rat. 1991 J Comp Neurol
Vol. 306(3), pp. 382-392School: Department of Surgery, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The presence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase activity was studied histochemically in the sensory ganglia of the rat. Supraspinally, the trigeminal ganglion possessed only a few cells positively stained for NADPH-diaphorase, while a large number of positive neurons was found in the nodose ganglion. In the dorsal root ganglia, the distribution of positive cells showed a peculiar pattern in relation to spinal levels. Very minor populations (less than 2% of the total ganglionic cells) exhibited positive reaction in ganglia at levels ranging from the first cervical (C1) to fourth thoracic (T4) and from the second lumber (L2) through the entire sacral levels. In the middle to lower thoracic levels (from T5 to L1), however, abundant diaphorase-positive cells were observed. From these positive neurons it was possible to trace intensely stained nerve fibers. In the lower thoracic level, for example, dense positive fibers were seen in the ramus
communicans. Retrograde tracing studies revealed that diaphorase-containing neurons in the lower thoracic level project at least partly to the gastric wall and the celiac ganglion. These results indicate that the diaphorase-positive ganglionic neurons in the thoracicolumbar levels may carry autonomic visceral afferent information. Double staining with NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry and peptide immunohistochemistry revealed that NADPH-diaphorase colocalizes with calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P in many of these visceral afferent neurons.
BibTeX:
@article{Aimi:1991,
  author = {Aimi, Y. and Fujimura, M. and Vincent, S. R. and Kimura, H.},
  title = {Localization of NADPH-diaphorase-containing neurons in sensory ganglia of the rat.},
  journal = {J Comp Neurol},
  school = {Department of Surgery, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {306},
  number = {3},
  pages = {382--392},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.903060303},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.903060303}
}
Aimone, L., Bauer, C. and Gebhart, G. Brain-stem relays mediating stimulation-production antinociception from the lateral hypothalamus in the rat 1988 Journal of Neuroscience
Vol. 8(7), pp. 2652-2663 
article URL 
Abstract: Several lines of evidence have demonstrated a role for the lateral hypothalamus (LH) in an endogenous system of descending inhibition. The present study, in rats lightly anesthetized with pentobarbital, was undertaken to examine systematically the organization in the brain stem of pathways mediating descending inhibition of the nociceptive tail flick (TF) reflex produced by focal electrical stimulation in the LH. The microinjection of lidocaine into the midbrain, dorsolateral pons, or medial medulla resulted in significant increases in stimulation thresholds in the LH for inhibition of the TF reflex (89.1, 67.4, and 73.6%, respectively). Selective lesions of cell bodies in the midbrain or medulla by the neurotoxin ibotenic acid also produced significant increases in stimulation thresholds in the LH for inhibition of the TF reflex (31.6 and 131.6%, respectively), thus revealing relays in the periaqueductal gray and the nucleus raphe magnus location between the LH and the lumbar spinal cord.
The
failure of ibotenic acid to affect LH-produced descending inhibition when microinjected into the dorsolateral pons, and the significant effect produced by lidocaine microinjected into the same area, implicates fibers of passage in the dorsolateral pons in descending inhibition of the TF reflex produced by focal electrical stimulation in the LH. The fluorescent dye Fast blue and HRP conjugated to wheat germ agglutination were used to confirm that the area stimulated in the LH has reciprocal connections with the periaqueductal gray and nucleus raphe magnus.
BibTeX:
@article{Aimone:1988a,
  author = {Aimone, L.D. and Bauer, C.A. and Gebhart, G.F.},
  title = {Brain-stem relays mediating stimulation-production antinociception from the lateral hypothalamus in the rat},
  journal = {Journal of Neuroscience},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {8},
  number = {7},
  pages = {2652-2663},
  note = {Duplicate from Scopus!},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0023805265&partnerID=40&md5=d599dde2c2e0b1ad14f0de2a1b994793}
}
Aimone, L.D., Bauer, C.A. and Gebhart, G.F. Brain-stem relays mediating stimulation-produced antinociception from the lateral hypothalamus in the rat. 1988 J Neurosci
Vol. 8(7), pp. 2652-2663School: Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242. 
article URL 
Abstract: Several lines of evidence have demonstrated a role for the lateral hypothalamus (LH) in an endogenous system of descending inhibition. The present study, in rats lightly anesthetized with pentobarbital, was undertaken to examine systematically the organization in the brain stem of pathways mediating descending inhibition of the nociceptive tail flick (TF) reflex produced by focal electrical stimulation in the LH. The microinjection of lidocaine into the midbrain, dorsolateral pons, or medial medulla resulted in significant increases in stimulation thresholds in the LH for inhibition of the TF reflex (89.1, 67.4, and 73.6 respectively). Selective lesions of cell bodies in the midbrain or medulla by the neurotoxin ibotenic acid also produced significant increases in stimulation thresholds in the LH for inhibition of the TF reflex (31.6 and 131.6 respectively), thus revealing relays in the periaqueductal gray and the nucleus raphe magnus located between the LH and the lumbar spinal cord.
The failure of ibotenic acid to affect LH-produced descending inhibition when microinjected into the dorsolateral pons, and the significant effect produced by lidocaine microinjected into the same area, implicates fibers of passage in the dorsolateral pons in descending inhibition of the TF reflex produced by focal electrical stimulation in the LH. The fluorescent dye Fast blue and HRP conjugated to wheat germ agglutinin were used to confirm that the area stimulated in the LH has reciprocal connections with the periaqueductal gray and nucleus raphe magnus.
BibTeX:
@article{Aimone:1988,
  author = {Aimone, L. D. and Bauer, C. A. and Gebhart, G. F.},
  title = {Brain-stem relays mediating stimulation-produced antinociception from the lateral hypothalamus in the rat.},
  journal = {J Neurosci},
  school = {Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242.},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {8},
  number = {7},
  pages = {2652--2663},
  url = {http://www.jneurosci.org/content/8/7/2652}
}
Ainge, J.A., Jenkins, T.A. and Winn, P. Induction of c-fos in specific thalamic nuclei following stimulation of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. 2004 Eur J Neurosci
Vol. 20(7), pp. 1827-1837School: School of Psychology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9JU, Scotland. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) is a major source of cholinergic input to the thalamus. Tracing studies have established that the PPTg has projections to many thalamic nuclei and electrophysiological studies have shown acetylcholine (ACh) to have characteristic effects on thalamic neurons. Behavioural studies point to a role for the PPTg in attention and it is possible that a key substrate for this is the ability of the PPTg to modify sensorimotor gating through the thalamus. However, it is not clear how altered PPTg activity effects neuronal activity across the thalamus en masse. We have attempted to examine this by stimulating the PPTg in freely moving rats and measuring thalamic activation with c-fos immunohistochemistry. The PPTg was stimulated by unilateral microinjection of the L-glutamate uptake inhibitor L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (PDC) with the rationale that reuptake blockade increases locally the availability of endogenous neurotransmitter. It was
shown that PDC microinjection into PPTg produced clear and consistent changes in Fos immunoreactivity in several thalamic nuclei, but most markedly in the centrolateral, ventrolateral and reticular nuclei. A second study was carried out to determine the gross behavioural effects of intra-PPTg L-glutamate blockade. No changes in locomotion or other general behaviours were observed, indicating that observed changes in thalamic Fos expression were not the result of increased behavioural output but rather a direct consequence of increased neuronal activity from PPTg input. The present data extend previous work establishing pedunculopontine-thalamic connections by specifying which particular nuclei are most affected by PPTg activation.
BibTeX:
@article{Ainge:2004,
  author = {Ainge, James A. and Jenkins, Trisha A. and Winn, Philip},
  title = {Induction of c-fos in specific thalamic nuclei following stimulation of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus.},
  journal = {Eur J Neurosci},
  school = {School of Psychology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9JU, Scotland.},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {20},
  number = {7},
  pages = {1827--1837},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03647.x},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03647.x}
}
Ainge, J.A., Jenkins, T.A. and Winn, P. Induction of c-fos in specific thalamic nuclei following stimulation of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. 2004 The European journal of neuroscience
Vol. 20, pp. 1827-37 
article  
Abstract: The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) is a major source of cholinergic input to the thalamus. Tracing studies have established that the PPTg has projections to many thalamic nuclei and electrophysiological studies have shown acetylcholine (ACh) to have characteristic effects on thalamic neurons. Behavioural studies point to a role for the PPTg in attention and it is possible that a key substrate for this is the ability of the PPTg to modify sensorimotor gating through the thalamus. However, it is not clear how altered PPTg activity effects neuronal activity across the thalamus en masse. We have attempted to examine this by stimulating the PPTg in freely moving rats and measuring thalamic activation with c-fos immunohistochemistry. The PPTg was stimulated by unilateral microinjection of the L-glutamate uptake inhibitor L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (PDC) with the rationale that reuptake blockade increases locally the availability of endogenous neurotransmitter. It was shown
that PDC microinjection into PPTg produced clear and consistent changes in Fos immunoreactivity in several thalamic nuclei, but most markedly in the centrolateral, ventrolateral and reticular nuclei. A second study was carried out to determine the gross behavioural effects of intra-PPTg L-glutamate blockade. No changes in locomotion or other general behaviours were observed, indicating that observed changes in thalamic Fos expression were not the result of increased behavioural output but rather a direct consequence of increased neuronal activity from PPTg input. The present data extend previous work establishing pedunculopontine-thalamic connections by specifying which particular nuclei are most affected by PPTg activation.
BibTeX:
@article{Ainge:2004a,
  author = {Ainge, James A. and Jenkins, Trisha A. and Winn, Philip},
  title = {Induction of c-fos in specific thalamic nuclei following stimulation of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus.},
  journal = {The European journal of neuroscience},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {20},
  pages = {1827-37},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Ainge, J., Keating, G., Latimer, M. and Winn, P. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and responding for sucrose reward 2006 Behavioral Neuroscience
Vol. 120(3), pp. 563-570 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) lesions in rodents lead to increased sucrose consumption, but the psychological deficit behind this remains uncertain. To understand better the relationship between consumption of, and motivation for, sucrose, the authors trained rats to traverse a runway for 20% or 4% sucrose solution; after 7 days, concentrations were reversed. Control rats consumed more 20% than 4% sucrose solution and promptly altered run times in response to concentration change. PPTg-lesioned rats consumed normal quantities of 4% but more 20% sucrose solution than controls and took longer to alter their runway time following the concentration change. These data suggest that lesions of the PPTg do not alter motivation per se and might be better understood as inducing a response selection deficit. Copyright 2006 by the American Psychological Association.
BibTeX:
@article{Ainge:2006,
  author = {Ainge, J.A. and Keating, G.L. and Latimer, M.P. and Winn, P.},
  title = {The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and responding for sucrose reward},
  journal = {Behavioral Neuroscience},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {120},
  number = {3},
  pages = {563-570},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33745905972&partnerID=40&md5=b15da4d66d8669fac69e7e8865838a4d},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7044.120.3.563}
}
Aïoun, J. and Rampin, O. Anatomical evidence for glutamatergic transmission in primary sensory neurons and onto postganglionic neurons controlling penile erection in rats: an ultrastructural study with neuronal tracing and immunocytochemistry. 2006 Cell Tissue Res
Vol. 323(3), pp. 359-375School: Laboratoire de Neurobiologie de l'Olfaction et de la Prise Alimentaire, UR 1197 INRA-Bâtiment, 325-78352 Cedex, Jouy-en-Josas, France. aioun@jouy.inra.fr 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: In male rats, the dorsal penile nerve (DPN) conveys sensory information from the genitals to the lumbosacral spinal segments of the spinal cord. DPN is the afferent limb of a reflex loop that supports reflexive erections, and that includes a network of spinal interneurons and autonomic and somatic motoneurons to the penis and perineal striated muscles. Autonomic efferent pathways to the penis relay in the major pelvic ganglion (MPG). Glutamate (Glu) is a likely candidate as a neurotransmitter of reflexive erections. Both AMPA and NMDA glutamatergic receptor subunits are present in the lumbosacral spinal cord, and AMPA and NMDA receptor antagonists block reflexive erections. In the present study, we used tract-tracing experiments combined with immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical techniques to ascertain the presence of Glu at two different levels of the network controlling reflexive erections. DPN afferents were localized in the dorsal horn of the lumbosacral cord and
displayed the characteristics of either C-fibers or Adelta fibers. DPN terminals (some of them glutamatergic) were mainly distributed in the medial edge of the dorsal horn in the L6 spinal segment. GluR1 subunits were present in some DPN afferents, suggesting that they could be autoreceptors. DPN fibers were also present in the MPG, as were Glu terminals and GluR4 subunits. The results reveal the presence of Glu in DPN fibers and terminals and suggest that both the spinal cord and the MPG use glutamatergic transmission to control reflexive erections.
BibTeX:
@article{Aioun:2006,
  author = {Aïoun, Josiane and Rampin, Olivier},
  title = {Anatomical evidence for glutamatergic transmission in primary sensory neurons and onto postganglionic neurons controlling penile erection in rats: an ultrastructural study with neuronal tracing and immunocytochemistry.},
  journal = {Cell Tissue Res},
  school = {Laboratoire de Neurobiologie de l'Olfaction et de la Prise Alimentaire, UR 1197 INRA-Bâtiment, 325-78352 Cedex, Jouy-en-Josas, France. aioun@jouy.inra.fr},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {323},
  number = {3},
  pages = {359--375},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00441-005-0080-5},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-005-0080-5}
}
Airhart, M., Shirk, J. and Kriebel, R. Telencephalic projections to the goldfish hypothalamus: An anterograde degeneration study 1988 Brain Research Bulletin
Vol. 20(4), pp. 503-514 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: In this study, large areas of goldfish telencephalon were ablated including rostral nucleus preopticus periventriculare (rNPP), and degenerating axons were traced by a modified Fink and Heimer procedure. The lesioning procedure ablated large regions of area dorsalis telencephali pars medialis, centralis, and dorsolateral complex; and completely removed area ventralis telencephali pars dorsalis, ventralis, and lateralis. In addition, the supracommissural nucleus and rNPP were lesioned specifically because both nuclei have been thought to be involved in courtship behavior and endocrine control of reproduction. This investigation demonstrated extensive fiber projections from telencephalic nuclei and/or rNPP to the hypothalamus. Lesioned telencephalon and/or rNPP projected bilaterally to nucleus preopticus and the suprachiasmatic nucleus and unilaterally to the following tuberal nuclei: nucleus anterior tuberis, and the lateral hypothalamic nucleus. A much larger fiber projection to
the inferior lobe
nuclei was also observed with a large contralateral as well as ipsilateral input. © 1988.
BibTeX:
@article{Airhart:1988,
  author = {Airhart, M.J. and Shirk, J.O. and Kriebel, R.M.},
  title = {Telencephalic projections to the goldfish hypothalamus: An anterograde degeneration study},
  journal = {Brain Research Bulletin},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {20},
  number = {4},
  pages = {503-514},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0024164345&partnerID=40&md5=32cbb5f7a36ddeba8c4eebfb251583f3},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0361-9230(88)90141-4}
}
Aisa, B., Gil-Bea, F., Marcos, B., Tordera, R., Lasheras, B., Del Río, J. and Ramírez, M. Neonatal stress affects vulnerability of cholinergic neurons and cognition in the rat: Involvement of the HPA axis 2009 Psychoneuroendocrinology
Vol. 34(10), pp. 1495-1505 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Adverse experiences early in life may sensitize specific neurocircuits to subsequent stressors. We have evaluated in maternal separation (MS) rats, an animal paradigm of early-life stress, the effects of a selective cholinergic lesion on cognitive function as well as susceptibility of cholinergic neurons to the lesion. MS rats subjected to a cholinergic lesion by administration of the immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin, showed significant decreases in both choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity compared to control lesioned rats. Morris water maze results revealed a significant impairment in learning and memory function in MS adult rats and further cognitive deficits after the lesion. The lesion of cholinergic neurons induced a significant decrease in glucocorticoid receptor density in MS rats, accompanied by increases in CRF mRNA expression. Decreases in NGF and increases in NGF-p75NTR expression have also been found in MS rats. Our results suggest
that vulnerability of
basal forebrain cholinergic nerve cells might be affected by the HPA axis. The present data are discussed not only in terms of conditions that occur during ageing or Alzheimer disease, but also regarding a purported involvement of the cholinergic system in the regulation of HPA axis activity. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Aisa:2009,
  author = {Aisa, B. and Gil-Bea, F.J. and Marcos, B. and Tordera, R. and Lasheras, B. and Del Río, J. and Ramírez, M.J.},
  title = {Neonatal stress affects vulnerability of cholinergic neurons and cognition in the rat: Involvement of the HPA axis},
  journal = {Psychoneuroendocrinology},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {34},
  number = {10},
  pages = {1495-1505},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-70349835809&partnerID=40&md5=7c98608d19e378175aeb6116db66583e},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.05.003}
}
Aiso, M., Potter, W. and Saavedra, J. Axonal transport of dopamine D1 receptors in the rat brain 1987 Brain Research
Vol. 426(2), pp. 392-396 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Binding of a specific dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, 125I-SCH 23982, was measured in rat brain sections by quantitative autoradiography at various time intervals, following a knife cut through the striatonigral pathway. Twenty-four hours after lesioning, accumulations of D1 receptor binding sites were found in sagittal sections both rostral and caudal to the lesion site. No other regions studied (caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and substantia nigra pars reticulata) showed any change in D1 receptor binding 24h after the lesion. In brain sections obtained 10 days after lesioning, only the substantia nigra pars reticulata had a significant decrease in D1 receptors ipsilateral to the lesion. These findings suggest the possibility of a presence of bidirectional axonal transport of D1 receptors in rat striatonigral pathway. © 1987.
BibTeX:
@article{Aiso:1987,
  author = {Aiso, M. and Potter, W.Z. and Saavedra, J.M.},
  title = {Axonal transport of dopamine D1 receptors in the rat brain},
  journal = {Brain Research},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {426},
  number = {2},
  pages = {392-396},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0023616966&partnerID=40&md5=cb5e98c920a8aef2c2743ab25dec0b66},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(87)90895-X}
}
Aitkin, L.M. The Inferior Colliculus 1986 The Auditory Midbrain, pp. 75-100  incollection DOI  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Aitkin:1986,
  author = {Aitkin, Lindsay M},
  title = {The Inferior Colliculus},
  booktitle = {The Auditory Midbrain},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {1986},
  pages = {75--100},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59259-460-3_7}
}
Aitkin, L.M. and Phillips, S.C. The interconnections of the inferior colliculi through their commissure. 1984 J Comp Neurol
Vol. 228(2), pp. 210-216 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Much is known of the sources and manner of termination of ascending and descending input to the inferior colliculus (IC) but its commissural connections are less well understood. Most studies of the commissure have utilized small lesions or tracer deposits; while all agree that commissural axons terminating in the IC do so in its superficial and dorsomedial sectors, it is not clear where projecting cell bodies are located in the IC. The present study attempted total infiltration of the commissure of the cat IC with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in an effort to label all neuronal somas whose axons cross in the commissure. The distribution of labeled cells after the brachium of the IC (BIC) was cut unilaterally and infiltrated with HRP was also examined to enable comparison of the locations and approximate proportions of cells projecting to the contralateral IC and medial geniculate body (MGB). The cells giving rise to commissural axons form an array tilted dorsally from caudal to rostral that
spreads mediolaterally through the central nucleus into the external nucleus of the IC, but largely excludes the dorsomedial sector at posterior levels. A similar distribution of labeled cells, but with reduced numbers, is found when large HRP deposits are made in the contralateral BIC. These results, in conjunction with those from studies of the terminations of commissural axons made by others, suggest that the interconnections of the inferior colliculi through their commissure are complementary, rather than reciprocal.
BibTeX:
@article{Aitkin:1984,
  author = {Aitkin, L. M. and Phillips, S. C.},
  title = {The interconnections of the inferior colliculi through their commissure.},
  journal = {J Comp Neurol},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {228},
  number = {2},
  pages = {210--216},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.902280207},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.902280207}
}
Aizawa, H., Yanagihara, S., Kobayashi, M., Niisato, K., Takekawa, T., Harukuni, R., McHugh, T.J., Fukai, T., Isomura, Y. and Okamoto, H. The synchronous activity of lateral habenular neurons is essential for regulating hippocampal theta oscillation. 2013 J Neurosci
Vol. 33(20), pp. 8909-8921School: RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Medical Research Institute, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Lateral habenula (LHb) has attracted growing interest as a regulator of serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons in the CNS. However, it remains unclear how the LHb modulates brain states in animals. To identify the neural substrates that are under the influence of LHb regulation, we examined the effects of rat LHb lesions on the hippocampal oscillatory activity associated with the transition of brain states. Our results showed that the LHb lesion shortened the theta activity duration both in anesthetized and sleeping rats. Furthermore, this inhibitory effect of LHb lesion on theta maintenance depended upon an intact serotonergic median raphe, suggesting that LHb activity plays an essential role in maintaining hippocampal theta oscillation via the serotonergic raphe. Multiunit recording of sleeping rats further revealed that firing of LHb neurons showed significant phase-locking activity at each theta oscillation cycle in the hippocampus. LHb neurons showing activity that was coordinated with
that of the hippocampal theta were localized in the medial LHb division, which receives afferents from the diagonal band of Broca (DBB), a pacemaker region for the hippocampal theta oscillation. Thus, our findings indicate that the DBB may pace not only the hippocampus, but also the LHb, during rapid eye movement sleep. Since serotonin is known to negatively regulate theta oscillation in the hippocampus, phase-locking activity of the LHb neurons may act, under the influence of the DBB, to maintain the hippocampal theta oscillation by modulating the activity of serotonergic neurons.
BibTeX:
@article{Aizawa:2013,
  author = {Aizawa, Hidenori and Yanagihara, Shin and Kobayashi, Megumi and Niisato, Kazue and Takekawa, Takashi and Harukuni, Rie and McHugh, Thomas J and Fukai, Tomoki and Isomura, Yoshikazu and Okamoto, Hitoshi},
  title = {The synchronous activity of lateral habenular neurons is essential for regulating hippocampal theta oscillation.},
  journal = {J Neurosci},
  school = {RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Medical Research Institute, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {33},
  number = {20},
  pages = {8909--8921},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4369-12.2013},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4369-12.2013}
}
Aizawa, H., Yanagihara, S., Kobayashi, M., Niisato, K., Takekawa, T., Harukuni, R., McHugh, T.J., Fukai, T., Isomura, Y. and Okamoto, H. The synchronous activity of lateral habenular neurons is essential for regulating hippocampal theta oscillation. 2013 The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Vol. 33, pp. 8909-21 
article DOI  
Abstract: Lateral habenula (LHb) has attracted growing interest as a regulator of serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons in the CNS. However, it remains unclear how the LHb modulates brain states in animals. To identify the neural substrates that are under the influence of LHb regulation, we examined the effects of rat LHb lesions on the hippocampal oscillatory activity associated with the transition of brain states. Our results showed that the LHb lesion shortened the theta activity duration both in anesthetized and sleeping rats. Furthermore, this inhibitory effect of LHb lesion on theta maintenance depended upon an intact serotonergic median raphe, suggesting that LHb activity plays an essential role in maintaining hippocampal theta oscillation via the serotonergic raphe. Multiunit recording of sleeping rats further revealed that firing of LHb neurons showed significant phase-locking activity at each theta oscillation cycle in the hippocampus. LHb neurons showing activity that was coordinated with that of the hippocampal theta were localized in the medial LHb division, which receives afferents from the diagonal band of Broca (DBB), a pacemaker region for the hippocampal theta oscillation. Thus, our findings indicate that the DBB may pace not only the hippocampus, but also the LHb, during rapid eye movement sleep. Since serotonin is known to negatively regulate theta oscillation in the hippocampus, phase-locking activity of the LHb neurons may act, under the influence of the DBB, to maintain the hippocampal theta oscillation by modulating the activity of serotonergic neurons.
BibTeX:
@article{Aizawa:2013a,
  author = {Aizawa, Hidenori and Yanagihara, Shin and Kobayashi, Megumi and Niisato, Kazue and Takekawa, Takashi and Harukuni, Rie and McHugh, Thomas J. and Fukai, Tomoki and Isomura, Yoshikazu and Okamoto, Hitoshi},
  title = {The synchronous activity of lateral habenular neurons is essential for regulating hippocampal theta oscillation.},
  journal = {The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {8909-21},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4369-12.2013}
}
Aja, S., Chan, P., Barrett, J. and Gietzen, D. DA1 receptor activity opposes anorectic responses to amino acid-imbalanced diets 1999 Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
Vol. 62(3), pp. 493-498 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The serotonin3 (5-HT3) receptor plays an important role in the aminoprivic feeding model. Other neurochemical systems, including cholecystokinin (CCK) and dopamine (DA), are known to affect food intake. We pretreated rats systemically with tropisetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, alone and combined with antagonists of DA1 and DA2 receptors, and measured intake of an amino acid-imbalanced diet (IMB). As expected, tropisetron significantly increased intake of IMB. SCH-23390, a DA1 antagonist, increased IMB anorexia. When combined with tropisetron, DA2 antagonism with eticlopride reduced short-term intake of both the basal diet (BAS) and IMB. In the IMB model, specificity of 5-HT3-DA2 interactions, and of 5-HT3-CCK(A) interactions from previous studies, prompted investigation of CCK(A)-DA2 interactions; there appeared to be none. SKF-38393, a DA1 agonist, combined with the CCK(A) receptor antagonist, devazepide, increased BAS and tended to increase IMB intake. Thus, CCK(A)-DA1
interactions were not
specific for IMB. These data suggest that DA1 receptor activity opposes IMB anorexia, possibly via an interaction with the 5-HT3 receptor. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Inc.
BibTeX:
@article{Aja:1999,
  author = {Aja, S.M. and Chan, P. and Barrett, J.A. and Gietzen, D.W.},
  title = {DA1 receptor activity opposes anorectic responses to amino acid-imbalanced diets},
  journal = {Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {62},
  number = {3},
  pages = {493-498},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0032588006&partnerID=40&md5=6af3ffd813e37b5a078602447f14315c},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0091-3057(98)00213-5}
}
Ajika, K. and Hökfelt, T. Projections to the median eminence and the arcuate nucleus with special reference to monoamine systems: Effects of lesions 1975 Cell and Tissue Research
Vol. 158(1), pp. 15-35 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The external layer of the median eminence (ELME) and the arcuate nucleus of male rats were studied with the Falck-Hillarp technique and electron microscopy of aldehyde-OsO4 or KMnO4 fixed material after various types of hypothalamic deafferentation experiments with the Halász knife. Special reference was paid to the monoamine systems and the results can be summarized as follows. 1. The main monoaminergic input to the ELME comes from the arcuate nucleus-periventricular area via a dorsal approach. A horizontal transection through the arcuate nucleus decreases the percentage of monoamine boutons i.e. boutons with small granular vesicles, from 31.6% in the controls to 4.4% in the lesion group, whereas only a small effect is seen after anterior (or complete) deafferentations. 2. A major input to the ELME enters the basal hypothalamus at the anterior-lateral aspects (see Réthelyi and Halász, 1970). The fibers cut after anterior deafferentations in all probability mainly come from cell
bodies localized in
the anterior hypothalamus or even further rostrally but some may represent NA axons ascending from the lower brain stem. 3. The degeneration course of nerve endings in the ELME both after anterior deafferentations as well as after lesions in the arcuate nucleus is rapid (within 2-3 days) and morphologically characterized by an initial aggregation of large dense cored vesicles seemingly to electron dense bodies within the boutons and probably also to a closer spacing of the small electron lucent synaptic vesicles (see Raisman, 1972). This type of degeneration seems to take place both in monoamine and non-monoamine neurons. 4. Degenerating boutons are found in the arcuate nucleus after anterior and complete deafferentations. Thus, the anterior hypothalamus may exert an "indirect" control of the pituitary gland via synapses on arcuate neurons although quantitatively the "direct" influence through the projection to the ELME is of more importance. 5. After anterior deafferentations enlarged axons containing large
amounts of large dense cored vesicles and other organelles are found caudally of the cut indicating the existence of rostral projections from the medial hypothalamus. These results have been reported in part at the 47th Annual Meeting of the Japan Endocrinological Society, April 8-10, 1974 in Tokyo. © 1975 Springer-Verlag.
BibTeX:
@article{Ajika:1975,
  author = {Ajika, K. and Hökfelt, T.},
  title = {Projections to the median eminence and the arcuate nucleus with special reference to monoamine systems: Effects of lesions},
  journal = {Cell and Tissue Research},
  year = {1975},
  volume = {158},
  number = {1},
  pages = {15-35},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0016745474&partnerID=40&md5=63db988337f1438b2df1880d20725e59},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00219949}
}
Akaike, A., Sasa, M. and Takaori, S. Effects of haloperidol and sulpiride on dopamine-induced inhibition of nucleus accumbens neurons 1983 Life Sciences
Vol. 32(23), pp. 2649-2653 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Microiontophoretic study was performed to elucidate dopaminergic mechanism in the nucleus accumbens (Acc) of rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate. Iontophoretically applied dopamine produced an inhibition of glutamate-induced firing in 28 (62%) out of 45 Acc neurons tested. The dopamine-induced inhibition of 14 Acc neurons was clearly antagonized by simultaneous application of haloperidol, and a partial antagonism by sulpiride was observed in 3 out of 10 Acc neurons. These results indicate that dopamine produces an inhibition of the Acc neuron and that, compared to haloperidol, sulpiride is a less potent blocker of the postsynaptic dopamine receptor involved in the dopamine-induced inhibition. © 1983.
BibTeX:
@article{Akaike:1983,
  author = {Akaike, A. and Sasa, M. and Takaori, S.},
  title = {Effects of haloperidol and sulpiride on dopamine-induced inhibition of nucleus accumbens neurons},
  journal = {Life Sciences},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {32},
  number = {23},
  pages = {2649-2653},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0020519335&partnerID=40&md5=b690c45ffe8b7e65f88408beb3ac41de},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3205(83)90356-9}
}
Akaike, N. and Rhee, J.S. Age-related functional changes of the glutamate receptor channels in rat Meynert neurones. 1997 J Physiol
Vol. 504 ( Pt 3), pp. 665-681School: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. akaike@physiol2.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp 
article DOI  
Abstract: 1. The developmental changes of glutamate receptors (GluRs) in acutely dissociated rat Meynert neurones were investigated using the conventional whole cell and nystatin perforated patch recording modes under voltage-clamp conditions. 2. The neurones became less responsive to N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) with age, most dramatically between 1 day and 2 weeks, while the responses to kainic acid (KA) and L-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) gradually increased. The metabotropic GluR response appeared a few days after birth, but thereafter no further change was observed. 3. The decrease in the NMDA response during postnatal development was due to an abrupt reduction in the number of receptors without affecting the affinity, voltage-dependent Mg2+ blockade or high Ca2+ permeability (PCa/PCs approximately 7.0). 4. PCa/PCs in the presence of KA decreased from 2.8 in the 1-day-old (1D) rat neurones to 1.1 and 0.44 in the 2-week-old (2W) and 6-month-old (6M) rat
neurones, respectively. The concentration-response relationship for KA shifted to the left with age. The KA response was not affected by NS-102, a KA-selective antagonist, thus indicating that the increased affinity of the receptor for the ligand resulted from the change in the AMPA receptor channel subunits. 5. The AMPA response in the presence of 10(-4) M cyclothiazide showed a change in the inward rectifying current-voltage relationship with age. The KA response was strongly cross-desensitized by the addition of AMPA and was also blocked by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), whereas a rapid desensitization of the AMPA response was removed in a concentration-dependent manner by cyclothiazide. These results indicate that the non-NMDA receptor channels are assembled from the subunits of the AMPA receptor family without the GluR-2 subunit, thus resulting in a high Ca2+ permeability. 6. The L-glutamate (Glu)-induced responses were more sensitive to DL-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV) in the 1D
rat neurones than in the adult rat neurones. 7. Both NMDA and KA raised the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in all neurones of 1D, 2W and 6M rats, though the charybdotoxin-sensitive Ca(2+)-activated K+ current (IK(Ca)) did not appear in the 1D rat neurones. An age-related prolongation of both IK(Ca) decay and [Ca2+]i clearance was also seen after the removal of KA. 8. It was thus concluded that the age-related changes of ionotropic receptors appear to play a key role in the activities of immature and mature rat Meynert cholinergic neurones. The KA-induced IK(Ca), which developed with ageing, may thus function as one of the negative feedback systems, and thereby prevent excess cell excitation and neural damage, especially in adult rats.
BibTeX:
@article{Akaike:1997,
  author = {Akaike, N. and Rhee, J. S.},
  title = {Age-related functional changes of the glutamate receptor channels in rat Meynert neurones.},
  journal = {J Physiol},
  school = {Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. akaike@physiol2.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {504 ( Pt 3)},
  pages = {665--681},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7793.1997.665bd.x}
}
Akaike, N., Shin, M.-C., Wakita, M., Torii, Y., Harakawa, T., Ginnaga, A., Kato, K., Kaji, R. and Kozaki, S. Transsynaptic inhibition of spinal transmission by A2 botulinum toxin. 2013 J Physiol
Vol. 591(Pt 4), pp. 1031-1043School: Research Division for Life Sciences, Kumamoto Health Science University, Kumamoto 861-5598, Japan. akaike@kumamoto-hsu.ac.jp 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Type A botulinum toxin blocks not only ACh release from motor nerve terminals but also central synaptic transmission, including glutamate, noradrenaline, dopamine, ATP, GABA and glycine. Neurotoxins (NTXs) are transported by both antero- and retrogradely along either motor or sensory axons for bidirectional delivery between peripheral tissues or the CNS. A newly developed type A2 NTX (A2NTX) injected into one rat foreleg muscle was transported to the contralateral muscle. This finding was consistent with the NTX traveling retrogradely via spinal neurons and then transsynaptically through motor neurons to the contralateral motor neurons within the spinal cord and on to the soleus muscle. In the present study we found that toxin injection into the rat left soleus muscle clearly induced bilateral muscle relaxation in a dose-dependent fashion, although the contralateral muscle relaxation followed the complete inhibition of toxin-injected ipsilateral muscles. The toxin-injected ipsilateral muscle
relaxation was faster and stronger in A2NTX-treated rats than A1LL (BOTOX). A1LL was transported almost equally to the contralateral muscle via neural pathways and the bloodstream. In contrast, A2NTX was mainly transported to contralateral muscles via the blood. A1LL was more successfully transported to contralateral spinal neurons than A2NTX. We also demonstrated that A1LL and A2NTX were carried from peripheral to CNS and vice versa by dual antero- and retrograde axonal transport through either motor or sensory neurons.
BibTeX:
@article{Akaike:2013,
  author = {Akaike, Norio and Shin, Min-Chul and Wakita, Masahito and Torii, Yasushi and Harakawa, Tetsuhiro and Ginnaga, Akihiro and Kato, Keiko and Kaji, Ryuji and Kozaki, Shunji},
  title = {Transsynaptic inhibition of spinal transmission by A2 botulinum toxin.},
  journal = {J Physiol},
  school = {Research Division for Life Sciences, Kumamoto Health Science University, Kumamoto 861-5598, Japan. akaike@kumamoto-hsu.ac.jp},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {591},
  number = {Pt 4},
  pages = {1031--1043},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2012.242131},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2012.242131}
}
Akaike, T. The tectorecipient zone in the inferior olivary nucleus in the rat 1992 J Comp Neurol
Vol. 320(3), pp. 398-414 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Akaike:1992,
  author = {Akaike, T},
  title = {The tectorecipient zone in the inferior olivary nucleus in the rat},
  journal = {J Comp Neurol},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {320(3)},
  pages = {398-414},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.903200311}
}
Akaishi, T., Kimura, A., Sato, A. and Suzuki, A. Responses of neurons in the nucleus basalis of meynert to various afferent stimuli in rats 1990 NeuroReport
Vol. 1(1), pp. 37-39 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The effects of innocuous and noxious mechanical stimulation of skin, and of baroreceptor and chemoreceptor stimulation, on the activity of single neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), whose axons project to the cortex, were examined in urethane-anesthetized adult rats. Most of the neurons were not significantly influenced by innocuous mechanical cutaneous stimulation or baroreceptor stimulation, while they were excited by noxious mechanical cutaneous stimulation and chemoreceptor stimulation. The NBM neurons were excited more intensely and frequently by nociceptive mechanical stimulation to a fore- or hindpaw than by that to the back or face. The function of these NBM neurons is discussed. © Rapid Communications of Oxford Ltd.
BibTeX:
@article{Akaishi:1990,
  author = {Akaishi, T. and Kimura, A. and Sato, A. and Suzuki, A.},
  title = {Responses of neurons in the nucleus basalis of meynert to various afferent stimuli in rats},
  journal = {NeuroReport},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {37-39},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0025615546&partnerID=40&md5=025c34b60ef2157b1861d3ed47b25200},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1097/00001756-199009000-00011}
}
Akasaki, K., Fukuzawa, M., Kinoshita, H., Furuno, K. and Tsuji, H. Cycling of two endogenous lysosomal membrane proteins, lamp-2 and acid phosphatase, between the cell surface and lysosomes in cultured rat hepatocytes. 1993 J Biochem
Vol. 114(4), pp. 598-604School: Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, Hiroshima. 
article URL 
Abstract: Our previous studies provided evidence that a 107-kDa major lysosomal membrane glycoprotein termed lamp-1 shuttles between lysosomes and the plasma membrane along the endocytic pathway in rat hepatic cells [Furuno et al. (1989) J. Biochem. 106, 708-716; Furuno et al. (1989) J. Biochem. 106, 717-722]. In the present study, we investigated the movement of a 96-kDa major lysosomal membrane glycoprotein, referred to as lamp-2, and lysosomal acid phosphatase (LAP) in the endocytic membrane transport system of cultured rat hepatocytes. Fab' fragments of anti-lamp-2 and anti-LAP antibodies conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were used as probes to analyze quantitatively the transport of these two membrane proteins from the cell surface to lysosomes. After the addition of HRP-anti-lamp-2 and anti-LAP Fab' fragments to the culture medium, the delivery of the antibody conjugates to lysosomes was examined by cell fractionation on a Percoll density gradient. The amount of these HRP tracers in
the lysosomal fraction became larger as the period of cell incubation was increased. Km values for uptake of HRP-anti-lamp-2, and LAP Fab' fragments were 0.74 and 0.62 microM, respectively, which were comparable to that of HRP-anti-lamp-1 Fab' (0.57 microM). The endocytic process of the two HRP-antibodies continued for an extended period in the cells exposed to the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. Furthermore, we measured the transit times of HRP-anti-lamp-1, anti-lamp-2, and anti-LAP Fab' fragments from the cell surface to lysosomes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
BibTeX:
@article{Akasaki:1993,
  author = {Akasaki, K. and Fukuzawa, M. and Kinoshita, H. and Furuno, K. and Tsuji, H.},
  title = {Cycling of two endogenous lysosomal membrane proteins, lamp-2 and acid phosphatase, between the cell surface and lysosomes in cultured rat hepatocytes.},
  journal = {J Biochem},
  school = {Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, Hiroshima.},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {114},
  number = {4},
  pages = {598--604},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/biochemistry1922/114/4/114_4_598/_article}
}
Akasaki, K., Michihara, A., Mibuka, K., Fujiwara, Y. and Tsuji, H. Biosynthetic transport of a major lysosomal membrane glycoprotein, lamp-1: convergence of biosynthetic and endocytic pathways occurs at three distinctive points. 1995 Exp Cell Res
Vol. 220(2), pp. 464-473School: Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, Hiroshima, Japan. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: We studied the kinetics of the biosynthetic transport of lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein-1 (lamp-1) to the endocytic compartments in cultured rat hepatocytes. Newly synthesized lamp-1 (NS-lamp-1) was transported to the trans-Golgi from rough endoplasmic reticulum with a half time (t1/2) of 13 min. From the trans-Golgi, at least 25% of NS-lamp-1 was delivered to the cell periphery: to the cell surface and early endosomes with t1/2 s of 32 and 33 min, respectively. A comparison of the kinetics of the biosynthetic transport of lamp-1 to both compartments demonstrated that NS-lamp-1 takes two peripheral routes from the Golgi apparatus; it is delivered to early endosomes directly and after reaching the cell surface. A major portion of NS-lamp-1 follows a direct intracellular pathway to late endosomes (t1/2 = 45 min) and subsequently to lysosomes (t1/2 = 85 min). The kinetic data of the biosynthetic transport to these endocytic vacuoles suggested that a significant fraction of NS-lamp-1
returns to the late endosomes immediately after its arrival at lysosomes and that there is a unique retrograde delivery of NS-lamp-1 from late to early endosomes prior to its transport to lysosomes. Thus, in cultured rat hepatocytes, the lamp-1 biosynthetic and the endocytic pathways converge at the three distinctive points. Late endosomes are centrally situated in the complex biosynthetic route of lamp-1.
BibTeX:
@article{Akasaki:1995,
  author = {Akasaki, K. and Michihara, A. and Mibuka, K. and Fujiwara, Y. and Tsuji, H.},
  title = {Biosynthetic transport of a major lysosomal membrane glycoprotein, lamp-1: convergence of biosynthetic and endocytic pathways occurs at three distinctive points.},
  journal = {Exp Cell Res},
  school = {Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, Hiroshima, Japan.},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {220},
  number = {2},
  pages = {464--473},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/excr.1995.1338},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1006/excr.1995.1338}
}
Akdag, M.Z., Dasdag, S., Aksen, F., Isik, B. and Yilmaz, F. Effect of ELF magnetic fields on lipid peroxidation, sperm count, p53, and trace elements. 2006 Med Sci Monit
Vol. 12(11), pp. BR366-BR371School: Department of Biophysics, Medical Faculty of Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey. 
article  
Abstract: Some epidemiological and laboratory studies suggest a possible connection between extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields and certain illnesses, such as cancer, immune suppression, as well as reproductive toxic effects and abnormalities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ELF magnetic fields (1.35 mT) on sperm count, malondialdehyde concentration, the histology of such organs as the testes, brain, liver, and kidney tissues, p53 immunoreactivity of bone marrow, and the serum concentrations of Cu2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, and Fe3+ in rats.Sixteen Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into two groups. The rats in the experimental group were exposed to an ELF magnetic field 2 hr/day for 2 months (7 days a week). The rats in the control group were not exposed to the ELF magnetic field. The exposure was performed in a Faraday cage (130 x 65 x 80 cm) with grounded shielding against the electric component. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used for the statistical analysis of
the data.Magnetic field measurements showed that, under the experimental conditions, the magnetic field-exposure system produced a stable flux density of 1.35+/-0.018 mT and a stable frequency of 50 Hz, with negligible harmonics and no transients. However, no statistically significant alteration was observed in the parameters measured in this study except in Mn2+ concentrations (p<0.001).The present study found no evidence of an adverse effect of ELF magnetic fields on the measured parameters except for significantly increased Mn2+ concentrations (p<0.001).
BibTeX:
@article{Akdag:2006,
  author = {Akdag, M Zulkuf and Dasdag, Suleyman and Aksen, Feyzan and Isik, Birgul and Yilmaz, Fahri},
  title = {Effect of ELF magnetic fields on lipid peroxidation, sperm count, p53, and trace elements.},
  journal = {Med Sci Monit},
  school = {Department of Biophysics, Medical Faculty of Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {12},
  number = {11},
  pages = {BR366--BR371},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.}
}
Akdag, M.Z., Dasdag, S., Aksen, F., Isik, B. and Yilmaz, F. Effect of ELF magnetic fields on lipid peroxidation, sperm count, p53, and trace elements. 2006 Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
Vol. 12, pp. BR366-71 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Some epidemiological and laboratory studies suggest a possible connection between extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields and certain illnesses, such as cancer, immune suppression, as well as reproductive toxic effects and abnormalities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ELF magnetic fields (1.35 mT) on sperm count, malondialdehyde concentration, the histology of such organs as the testes, brain, liver, and kidney tissues, p53 immunoreactivity of bone marrow, and the serum concentrations of Cu2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, and Fe3+ in rats. MATERIAL/METHODS: Sixteen Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into two groups. The rats in the experimental group were exposed to an ELF magnetic field 2 hr/day for 2 months (7 days a week). The rats in the control group were not exposed to the ELF magnetic field. The exposure was performed in a Faraday cage (130 x 65 x 80 cm) with grounded shielding against the electric component. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used for
the statistical analysis of the data. RESULTS: Magnetic field measurements showed that, under the experimental conditions, the magnetic field-exposure system produced a stable flux density of 1.35+/-0.018 mT and a stable frequency of 50 Hz, with negligible harmonics and no transients. However, no statistically significant alteration was observed in the parameters measured in this study except in Mn2+ concentrations (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The present study found no evidence of an adverse effect of ELF magnetic fields on the measured parameters except for significantly increased Mn2+ concentrations (p<0.001).
BibTeX:
@article{Akdag:2006a,
  author = {Akdag, M. Zulkuf and Dasdag, Suleyman and Aksen, Feyzan and Isik, Birgul and Yilmaz, Fahri},
  title = {Effect of ELF magnetic fields on lipid peroxidation, sperm count, p53, and trace elements.},
  journal = {Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {BR366-71},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Aker, F.D. Innervation of rat molar teeth: II. A quantitative analysis of primary sensory neurons innervating a mandibular molar tooth. 1987 Anat Rec
Vol. 219(2), pp. 186-192School: Department of Anatomy, School of Dentistry, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19140. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the source and number of primary sensory neurons (PSNs) innervating a mandibular molar tooth of a population of 15-18-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats. The pulpal tissue was exposed to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) pellets for 24 hours. Subsequently the animals were perfusion fixed and the following PSN structures were examined for the presence of HRP-labelled cells: trigeminal (TGs) and cervical dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and mesencephalic nucleus (MN). Only the TGs contained labelled cells and they thus were the sole source of PSN pulpal innervation. The number of TG cells was highly variable, 49-407, but most of this variability was attributable to insufficient HRP filling of the pulp chamber or leakage of HRP into periapical tissue. Selection of TGs whose respective experimental teeth demonstrated that HRP filled and was restricted to the pulp chamber revealed a narrower range of TG cells providing pulpal innervation to the first molars, 142-
288, with an average of 213. A detailed mapping of these cells indicated a somatotopic distribution within the mandibular territory of the TGs. It was concluded that these findings represent TG's contribution to the pulpal innervation of this specific population of rat first molar teeth. This suggests that from animal to animal the density of innervation may be quite variable and it is hypothesized that the sensitivity of the pulp would likewise vary. In addition, these findings may contribute to the explanation of why there is variability in the stimulus strength needed to elicit a pain response in the human dentition.
BibTeX:
@article{Aker:1987,
  author = {Aker, F. D.},
  title = {Innervation of rat molar teeth: II. A quantitative analysis of primary sensory neurons innervating a mandibular molar tooth.},
  journal = {Anat Rec},
  school = {Department of Anatomy, School of Dentistry, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19140.},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {219},
  number = {2},
  pages = {186--192},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.1092190212},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.1092190212}
}
Aker, R.G., Ozyurt, H.B., Yananli, H.R., Cakmak, Y.O., Ozkaynakçi, A.E., Sehirli, U., Saka, E., Cavdar, S. and Onat, F.Y. GABA(A) receptor mediated transmission in the thalamic reticular nucleus of rats with genetic absence epilepsy shows regional differences: functional implications. 2006 Brain Res
Vol. 1111(1), pp. 213-221School: Marmara University, School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Istanbul 34668, Turkey. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of local injections of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline, into the rostral and caudal parts of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), on the generation of spike-and-wave discharges in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). Spike-and-wave discharges are important in the pathophysiology of absence epilepsy and generated by the cortico-thalamo-cortical pathway, where GABA has a significant role, particularly in the TRN. Artificial cerebrospinal fluid or bicuculline was administered to rostral or caudal parts of TRN of GAERS through a stereotaxically placed guide cannula. Administration of bicuculline produced opposite effects according to the injection site. Administration into the caudal TRN produced statistically significant increases in the duration of spike-and-wave discharges, whereas injections into the rostral TRN produced significant decreases. Correspondingly, distinct patterns of afferent
connections have been demonstrated with the wheat-germ-agglutinin horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) retrograde tracing method in control non-epileptic rats and GAERS for the rostral and caudal parts of the TRN. Injection of WGA-HRP tracer showed no detectable difference regarding the rostral and caudal connections between GAERS and Wistar animals. Rostral parts of TRN have thalamic and cortical connections that are primarily motor and limbic whereas for the caudal parts these connections are primarily sensory. Further, the rostral parts receive inputs from the substantia nigra pars reticularis and the ventral pallidum that the caudal part lacks. The extent to which these connectional differences may be responsible for the functional differences demonstrated by the bicucculine injections remains to be explored.
BibTeX:
@article{Aker:2006,
  author = {Aker, Rezzan Gülhan and Ozyurt, Hazan B. and Yananli, Hasan R. and Cakmak, Yusuf Ozgür and Ozkaynakçi, Aydan E. and Sehirli, Umit and Saka, Erdinç and Cavdar, Safiye and Onat, Filiz Yilmaz},
  title = {GABA(A) receptor mediated transmission in the thalamic reticular nucleus of rats with genetic absence epilepsy shows regional differences: functional implications.},
  journal = {Brain Res},
  school = {Marmara University, School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Istanbul 34668, Turkey.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {1111},
  number = {1},
  pages = {213--221},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2006.06.118},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2006.06.118}
}
Aker, R.G., Ozyurt, H.B., Yananli, H.R., Cakmak, Y.O., Ozkaynakçi, A.E., Sehirli, U., Saka, E., Cavdar, S. and Onat, F.Y. GABA(A) receptor mediated transmission in the thalamic reticular nucleus of rats with genetic absence epilepsy shows regional differences: functional implications. 2006 Brain research
Vol. 1111, pp. 213-221 
article DOI  
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of local injections of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline, into the rostral and caudal parts of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), on the generation of spike-and-wave discharges in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). Spike-and-wave discharges are important in the pathophysiology of absence epilepsy and generated by the cortico-thalamo-cortical pathway, where GABA has a significant role, particularly in the TRN. Artificial cerebrospinal fluid or bicuculline was administered to rostral or caudal parts of TRN of GAERS through a stereotaxically placed guide cannula. Administration of bicuculline produced opposite effects according to the injection site. Administration into the caudal TRN produced statistically significant increases in the duration of spike-and-wave discharges, whereas injections into the rostral TRN produced significant decreases. Correspondingly, distinct patterns of afferent connections have been demonstrated with the wheat-germ-agglutinin horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) retrograde tracing method in control non-epileptic rats and GAERS for the rostral and caudal parts of the TRN. Injection of WGA-HRP tracer showed no detectable difference regarding the rostral and caudal connections between GAERS and Wistar animals. Rostral parts of TRN have thalamic and cortical connections that are primarily motor and limbic whereas for the caudal parts these connections are primarily sensory. Further, the rostral parts receive inputs from the substantia nigra pars reticularis and the ventral pallidum that the caudal part lacks. The extent to which these connectional differences may be responsible for the functional differences demonstrated by the bicucculine injections remains to be explored.
BibTeX:
@article{Aker:2006a,
  author = {Aker, Rezzan Gülhan and Ozyurt, Hazan B and Yananli, Hasan R and Cakmak, Yusuf Ozgür and Ozkaynakçi, Aydan E and Sehirli, Umit and Saka, Erdinç and Cavdar, Safiye and Onat, Filiz Yilmaz},
  title = {GABA(A) receptor mediated transmission in the thalamic reticular nucleus of rats with genetic absence epilepsy shows regional differences: functional implications.},
  journal = {Brain research},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {1111},
  pages = {213--221},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2006.06.118}
}
Akerman, S., Kaube, H. and Goadsby, P.J. Vanilloid type 1 receptors (VR1) on trigeminal sensory nerve fibres play a minor role in neurogenic dural vasodilatation, and are involved in capsaicin-induced dural dilation. 2003 Br J Pharmacol
Vol. 140(4), pp. 718-724School: Headache Group, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WCIN 3BG. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Capsaicin, the active substance in chilli peppers, activates the vanilloid type 1 receptor (VR1) rather than the vanilloid-like receptor (VRL1) in the trigeminal ganglion and nucleus of small and medium C- and Adelta-fibres. Capsaicin induces calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release when VR1 receptors are activated, and this can be reversed by both the VR1 receptor antagonist capsazepine and the CGRP blocker alphaCGRP8-37 in vitro. In this study we used intravital microscopy to look at the possible role of the VR1 receptor in the trigeminovascular system in producing dilation of dural blood vessels. Capsazepine (3 mg kg-1) was given to study the effect of the VR1 receptor in dural vessel dilation produced by either electrical stimulation, CGRP (1 microg x kg-1) or capsaicin (7 microg x kg-1) bolus injection. We also looked at the effect of the CGRP blocker alphaCGRP8-37 (300 microg x kg-1) on capsaicin-induced dilation so that we could see if the results found in vitro could also be
found in vivo. Electrical stimulation of the dura mater produced a robust vasodilator response between 130 and 137% of baseline diameter that was no different across four repeat stimuli (F3,18=0.6, P=0.61). CGRP similarly produced a dilatation of 99-111% that was no different across four baseline infusions (F3,15=2.4, P=0.113). Capsaicin also produced a consistent dilation of between 112 and 120% of baseline across three injections (F2,10=0.6, P=0.567). Capsazepine did not inhibit the dilation brought about by either electrical stimulation or CGRP injection, while it was able to inhibit the dilation brought about by capsaicin (t5=3.4, P<0.05). AlphaCGRP8-37 also inhibited the capsaicin-induced dilation (t5=7.4, P<0.05) probably inhibiting the action of released CGRP at the CGRP receptor. The study demonstrates that capsaicin can repeatedly induce dural vessel dilation in vivo, presumably through inducing CGRP release from trigeminal sensory nerve fibres, while C-fibres may have been desensitised. The data
imply that the VR1 receptor plays only a minor role in trigeminovascular-induced dural vessel dilation.
BibTeX:
@article{Akerman:2003,
  author = {Akerman, S. and Kaube, H. and Goadsby, P. J.},
  title = {Vanilloid type 1 receptors (VR1) on trigeminal sensory nerve fibres play a minor role in neurogenic dural vasodilatation, and are involved in capsaicin-induced dural dilation.},
  journal = {Br J Pharmacol},
  school = {Headache Group, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WCIN 3BG.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {140},
  number = {4},
  pages = {718--724},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0705486},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0705486}
}
Akers, K. and Hamilton, D. Effect of high-frequency stimulation of the perforant path on previously acquired spatial memory in rats: Influence of memory strength and reactivation 2014 PLoS ONE
Vol. 9(6) 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: If memory depends on changes in synaptic strength, then manipulation of synaptic strength after learning should alter memory for what was learned. Here, we examined whether high frequency stimulation of the perforant path in vivo disrupts memory for a previously-learned hidden platform location in the Morris water task as well as whether this effect is modulated by memory strength or memory reactivation. We found that high frequency stimulation affected probe test performance regardless of memory strength or state of memory activation, although the precise nature of this effect differed depending on whether rats received minimal or extensive training prior to high frequency stimulation. These findings suggest that artificial manipulation of synaptic strength between the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus may destabilize memory for a previously-learned spatial location. © 2014 Akers, Hamilton.
BibTeX:
@article{Akers:2014a,
  author = {Akers, K.G. and Hamilton, D.A.},
  title = {Effect of high-frequency stimulation of the perforant path on previously acquired spatial memory in rats: Influence of memory strength and reactivation},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {9},
  number = {6},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84903515327&partnerID=40&md5=6608ccb383fcbc069a0253a5da4add48},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100766}
}
Akers, K.G., Martinez-Canabal, A., Restivo, L., Yiu, A.P., De Cristofaro, A., Hsiang, H.-L.L., Wheeler, A.L., Guskjolen, A., Niibori, Y., Shoji, H., Ohira, K., Richards, B.A., Miyakawa, T., Josselyn, S.A. and Frankland, P.W. Hippocampal neurogenesis regulates forgetting during adulthood and infancy. 2014 Science
Vol. 344(6184), pp. 598-602School: Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Throughout life, new neurons are continuously added to the dentate gyrus. As this continuous addition remodels hippocampal circuits, computational models predict that neurogenesis leads to degradation or forgetting of established memories. Consistent with this, increasing neurogenesis after the formation of a memory was sufficient to induce forgetting in adult mice. By contrast, during infancy, when hippocampal neurogenesis levels are high and freshly generated memories tend to be rapidly forgotten (infantile amnesia), decreasing neurogenesis after memory formation mitigated forgetting. In precocial species, including guinea pigs and degus, most granule cells are generated prenatally. Consistent with reduced levels of postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis, infant guinea pigs and degus did not exhibit forgetting. However, increasing neurogenesis after memory formation induced infantile amnesia in these species.
BibTeX:
@article{Akers:2014,
  author = {Akers, Katherine G. and Martinez-Canabal, Alonso and Restivo, Leonardo and Yiu, Adelaide P. and De Cristofaro, Antonietta and Hsiang, Hwa-Lin Liz and Wheeler, Anne L. and Guskjolen, Axel and Niibori, Yosuke and Shoji, Hirotaka and Ohira, Koji and Richards, Blake A. and Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi and Josselyn, Sheena A. and Frankland, Paul W.},
  title = {Hippocampal neurogenesis regulates forgetting during adulthood and infancy.},
  journal = {Science},
  school = {Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {344},
  number = {6184},
  pages = {598--602},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1248903},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1248903}
}
Akers, R.M. and Killackey, H.P. Organization of corticocortical connections in the parietal cortex of the rat. 1978 J Comp Neurol
Vol. 181(3), pp. 513-537 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: An analysis based on Nissl, anterograde degeneration, and succinic dehydrogenase histochemical techniques reveals that there are two distinct regions of parietal cortex which are characterized by different cytoarchitectonic features and anatomical connections. The "granular" cortical zone possesses a well-defined fourth layer composed of small, densely-packed cells, receives dense projections from the ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus, and is essentially free of callosal inputs. "Agranular" cortical areas which surround or lie embedded within the granular zone lack a well-defined fourth layer, receive sparse projection from the ventral posterior nucleus, but send and receive extensive callosal projections. These findings suggest that thalamic and callosal projections to the parietal cortex maintain a pattern of areal segregation. The granular cortical zone, which apparently corresponds to SmI, projects ipsilaterally to motor cortex, SmII, and adjacent agranular areas. The superficial
layers of the granular cortex also project heavily upon the underlying layer V. This intracortical projection is not organized in discrete clusters within the "barrel field" cortex. This suggests that the specialized organization of thalamic afferents and granule cells within the "barrel field" is not maintained in the intracortical circuitry of this region.
BibTeX:
@article{Akers:1978,
  author = {R. M. Akers and H. P. Killackey},
  title = {Organization of corticocortical connections in the parietal cortex of the rat.},
  journal = {J Comp Neurol},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {181},
  number = {3},
  pages = {513--537},
  note = {Anterograde Degeneration / lesion experiment with succinic acid in teh parietal cortex.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.901810305},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.901810305}
}
Akers, R.M. and Killackey, H.P. Organization of corticocortical connections in the parietal cortex of the rat. 1978 The Journal of comparative neurology
Vol. 181, pp. 513-537 
article DOI  
Abstract: An analysis based on Nissl, anterograde degeneration, and succinic dehydrogenase histochemical techniques reveals that there are two distinct regions of parietal cortex which are characterized by different cytoarchitectonic features and anatomical connections. The "granular" cortical zone possesses a well-defined fourth layer composed of small, densely-packed cells, receives dense projections from the ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus, and is essentially free of callosal inputs. "Agranular" cortical areas which surround or lie embedded within the granular zone lack a well-defined fourth layer, receive sparse projection from the ventral posterior nucleus, but send and receive extensive callosal projections. These findings suggest that thalamic and callosal projections to the parietal cortex maintain a pattern of areal segregation. The granular cortical zone, which apparently corresponds to SmI, projects ipsilaterally to motor cortex, SmII, and adjacent agranular areas. The superficial layers of the granular cortex also project heavily upon the underlying layer V. This intracortical projection is not organized in discrete clusters within the "barrel field" cortex. This suggests that the specialized organization of thalamic afferents and granule cells within the "barrel field" is not maintained in the intracortical circuitry of this region.
BibTeX:
@article{Akers:1978a,
  author = {Akers, R M and Killackey, H P},
  title = {Organization of corticocortical connections in the parietal cortex of the rat.},
  journal = {The Journal of comparative neurology},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {181},
  pages = {513--537},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.901810305}
}
Akeson, J., Nilsson, F., Ryding, E. and Messeter, K. A porcine model for sequential assessments of cerebral haemodynamics and metabolism. 1992 Acta Anaesthesiol Scand
Vol. 36(5), pp. 419-426School: Department of Anaesthesia, Malmö General Hospital, Lund University, Sweden. 
article DOI  
Abstract: We present a physiologically stable porcine model designed for sequential assessments of pharmacological effects on mean hemispheric cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2) at sustained normocapnia. The dynamic influence of continuously administered fentanyl (0.040 mg.kg-1.h-1 i.v.), nitrous oxide (70 and pancuronium (0.30 mg.kg-1.h-1 i.v.) on these variables was studied in eight normoventilated pigs. CBF was reliably assessable at 10-min intervals by clearance of intra-arterially injected 133Xe, monitored by an extracranial scintillation detector. CMRO2 was calculated from CBF and the simultaneously measured cerebral arteriovenous difference in blood oxygen content. The intracerebral distribution of a contrast medium injected into the external and internal carotid arteries was studied by angiography, and the cerebral venous outflow was investigated by measurements of the distribution of an intra-arterially administered non-diffusible tracer, [99mTc]
pertechnetate, to the internal and external jugular veins. After a 3-h equilibration period, CBF and CMRO2 were determined on six occasions over a study period lasting 1 h 40 min. The mean ranges of these variables were 56-60 and 1.9-2.0 ml.100 g-1.min-1, respectively. We conclude that the model enables repeated assessments of CBF and CMRO2 under stable physiological background conditions and thus valid cerebral pharmacodynamic investigations of drugs given for anaesthesia.
BibTeX:
@article{Akeson:1992,
  author = {Akeson, J. and Nilsson, F. and Ryding, E. and Messeter, K.},
  title = {A porcine model for sequential assessments of cerebral haemodynamics and metabolism.},
  journal = {Acta Anaesthesiol Scand},
  school = {Department of Anaesthesia, Malmö General Hospital, Lund University, Sweden.},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {36},
  number = {5},
  pages = {419--426},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-6576.1992.tb03491.x}
}
Akesson, T., Simerly, R. and Micevych, P. Estrogen-concentrating hypothalamic and limbic neurons project to the medial preoptic nucleus 1988 Brain Research
Vol. 451(1-2), pp. 381-385 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Estrogen-concentrating neurons that project to the medial preoptic nucleus of the male rat were found to be numerous in limbic and hypothalamic cell groups including the ventral part of the lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminals, medial amygdaloid nucleus, the ventromedial nucleus, and the amygdalohippocampal zone. This steroid-sensitive circuitry is implicated in the activation of reproductive processes in the male. © 1988.
BibTeX:
@article{Akesson:1988,
  author = {Akesson, T.R. and Simerly, R.B. and Micevych, P.E.},
  title = {Estrogen-concentrating hypothalamic and limbic neurons project to the medial preoptic nucleus},
  journal = {Brain Research},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {451},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {381-385},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0023885157&partnerID=40&md5=a30b17328648aabd7e86d41d1ce4c111},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(88)90789-5}
}
Akesson, T., Ulibarri, C. and Truitt, S. Divergent axon collaterals originate in the estrogen receptive ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus in the rat 1994 Journal of Neurobiology
Vol. 25(4), pp. 406-414 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) plays a crucial role in the mediation of lordosis by integrating predominantly inhibitory limbic signals with cyclic variation of ovarian steroids and sending a stimulatory output to the midbrain, especially the periaqueductal gray (PAG). Tract- tracing studies have established projections of the VMH and Golgi studies have shown these neurons to frequently give rise to axon collaterals, but the anatomical pattern of shared projections has not been explored. We have used a combination of retrograde tracers to map VMH projections to the medial division of the medial preoptic nucleus (MPNm), posterodorsal division of the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeApd), and the PAG. Neurons with dual projections were mainly confined to the VMHvl and represented 31%-37% of each projection subset. Neurons simultaneously projecting to the MPNm, MeApd, and PAG represented 7%-9% of each projection subset. By combining tract-tracing with steroid
autoradiography, we
found that approximately one-quarter of each projection subset in the VMHvl concentrated 3H-estradiol. Thus, some of the VMHvl neurons that communicate a facilitatory signal to the PAG may also act to stimulate lordosis through a feedback suppression of the net inhibition formed by efferent signals from the forebrain. The even distribution of estrogen binding among projection subsets suggests a lack of compartmentalization of estrogen-regulated processes that are relevant to lordosis.
BibTeX:
@article{Akesson:1994a,
  author = {Akesson, T.R. and Ulibarri, C. and Truitt, S.},
  title = {Divergent axon collaterals originate in the estrogen receptive ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus in the rat},
  journal = {Journal of Neurobiology},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {25},
  number = {4},
  pages = {406-414},
  note = {Duplicate from Scopus!},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0028205467&partnerID=40&md5=4789b0f38b208e4cab9ce068bedfbbca},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/neu.480250406}
}
Akesson, T.R., Ulibarri, C. and Truitt, S. Divergent axon collaterals originate in the estrogen receptive ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus in the rat. 1994 J Neurobiol
Vol. 25(4), pp. 406-414School: Department of Veterinary and Comparative Anatomy, Pharmacology, and Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman 99164. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) plays a crucial role in the mediation of lordosis by integrating predominantly inhibitory limbic signals with cyclic variation of ovarian steroids and sending a stimulatory output to the midbrain, especially the periaqueductal gray (PAG). Tract-tracing studies have established projections of the VMH and Golgi studies have shown these neurons to frequently give rise to axon collaterals, but the anatomical pattern of shared projections has not been explored. We have used a combination of retrograde tracers to map VMH projections to the medial division of the medial preoptic nucleus (MPNm), posterodorsal division of the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeApd), and the PAG. Neurons with dual projections were mainly confined to the VMHvl and represented 3137% of each projection subset. Neurons simultaneously projecting to the MPNm, MeApd, and PAG represented 79% of each projection subset. By combining tract-tracing with
steroid autoradiography, we found that approximately one-quarter of each projection subset in the VMHvl concentrated 3H-estradiol. Thus, some of the VMHvl neurons that communicate a facilitatory signal to the PAG may also act to stimulate lordosis through a feedback suppression of the net inhibition formed by efferent signals from the forebrain. The even distribution of estrogen binding among projection subsets suggests a lack of compartmentalization of estrogen-regulated processes that are relevant to lordosis.
BibTeX:
@article{Akesson:1994,
  author = {T. R. Akesson and C. Ulibarri and S. Truitt},
  title = {Divergent axon collaterals originate in the estrogen receptive ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus in the rat.},
  journal = {J Neurobiol},
  school = {Department of Veterinary and Comparative Anatomy, Pharmacology, and Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman 99164.},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {25},
  number = {4},
  pages = {406--414},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/neu.480250406},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/neu.480250406}
}
Akhmadeev, A. and Kalimullina, L. Morphogenesis of the dorsomedial nucleus of the amygdaloid complex in early juvenile period in rats 2008 Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Vol. 146(3), pp. 372-374 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: We studied the dynamics and gender differences in the formation of the dorsomedial nucleus of the amygdaloid complex in early juvenile period (postnatal days 21, 24, 28 and 31) by determining its planimetric parameters, count of neural and glial cells, and glial and apoptotic indexes. © Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2008.
BibTeX:
@article{Akhmadeev:2008,
  author = {Akhmadeev, A.V. and Kalimullina, L.B.},
  title = {Morphogenesis of the dorsomedial nucleus of the amygdaloid complex in early juvenile period in rats},
  journal = {Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {146},
  number = {3},
  pages = {372-374},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-58249126103&partnerID=40&md5=dd43ec7f750146ff5a8f9bb36bdc6edd},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10517-008-0288-y}
}
Akhmetshina, D., Nasretdinov, A., Zakharov, A., Valeeva, G. and Khazipov, R. The Nature of the Sensory Input to the Neonatal Rat Barrel Cortex. 2016 J Neurosci
Vol. 36(38), pp. 9922-9932School: Laboratory of Neurobiology, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008, Russia, INMED/INSERM U901, Marseille 13273, France, and Aix-Marseille University, Marseille 13273, France roustem.khazipov@inserm.fr. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Sensory input plays critical roles in the development of the somatosensory cortex during the neonatal period. This early sensory input may involve: (1) stimulation arising from passive interactions with the mother and littermates and (2) sensory feedback arising from spontaneous infant movements. The relative contributions of these mechanisms under natural conditions remain largely unknown, however. Here, we show that, in the whisker-related barrel cortex of neonatal rats, spontaneous whisker movements and passive stimulation by the littermates cooperate, with comparable efficiency, in driving cortical activity. Both tactile signals arising from the littermate's movements under conditions simulating the littermates' position in the litter, and spontaneous whisker movements efficiently triggered bursts of activity in barrel cortex. Yet, whisker movements with touch were more efficient than free movements. Comparison of the various experimental conditions mimicking the natural environment
showed that tactile signals arising from the whisker movements with touch and stimulation by the littermates, support: (1) a twofold higher level of cortical activity than in the isolated animal, and (2) a threefold higher level of activity than in the deafferented animal after the infraorbital nerve cut. Together, these results indicate that endogenous (self-generated movements) and exogenous (stimulation by the littermates) mechanisms cooperate in driving cortical activity in newborn rats and point to the importance of the environment in shaping cortical activity during the neonatal period.Sensory input plays critical roles in the development of the somatosensory cortex during the neonatal period. However, the origins of sensory input to the neonatal somatosensory cortex in the natural environment remain largely unknown. Here, we show that in the whisker-related barrel cortex of neonatal rats, spontaneous whisker movements and passive stimulation by the littermates cooperate, with comparable efficiency, in
driving cortical activity during the critical developmental period.
BibTeX:
@article{Akhmetshina:2016,
  author = {Akhmetshina, Dinara and Nasretdinov, Azat and Zakharov, Andrei and Valeeva, Guzel and Khazipov, Roustem},
  title = {The Nature of the Sensory Input to the Neonatal Rat Barrel Cortex.},
  journal = {J Neurosci},
  school = {Laboratory of Neurobiology, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008, Russia, INMED/INSERM U901, Marseille 13273, France, and Aix-Marseille University, Marseille 13273, France roustem.khazipov@inserm.fr.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {36},
  number = {38},
  pages = {9922--9932},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1781-16.2016},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1781-16.2016}
}
Akhter, F., Haque, T., Sato, F., Kato, T., Ohara, H., Fujio, T., Tsutsumi, K., Uchino, K., Sessle, B.J. and Yoshida, A. Projections from the dorsal peduncular cortex to the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (medullary dorsal horn) and other lower brainstem areas in rats. 2014 Neuroscience
Vol. 266, pp. 23-37School: Department of Oral Anatomy and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. Electronic address: yoshida@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: This study has revealed direct projections from the dorsal peduncular cortex (DP) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPfC) to the trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex and other lower brainstem areas in rats. We first examined the distribution of mPfC neurons projecting directly to the medullary dorsal horn (trigeminal subnucleus caudalis [Vc]) and trigeminal subnucleus oralis (Vo) which are known to receive direct projections from the lateral prefrontal cortex (insular cortex). After injections of the retrograde tracer Fluorogold (FG) into the rostro-dorsomedial part of laminae I/II of Vc (rdm-I/II-Vc), many neurons were labeled bilaterally (with an ipsilateral predominance) in the rostrocaudal middle level of DP (mid-DP) and not in other mPfC areas. After FG injections into the lateral and caudal parts of laminae I/II of Vc, or the Vo, no neurons were labeled in the mPfC. We then examined projections from the mid-DP by using the anterograde tracer biotinylated
dextranamine (BDA). After BDA injections into the mid-DP, many axons and terminals were labeled bilaterally (with an ipsilateral predominance) in the rdm-I/II-Vc, periaqueductal gray and solitary tract nucleus, and ipsilaterally in the parabrachial nucleus and trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus. In addition, the connections of the mid-DP with the insular cortex were examined. Many BDA-labeled axons and terminals from the mid-DP were also found ipsilaterally in the caudalmost level of the granular and dysgranular insular cortex (GI/DI). After BDA injections into the caudalmost GI/DI, many axons and terminals were labeled ipsilaterally in the mid-DP. The projections from the mid-DP to the rdm-I/II-Vc and other brainstem nuclei suggest that mid-DP neurons may regulate intraoral and perioral sensory processing (including nociceptive processing) of rdm-I/II-Vc neurons directly or indirectly through the brainstem nuclei. The reciprocal connections between the mid-DP and caudalmost GI/DI suggest that this regulation
may involve mid-DP interactions with the caudalmost GI/DI neurons.
BibTeX:
@article{Akhter:2014,
  author = {Akhter, F. and Haque, T. and Sato, F. and Kato, T. and Ohara, H. and Fujio, T. and Tsutsumi, K. and Uchino, K. and Sessle, B. J. and Yoshida, A.},
  title = {Projections from the dorsal peduncular cortex to the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (medullary dorsal horn) and other lower brainstem areas in rats.},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  school = {Department of Oral Anatomy and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. Electronic address: yoshida@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {266},
  pages = {23--37},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.01.046},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.01.046}
}
Akintunde, A. and Buxton, D.F. Origins and collateralization of corticospinal, corticopontine, corticorubral and corticostriatal tracts: a multiple retrograde fluorescent tracing study. 1992 Brain Res
Vol. 586(2), pp. 208-218School: Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, AL 36849-5518. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Cerebral cells of origin for the corticospinal (CST), corticopontine (CP), corticorubral (CR) and corticostriatal (CS) fibers in the rat were identified following the simultaneous retrograde transport of propidium iodide (PI), fast blue (FB), fluorogold (FG) and diamidino yellow (DY). PI was injected into the contralateral C4 spinal cord segment while FB, FG and DY were injected into the ipsilateral medial pontine nuclei, red nucleus and striatum, respectively. Labeled pyramidal neurons projecting corticospinal axons were contralateral to injection in lamina V and ranged in size from small to large. These CST neurons occupied two distinct cortical areas. The cortical neurons of origin for the corticopontine, corticorubral and corticostriatal fibers were ipsilateral to injections. Labeled neurons were localized in cortical lamina V for the corticopontine and corticorubral fibers while corticostriate neurons were located in laminae III, V and VI. The CP, CR and CS labeled cells occupied one
large cortical area which topographically included parts of the medial (AGm) and lateral (AGl) agranular cortices and the primary (SI) somatosensory cortex. Considerable overlapping of the cortical neurons of origin for the four motor fiber systems was apparent. More than 98% of the labeled cells were single labeled while less than 2% were double labeled. No triple or quadruple labeled neurons were observed. Hence, morphological evidence is presented that cortical motor neurons project mainly individual, rather than collateral, axons to each of the four motor associated nuclei investigated in this study. However, only a few cortical neurons projected axons simultaneously to a maximum of two nuclei involved in the motor pathways.
BibTeX:
@article{Akintunde:1992,
  author = {A. Akintunde and D. F. Buxton},
  title = {Origins and collateralization of corticospinal, corticopontine, corticorubral and corticostriatal tracts: a multiple retrograde fluorescent tracing study.},
  journal = {Brain Res},
  school = {Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, AL 36849-5518.},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {586},
  number = {2},
  pages = {208--218},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(92)91629-s}
}
Akintunde, A. and Buxton, D.F. Quadruple labeling of brain-stem neurons: a multiple retrograde fluorescent tracer study of axonal collateralization. 1992 J Neurosci Methods
Vol. 45(1-2), pp. 15-22School: Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, AL 36849-5518. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Four different fluorochromes were injected into adjacent cervical spinal cord segments, 1 unique tracer per segment. Each tracer, Fluoro-Gold, Fast Blue, Diamidino Yellow dihydrochloride and Propidium Iodide, was taken up by axonal terminals and transported intra-axonally in a retrograde direction to the cell bodies. Some, though by no means all, of these axons were stem axons with terminals in 2, 3 or 4 of the injected spinal segments. Hence as many as 4 different fluorescent tracers could be discerned simultaneously within individual neuronal somata of origin using fluorescent microscopy. These results extend the possibilities for multiple interconnection determinations within the central nervous system. Specifically, the potential for individual neurons of a nucleus to project collateral branches of a stem axon to as many as 4 different central nervous system nuclei now can be studied simultaneously using these 4 fluorescent tracers.
BibTeX:
@article{Akintunde:1992a,
  author = {Akintunde, A. and Buxton, D. F.},
  title = {Quadruple labeling of brain-stem neurons: a multiple retrograde fluorescent tracer study of axonal collateralization.},
  journal = {J Neurosci Methods},
  school = {Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, AL 36849-5518.},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {45},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {15--22},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-0270(92)90039-g}
}
Akintunde, A. and Buxton, D.F. Quadruple labeling of brain-stem neurons: a multiple retrograde fluorescent tracer study of axonal collateralization. 1992 Journal of neuroscience methods
Vol. 45, pp. 15-22 
article  
Abstract: Four different fluorochromes were injected into adjacent cervical spinal cord segments, 1 unique tracer per segment. Each tracer, Fluoro-Gold, Fast Blue, Diamidino Yellow dihydrochloride and Propidium Iodide, was taken up by axonal terminals and transported intra-axonally in a retrograde direction to the cell bodies. Some, though by no means all, of these axons were stem axons with terminals in 2, 3 or 4 of the injected spinal segments. Hence as many as 4 different fluorescent tracers could be discerned simultaneously within individual neuronal somata of origin using fluorescent microscopy. These results extend the possibilities for multiple interconnection determinations within the central nervous system. Specifically, the potential for individual neurons of a nucleus to project collateral branches of a stem axon to as many as 4 different central nervous system nuclei now can be studied simultaneously using these 4 fluorescent tracers.
BibTeX:
@article{Akintunde:1992b,
  author = {Akintunde, A. and Buxton, D. F.},
  title = {Quadruple labeling of brain-stem neurons: a multiple retrograde fluorescent tracer study of axonal collateralization.},
  journal = {Journal of neuroscience methods},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {15-22},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Akintunde, A. and Buxton, D.F. Origins and collateralization of corticospinal, corticopontine, corticorubral and corticostriatal tracts: a multiple retrograde fluorescent tracing study. 1992 Brain research
Vol. 586, pp. 208-18 
article  
Abstract: Cerebral cells of origin for the corticospinal (CST), corticopontine (CP), corticorubral (CR) and corticostriatal (CS) fibers in the rat were identified following the simultaneous retrograde transport of propidium iodide (PI), fast blue (FB), fluorogold (FG) and diamidino yellow (DY). PI was injected into the contralateral C4 spinal cord segment while FB, FG and DY were injected into the ipsilateral medial pontine nuclei, red nucleus and striatum, respectively. Labeled pyramidal neurons projecting corticospinal axons were contralateral to injection in lamina V and ranged in size from small to large. These CST neurons occupied two distinct cortical areas. The cortical neurons of origin for the corticopontine, corticorubral and corticostriatal fibers were ipsilateral to injections. Labeled neurons were localized in cortical lamina V for the corticopontine and corticorubral fibers while corticostriate neurons were located in laminae III, V and VI. The CP, CR and CS labeled cells occupied one
large cortical area which topographically included parts of the medial (AGm) and lateral (AGl) agranular cortices and the primary (SI) somatosensory cortex. Considerable overlapping of the cortical neurons of origin for the four motor fiber systems was apparent. More than 98% of the labeled cells were single labeled while less than 2% were double labeled. No triple or quadruple labeled neurons were observed. Hence, morphological evidence is presented that cortical motor neurons project mainly individual, rather than collateral, axons to each of the four motor associated nuclei investigated in this study. However, only a few cortical neurons projected axons simultaneously to a maximum of two nuclei involved in the motor pathways.
BibTeX:
@article{Akintunde:1992c,
  author = {Akintunde, A. and Buxton, D. F.},
  title = {Origins and collateralization of corticospinal, corticopontine, corticorubral and corticostriatal tracts: a multiple retrograde fluorescent tracing study.},
  journal = {Brain research},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {586},
  pages = {208-18},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Akintunde, A. and Buxton, D.F. Differential sites of origin and collateralization of corticospinal neurons in the rat: a multiple fluorescent retrograde tracer study. 1992 Brain research
Vol. 575, pp. 86-92 
article DOI  
Abstract: Cells of origin for corticospinal fibers in the rat were identified following retrograde transport of Fluoro-Gold (FG), Propidium iodide (PI), Fast blue (FB), and Diamidino yellow (DY) injected unilaterally into lumbar (FG), mid-thoracic (PI), cervical enlargement (FB), and cranial cervical (DY) spinal gray matter. Most labeled neurons were contralateral to injection in lamina V and ranged from small to very large. These cells occupied two distinct cortical regions: one rostral and the other larger and more caudal. Neurons of the rostral region projected axons solely to cervical spinal segments whereas neurons of the caudal region projected fibers to all spinal segments. Somatotopically, most neurons projecting to lumbar segments were most medial. More than 98% of all labeled cortical neurons contained only a single fluorescent tracer; however, within a single tissue section each of the 4 tracers could be found in these single labeled neurons. The few double labeled neurons contained only cervical (DY + FB) or thoracolumbar (PI + FG) tracers. No triple or quadruple labeled cells were seen. Hence morphological evidence is presented that corticospinal axons branch to terminate in more than one spinal region, but these collateral terminations are restricted to only a few adjacent spinal segments.
BibTeX:
@article{Akintunde:1992f,
  author = {Akintunde, A and Buxton, D F},
  title = {Differential sites of origin and collateralization of corticospinal neurons in the rat: a multiple fluorescent retrograde tracer study.},
  journal = {Brain research},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {575},
  pages = {86--92},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(92)90427-b}
}
Akinyi, M., Gao, X.M., Li, Y.H., Wang, B.Y., Liu, E.W., Chai, L.J., JawoBah, A. and Fan, G.W. Vascular relaxation induced by Eucommiae Ulmoides Oliv. and its compounds Oroxylin A and wogonin: implications on their cytoprotection action. 2014 Int J Clin Exp Med
Vol. 7(10), pp. 3164-3180School: Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medical Formulae, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Tianjin 300193, China ; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Pharmacology, Tianjin, University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Pharmacology Tianjin 300193, China ; Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine Tianjin 300193, China. 
article  
Abstract: The vascular relaxation action of Eucommiae Ulmoides Oliv. also known as Duzhong has been seen on arteries of the heart such as the aorta and the coronary artery which are elastic in nature. Duzhong is historically an active ingredient commonly used in hypertensive herbal prescriptions in China. This work investigated the vasodilating effect of Duzhong and its compounds (wogonin 10 μM and oroxylin-A) in the isolated intact rat heart, perfused retrograde according the method of Langendorff and the cytoprotective effect in EA.hy926 cell lines Coronary perfusion pressure was monitored with a pressure transducer connected to a side-arm of the aortic perfusion cannula. Duzhong induced vasorelaxation in a dose dependent manner, on precontracting the vessels with endothelin-1, Duzhong 10 mg/ml, wogonin 10 μM and oroxylin-A 10 μM could significantly lower the perfusion pressure in reference to positive control SNP, Duzhong induced vasodilation was not inhibited by L-NAME (nitric oxide inhibitor),
but was significantly inhibited by Tetraethyl ammonium (TEA, a K(+) channel blocker and almost abolished by potassium chloride. The underlying mechanism was carried out in EA.hy926 cell lines. When these cells were treated with H2O2, there was higher expression of NOX-4, TNF-α and COX-2 mRNA. However, wogonin treatment attenuated the mRNA of NOX-4, TNF-α and COX-2. Wogonin also upregulated the mRNA expression of CAT, SOD-1 and GSR in oxidative stress induced by H2O2 EA.hy926 cells. Duzhong and compounds can exert an in vitro relaxation effect of the coronary artery and improve the heart function in Langendorff apparatus. This action appears to be endothelium dependent but not NO mediated. Cell culture findings indicated that wogonin can exert vascular and cellular protection by scavenging Reactive Oxygen Species.
BibTeX:
@article{Akinyi:2014,
  author = {Akinyi, Mary and Gao, Xiu Mei and Li, Yu Hong and Wang, Bing Yao and Liu, Er Wei and Chai, Li Juan and JawoBah, Abdulai and Fan, Guan Wei},
  title = {Vascular relaxation induced by Eucommiae Ulmoides Oliv. and its compounds Oroxylin A and wogonin: implications on their cytoprotection action.},
  journal = {Int J Clin Exp Med},
  school = {Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medical Formulae, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Tianjin 300193, China ; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Pharmacology, Tianjin, University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Pharmacology Tianjin 300193, China ; Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine Tianjin 300193, China.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {7},
  number = {10},
  pages = {3164--3180},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.}
}
Akiya, O., Serizawa, N., Sugihara, M., Katagiri, S. and Kawashima, Y. A histological study of changes in the lingual papillae of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. 1992 Bull Tokyo Dent Coll
Vol. 33(1), pp. 13-24School: Tokyo Dental College, Japan. 
article  
Abstract: This study examined the effect of experimental diabetes mellitus on the dorsal tongue of rats which were made diabetic by tail-vein injections of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) and then raised for either 5 or 10 months. Lingual papillae were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy. Morphological changes in lingual mucosal capillaries in 10-month diabetic rats were observed by electron microscopy (TEM). In the study of cellular movement in the lingual dorsal epithelium, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was applied as a tracer for studying DNA replication. In diabetic rats, lingual papillae showed morphological atrophic changes. The lingual mucosal capillaries' alterations included endothelial cells with numerous cell projections into the lumen, degenerated cell organs, increased basement membrane width, and narrowed capillary lumen. BrdU labeling index among the basal cells was reduced in diabetic rats which indicates a possible retardation of their epithelial-tissue activity.
In diabetes mellitus, direct metabolic disturbances to the epithelia because of insulin deficiency first occurred, successively diabetic microangiopathy appeared on the lingual mucosal capillaries. The appearance of diabetic microangiopathy caused tissue hypoxia, which induced atrophic changes to the epithelia.
BibTeX:
@article{Akiya:1992,
  author = {Akiya, O. and Serizawa, N. and Sugihara, M. and Katagiri, S. and Kawashima, Y.},
  title = {A histological study of changes in the lingual papillae of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.},
  journal = {Bull Tokyo Dent Coll},
  school = {Tokyo Dental College, Japan.},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {33},
  number = {1},
  pages = {13--24},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.}
}
Akiyoshi, M., Shimizu, Y. and Saito, M. Interleukin-1 increases norepinephrine turnover in the spleen and lung in rats 1990 Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Vol. 173(3), pp. 1266-1270 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: To clarify effects of interleukin-1 on sympathetic nerve activity, norepinephrine turnover in various organs was assessed in rats after intraperitoneal injection of recombinant human interleukin-1β. Interleukin-1 administration increased norepinephrine turnover in the spleen, lung and hypothalamus without appreciable effect in the heart, liver, submandibular gland, thymus, pancreas, brown adipose tissue and medulla oblongata. Similar changes in norepinephrine turnover were also found after the administration of bacterial endotoxin. It was concluded that interleukin-1 activates the sympathetic nerves specifically in the spleen and lung. © 1990 Academic Press, Inc.
BibTeX:
@article{Akiyoshi:1990,
  author = {Akiyoshi, M. and Shimizu, Y. and Saito, M.},
  title = {Interleukin-1 increases norepinephrine turnover in the spleen and lung in rats},
  journal = {Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {173},
  number = {3},
  pages = {1266-1270},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0025541827&partnerID=40&md5=f6029c781be44e10eaec0995f58a1cd7},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-291X(05)80923-4}
}
Akle, V., Guelin, E., Yu, L., Brassard-Giordano, H., Slack, B. and Zhdanova, I. F-spondin/spon1b expression patterns in developing and adult zebrafish 2012 PLoS ONE
Vol. 7(6) 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: F-spondin, an extracellular matrix protein, is an important player in embryonic morphogenesis and CNS development, but its presence and role later in life remains largely unknown. We generated a transgenic zebrafish in which GFP is expressed under the control of the F-spondin (spon1b) promoter, and used it in combination with complementary techniques to undertake a detailed characterization of the expression patterns of F-spondin in developing and adult brain and periphery. We found that F-spondin is often associated with structures forming long neuronal tracts, including retinal ganglion cells, the olfactory bulb, the habenula, and the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (nMLF). F-spondin expression coincides with zones of adult neurogenesis and is abundant in CSF-contacting secretory neurons, especially those in the hypothalamus. Use of this new transgenic model also revealed F-spondin expression patterns in the peripheral CNS, notably in enteric neurons, and in
peripheral tissues
involved in active patterning or proliferation in adults, including the endoskeleton of zebrafish fins and the continuously regenerating pharyngeal teeth. Moreover, patterning of the regenerating caudal fin following fin amputation in adult zebrafish was associated with F-spondin expression in the blastema, a proliferative region critical for tissue reconstitution. Together, these findings suggest major roles for F-spondin in the CNS and periphery of the developing and adult vertebrate. © 2012 Akle et al.
BibTeX:
@article{Akle:2012,
  author = {Akle, V. and Guelin, E. and Yu, L. and Brassard-Giordano, H. and Slack, B.E. and Zhdanova, I.V.},
  title = {F-spondin/spon1b expression patterns in developing and adult zebrafish},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {7},
  number = {6},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84863112441&partnerID=40&md5=685d45160b5e5429dd99c169d25fb56d},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037593}
}
Akmaev, I. and Fidelina, O. Sex-related peculiarities of acetylcholinesterase activity in the dorsal nucleus of the vagus in newborn rats 1996 Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Vol. 121(5), pp. 537-539 
article URL 
Abstract: Acetylcholinesterase activity was examined histologically and enzymatically in the rostral, middle, and caudal parts of the dorsal nucleus of the vagus in newborn rats of both sexes in the critical period of sexual differentiation of the brain. It was found that the amount of active neurons in the middle and caudal parts depends on sex, i.e., it was reliably greater in the dorsal nucleus of males than of females on the 7th day after birth. ©1996 Plenum Publishing Corporation.
BibTeX:
@article{Akmaev:1996,
  author = {Akmaev, I.G. and Fidelina, O.V.},
  title = {Sex-related peculiarities of acetylcholinesterase activity in the dorsal nucleus of the vagus in newborn rats},
  journal = {Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {121},
  number = {5},
  pages = {537-539},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-26944486318&partnerID=40&md5=360fff90027f3018ff0fa294fe7e381d}
}
Akmayev, I., Vikhreva, O. and Konovalova, L. The origin of the hypothalamic-vagal descending pathway: an experimental ultrastructural study 1981 Brain Research
Vol. 230(1-2), pp. 342-345 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Placing uni- and bilateral electrolytic lesions in the rat hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei was followed by the degeneration of presynaptic profiles in the medullary dorsal vagal nuclei. Unilateral lesions resulted in degeneration of the dorsal vagal nuclei presynaptic profiles on the side of the lesion and on the site opposite. Our results seem to afford the first experimental proof that descending hypothalamic axons synapsing in the medulla on the neurons of the dorsal vagal nuclei arise in the paraventricular nuclei and intersect at some level of the lower brain stem. © 1981.
BibTeX:
@article{Akmayev:1981,
  author = {Akmayev, I.G. and Vikhreva, O.V. and Konovalova, L.K.},
  title = {The origin of the hypothalamic-vagal descending pathway: an experimental ultrastructural study},
  journal = {Brain Research},
  year = {1981},
  volume = {230},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {342-345},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0019787760&partnerID=40&md5=963f7528e32370b143bac7da7432897c},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(81)90412-1}
}
Akopian, A. Neuromodulation of ligand- and voltage-gated channels in the amphibian retina 2000 Microscopy Research and Technique
Vol. 50(5), pp. 403-410 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: To understand information processing in the retina, it is important to identify and characterize the types of synaptic receptors and intrinsic ion channels in retinal neurons. In order to achieve a high degree of adaptability, retinal synapses have evolved multiple neuromodulatory mechanisms. Light or modulatory agents can alter the efficacies of both electrical and chemical synaptic transmission in the retina. Recent studies indicate that interaction of voltage-gated channels with those activated by neurotransmitters plays a significant role in shaping the light-evoked postsynaptic responses of retinal neurons. The fact that both types of channels are subject to modulation by multiple second messenger-mediated intracellular processes is a clear indicator of the importance of neuromodulation in retinal function. The whole-cell patch clamp technique provides a means to study mechanisms of regulation of ion channels by controlling intracellular as well as the extracellular
environment. This review
describes the experimental evidence, mostly obtained in our laboratory, which indicates the important role of Ca-dependent neuromodulatory processes in the regulation of signal transmission in the vertical pathway of the amphibian retina. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
BibTeX:
@article{Akopian:2000,
  author = {Akopian, A.},
  title = {Neuromodulation of ligand- and voltage-gated channels in the amphibian retina},
  journal = {Microscopy Research and Technique},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {50},
  number = {5},
  pages = {403-410},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0033849605&partnerID=40&md5=daa34d3646f77936a16d6f9e6dca8b2f},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0029(20000901)50:5%3C403::AID-JEMT9%3E3.0.CO;2-D}
}
Akopian, E. [Visual thalamic afferents of field 29 of the limbic cortex in the rat]. 1982 Neirofiziologiia
Vol. 14(2), pp. 135-139 
article  
Abstract: The afferent connections of the retrosplenial field of the limbic
cortex were studied in rats using the horseradish peroxidase method.
The dry horseradish peroxidase was injected to the cortical surface
in field 29. The HRP labelled cells were found in the dorsal part
of the lateral geniculate body, nucleus lateralis posterior, in the
pretectal and anterodorsalis nuclei. The connections of field 29
with fields 17 and 18 of the cortical visual areas and with contralateral
field 29 were also revealed. According to the data obtained all principal
thalamic structures project directly to the retrosplenial cortex.
BibTeX:
@article{Akopian:1982,
  author = {Akopian, EV},
  title = {[Visual thalamic afferents of field 29 of the limbic cortex in the rat].},
  journal = {Neirofiziologiia},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {14},
  number = {2},
  pages = {135--139},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Akopian, E.V. and Zagorul'ko, T.M. [Differences in the sensory support of the anterior and posterior sections of the limbic cortex of the rat]. 1988 Zhurnal evoliutsionnoi biokhimii i fiziologii
Vol. 24, pp. 396-403 
article  
Abstract: Using retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase, studies have been made on the thalamic projections in the anterior and posterior parts of the limbic cortex with special reference to exterosensory system projections (visual, auditory and somatic). Projections of the retinorecipient nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus and classic thalamic visual relays (n. geniculatus lateralis dorsalis, n. lateralis posterior, pretectum) were found in the anterior and posterior limbic cortex. There are also inputs from the thalamic relays of the auditory (n. geniculatus medialis) and somatic (n. ventralis posterior) systems in the posterior limbic cortex The data obtained indicate: 1) that sensory supply of the limbic cortex in rats may be realized via direct pathways from sensory thalamic relays; 2) that thalamic sensory supply of the anterior limbic cortex differs from that of the posterior one. In the former, projections of the thalamic relays of the visual, auditory and somatic systems were
found, whereas in the posterior cortex only visual system is presented. Topographic organization of the thalamic nuclear areas sending afferents to the anterior limbic cortex differs from that of the posterior limbic cortex.
BibTeX:
@article{Akopian:1988,
  author = {Akopian, E. V. and Zagorul'ko, T. M.},
  title = {[Differences in the sensory support of the anterior and posterior sections of the limbic cortex of the rat].},
  journal = {Zhurnal evoliutsionnoi biokhimii i fiziologii},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {396-403},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Akopyan, E. Visual thalamic afferents of field 29 of the limbic cortex in the rat. 1982 Neirofiziologiia
Vol. 14(2), pp. 135-139 
article  
Abstract: The afferent connections of the retrosplenial field of the limbic
cortex were studied in rats using the horseradish peroxidase method.
The dry horseradish peroxidase was injected to the cortical surface
in field 29. The HRP labelled cells were found in the dorsal part
of the lateral geniculate body, nucleus lateralis posterior, in the
pretectal and anterodorsalis nuclei. The connections of field 29
with fields 17 and 18 of the cortical visual areas and with contralateral
field 29 were also revealed. According to the data obtained all principal
thalamic structures project directly to the retrosplenial cortex.
BibTeX:
@article{Akopyan:1982,
  author = {Akopyan, EV},
  title = {Visual thalamic afferents of field 29 of the limbic cortex in the rat.},
  journal = {Neirofiziologiia},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {14},
  number = {2},
  pages = {135--139}
}
Akoryian, E.V. and Zagorul'ko, T.M. [Differences in the sensory support of the anterior and posterior sections of the limbic cortex of the rat]. 1988 Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol
Vol. 24(3), pp. 396-403 
article  
Abstract: Using retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase, studies have been made on the thalamic projections in the anterior and posterior parts of the limbic cortex with special reference to exterosensory system projections (visual, auditory and somatic). Projections of the retinorecipient nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus and classic thalamic visual relays (n. geniculatus lateralis dorsalis, n. lateralis posterior, pretectum) were found in the anterior and posterior limbic cortex. There are also inputs from the thalamic relays of the auditory (n. geniculatus medialis) and somatic (n. ventralis posterior) systems in the posterior limbic cortex The data obtained indicate: 1) that sensory supply of the limbic cortex in rats may be realized via direct pathways from sensory thalamic relays; 2) that thalamic sensory supply of the anterior limbic cortex differs from that of the posterior one. In the former, projections of the thalamic relays of the visual, auditory and somatic
systems were found, whereas in the posterior cortex only visual system is presented. Topographic organization of the thalamic nuclear areas sending afferents to the anterior limbic cortex differs from that of the posterior limbic cortex.
BibTeX:
@article{Akoryan:1988,
  author = {E. V. Akoryian and T. M. Zagorul'ko},
  title = {[Differences in the sensory support of the anterior and posterior sections of the limbic cortex of the rat].},
  journal = {Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {24},
  number = {3},
  pages = {396--403}
}
Aktas, Z., Gurelik, G., Göçün, P., Akyürek, N., Önol, M. and Hasanreisoǧlu, B. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in retinal ganglion cell layer and effect of topically applied brimonidine tartrate 0.2% therapy on this expression in an endothelin-1-induced optic nerve ischemia model 2010 International Ophthalmology
Vol. 30(3), pp. 253-259 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to investigate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and the impact of topically applied brimonidine tartrate 0.2% (BMD) on this expression in an endothelin-1 (ET-1)- induced chronic optic nerve (ON) ischemia model of rabbit. Osmotically driven minipumps were implanted in one eye of 16 New Zealand albino rabbits to deliver ET-1 at the constant rate of 0.5 ll/h for 2 weeks. ET-1 was given with (group 3) and withouttopical BMD therapy (group 1). Groups 2 and 4 were taken as controls. MMP-9 expression by immunohistochemically and proportion of cells undergoing apoptosis in RGC layer were investigated. The correlation between the MMP-9 immunopositivity and the proportion of cells undergoing apoptosis in the RGC layer was evaluated. MMP-9immunopositivity was found to be significantly higher in both groups 1 and 3 compared to that of the controls. There was no difference between groups 1 and 3 regarding MMP-
9 expression (p = 0.
495). A positive correlation was found between the proportion of cells undergoing apoptosis and MMP-9 expressions in the RGC layer in group 1 (p = 0.031, r = 0.754). MMP-9 expression in the RGC layer seems to significantly increase in the ET-1-induced chronic ON ischemia model. Topical BMD therapy does not seem to affect this MMP-9 expression. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.
BibTeX:
@article{Aktas:2010,
  author = {Aktas, Z. and Gurelik, G. and Göçün, P.U. and Akyürek, N. and Önol, M. and Hasanreisoǧlu, B.},
  title = {Matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in retinal ganglion cell layer and effect of topically applied brimonidine tartrate 0.2% therapy on this expression in an endothelin-1-induced optic nerve ischemia model},
  journal = {International Ophthalmology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {30},
  number = {3},
  pages = {253-259},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-77955659295&partnerID=40&md5=da48d21bb7d9caa48a3b2955cc9406c7},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10792-009-9316-9}
}
Akutsu, T., Tanaka, S., Murakami, Y., Nakajima, K., Nagashima, Y., Yada, Y., Suzuki, T. and Sasaki, K. Effect of the natural fragrance "cedrol" on dopamine metabolism in the lateral hypothalamic area of restrained rats: A microdialysis study 2006 International Congress Series
Vol. 1287, pp. 195-200 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: It has been reported that cedrol, a natural crystalline substance derived from cedar wood oil, has sedative effects on behavioral and autonomic activities in animals. In the present study, the effect of cedrol on dopamine (DA) metabolism was investigated in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of restrained rats using an in vivo microdialysis technique. Immobilization stress increased DA release in the LHA with concomitantly large increases in 3,4 hydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) levels, indicating that it activates the dopaminergic system in the brain. When the rats were exposed to cedrol, DA release was unchanged during and after immobilization stress compared with the basal level. The DOPAC and HVA levels showed only small increases during immobilization stress, and almost returned to basal levels after immobilization stress. The present results indicate that cedrol inhibits an increase in dopamine metabolism induced by immobilization stress, and
suggest that the
sedative effects of cedrol on behavioral and autonomic activities are partly due to the inhibition of dopaminergic neurotransmission and the modulation of LHA neuron activity by DA. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Akutsu:2006,
  author = {Akutsu, T. and Tanaka, S. and Murakami, Y. and Nakajima, K. and Nagashima, Y. and Yada, Y. and Suzuki, T. and Sasaki, K.},
  title = {Effect of the natural fragrance "cedrol" on dopamine metabolism in the lateral hypothalamic area of restrained rats: A microdialysis study},
  journal = {International Congress Series},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {1287},
  pages = {195-200},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33646538126&partnerID=40&md5=c750881679821f841ff025052449a213},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ics.2005.12.020}
}
Al Ghamdi, K.S., Polgar, E. and Todd, A.J. Soma size distinguishes projection neurons from neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing interneurons in lamina I of the rat lumbar spinal dorsal horn. 2009 Neuroscience
Vol. 164, pp. 1794-804 
article DOI  
Abstract: Lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn contains neurons that project to various brain regions, and approximately 80% of these projection cells express the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r), the main receptor for substance P. Two populations of NK1r-immunoreactive neurons have been identified in lamina I: small weakly immunoreactive cells and large cells with strong immunolabelling [Cheunsuang O and Morris R (2000) Neuroscience 97:335-345]. The main aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the large cells are projection neurons and that the small cells are interneurons. Projection neurons were identified by injection of tracers into the caudal ventrolateral medulla and lateral parabrachial area, and this was combined with immunostaining for NK1r. We found a bimodal size distribution for NK1r-immunoreactive neurons. The small cells (with somatic cross-sectional areas <200 microm(2)) showed weak immunoreactivity, while immunostaining intensity was variable among the large cells. Virtually all (99%) of the immunoreactive cells with soma areas >200 microm(2) were retrogradely labelled, while only 10% of retrogradely labelled cells were smaller than this. Soma sizes of retrogradely labelled neurons that lacked NK1r did not differ from those of NK1r-expressing projection neurons. It has been suggested that a population of small pyramidal projection neurons that lack NK1r may correspond to cells activated by innocuous cooling, and we therefore assessed the morphology of retrogradely labelled cells that were not NK1r-immunoreactive. Fifteen percent of these were pyramidal, but these did not differ in size from pyramidal NK1r-immunoreactive projection neurons. These results confirm that large NK1r-immunoreactive lamina I neurons are projection cells, and suggest that the small cells are interneurons. Since almost all of the NK1r-immunoreactive cells with soma size >200 microm(2) were retrogradely labelled, cells of this type can be identified as projection cells in anatomical studies.
BibTeX:
@article{AlGhamdi:2009,
  author = {Al Ghamdi, K. S. and Polgar, E. and Todd, A. J.},
  title = {Soma size distinguishes projection neurons from neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing interneurons in lamina I of the rat lumbar spinal dorsal horn.},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {164},
  pages = {1794-804},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.09.071}
}
Al Ghamdi, K.S., Polgár, E. and Todd, A.J. Soma size distinguishes projection neurons from neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing interneurons in lamina I of the rat lumbar spinal dorsal horn. 2009 Neuroscience
Vol. 164(4), pp. 1794-1804School: Neuroscience and Molecular Pharmacology, Faculty of Biomedical and Life Sciences, West Medical Building, University Avenue, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn contains neurons that project to various brain regions, and approximately 80% of these projection cells express the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r), the main receptor for substance P. Two populations of NK1r-immunoreactive neurons have been identified in lamina I: small weakly immunoreactive cells and large cells with strong immunolabelling [Cheunsuang O and Morris R (2000) Neuroscience 97:335-345]. The main aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the large cells are projection neurons and that the small cells are interneurons. Projection neurons were identified by injection of tracers into the caudal ventrolateral medulla and lateral parabrachial area, and this was combined with immunostaining for NK1r. We found a bimodal size distribution for NK1r-immunoreactive neurons. The small cells (with somatic cross-sectional areas <200 microm(2)) showed weak immunoreactivity, while immunostaining intensity was variable among the large cells. Virtually all (
99 of the immunoreactive cells with soma areas >200 microm(2) were retrogradely labelled, while only 10% of retrogradely labelled cells were smaller than this. Soma sizes of retrogradely labelled neurons that lacked NK1r did not differ from those of NK1r-expressing projection neurons. It has been suggested that a population of small pyramidal projection neurons that lack NK1r may correspond to cells activated by innocuous cooling, and we therefore assessed the morphology of retrogradely labelled cells that were not NK1r-immunoreactive. Fifteen percent of these were pyramidal, but these did not differ in size from pyramidal NK1r-immunoreactive projection neurons. These results confirm that large NK1r-immunoreactive lamina I neurons are projection cells, and suggest that the small cells are interneurons. Since almost all of the NK1r-immunoreactive cells with soma size >200 microm(2) were retrogradely labelled, cells of this type can be identified as projection cells in anatomical studies.
BibTeX:
@article{AlGhamdi:2009a,
  author = {Al Ghamdi, K. S. and Polgár, E. and Todd, A. J.},
  title = {Soma size distinguishes projection neurons from neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing interneurons in lamina I of the rat lumbar spinal dorsal horn.},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  school = {Neuroscience and Molecular Pharmacology, Faculty of Biomedical and Life Sciences, West Medical Building, University Avenue, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {164},
  number = {4},
  pages = {1794--1804},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.09.071},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.09.071}
}
Al-Abdulla, N.A. and Martin, L.J. Apoptosis of retrogradely degenerating neurons occurs in association with the accumulation of perikaryal mitochondria and oxidative damage to the nucleus. 1998 Am J Pathol
Vol. 153(2), pp. 447-456School: Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205-2196, USA. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The mechanisms for neuronal apoptosis after axotomy and target deprivation in the adult central nervous system are poorly understood. We used a unilateral occipital cortex ablation model in the adult rat to test the hypothesis that apoptotic retrograde neurodegeneration in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus occurs in association with oxidative stress and mitochondrial abnormalities. Immunodetection of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, a marker for oxidative injury to DNA, demonstrated that these apoptotic neurons undergo oxidative stress. Dual immunolabeling for the retrograde tracer Fluorogold to identify projection neurons and for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine demonstrated that apoptotic, oxidatively damaged neurons are geniculocortical projection neurons. By electron microscopy, degeneration of dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus neurons evolved in association with a transient increase in mitochondria within the perikaryon of dying neurons during the transition between
chromatolysis and early apoptosis. The morphological integrity of mitochondria was preserved until late in the progression of apoptosis. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus ipsilateral to the cortical lesion had a transient increase in cytochrome c oxidase activity, and geniculocortical neurons at the transitional, early apoptotic stage accumulated cytochrome c oxidase activity. We conclude that axotomy-induced, retrograde neuronal apoptosis in the adult central nervous system occurs in association with the accumulation of functionally active mitochondria within the perikaryon and oxidative damage to nuclear DNA.
BibTeX:
@article{Al-Abdulla:1998,
  author = {N. A. Al-Abdulla and L. J. Martin},
  title = {Apoptosis of retrogradely degenerating neurons occurs in association with the accumulation of perikaryal mitochondria and oxidative damage to the nucleus.},
  journal = {Am J Pathol},
  school = {Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205-2196, USA.},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {153},
  number = {2},
  pages = {447--456},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9440(10)65588-5},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9440(10)65588-5}
}
Al-Abdulla, N.A. and Martin, L.J. Apoptosis of retrogradely degenerating neurons occurs in association with the accumulation of perikaryal mitochondria and oxidative damage to the nucleus. 1998 The American journal of pathology
Vol. 153, pp. 447-56 
article  
Abstract: The mechanisms for neuronal apoptosis after axotomy and target deprivation in the adult central nervous system are poorly understood. We used a unilateral occipital cortex ablation model in the adult rat to test the hypothesis that apoptotic retrograde neurodegeneration in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus occurs in association with oxidative stress and mitochondrial abnormalities. Immunodetection of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, a marker for oxidative injury to DNA, demonstrated that these apoptotic neurons undergo oxidative stress. Dual immunolabeling for the retrograde tracer Fluorogold to identify projection neurons and for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine demonstrated that apoptotic, oxidatively damaged neurons are geniculocortical projection neurons. By electron microscopy, degeneration of dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus neurons evolved in association with a transient increase in mitochondria within the perikaryon of dying neurons during the transition between chromatolysis and early
apoptosis. The morphological integrity of mitochondria was preserved until late in the progression of apoptosis. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus ipsilateral to the cortical lesion had a transient increase in cytochrome c oxidase activity, and geniculocortical neurons at the transitional, early apoptotic stage accumulated cytochrome c oxidase activity. We conclude that axotomy-induced, retrograde neuronal apoptosis in the adult central nervous system occurs in association with the accumulation of functionally active mitochondria within the perikaryon and oxidative damage to nuclear DNA.
BibTeX:
@article{Al-Abdulla:1998b,
  author = {Al-Abdulla, N. A. and Martin, L. J.},
  title = {Apoptosis of retrogradely degenerating neurons occurs in association with the accumulation of perikaryal mitochondria and oxidative damage to the nucleus.},
  journal = {The American journal of pathology},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {153},
  pages = {447-56},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Al-Abdulla, N.A. and Martin, L.J. Projection neurons and interneurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus undergo distinct forms of degeneration ranging from retrograde and transsynaptic apoptosis to transient atrophy after cortical ablation in rat. 2002 Neuroscience
Vol. 115(1), pp. 7-14School: Department of Pathology, Division of Neuropathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205-2196, USA. 
article DOI  
Abstract: The cytological responses of thalamic interneurons to selective degeneration of thalamocortical projection neurons after cortical damage in the adult brain are poorly understood. We used a unilateral neocortical lesion model (occipital cortex ablation) in the adult rat to test the hypothesis that interneurons and projection neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus undergo distinct forms of degeneration. In situ nuclear DNA fragmentation in neurons in the lateral geniculate occurs maximally at 7 days postlesion. Geniculocortical projection neurons that are identified by the retrograde tracer Fluorogold die primarily with a morphology of endstage apoptosis prominent at 7 days postlesion. In contrast, interneurons, identified by their particular nuclear ultrastructure and by glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactivity, undergo an atrophic vacuolar pathology starting early during the period of projection neuron death and peaking after the projection neuron death is complete. This degeneration
of interneurons is transient, because these neurons exhibit structural recovery and their numbers are not changed significantly postlesion. A rare subset of interneurons (less than one in 100 interneurons and less than one in 100 apoptotic cells) undergoes apoptosis concurrently with the projection neurons. We conclude that different types of neurons within the same thalamic nucleus respond differently to focal cortical target deprivation. Unlike the apoptosis-prone projection neurons, most interneurons undergo transient transsynaptic atrophy and recovery rather than cell death. Nevertheless, a small subset of lateral geniculate interneurons undergoes transsynaptic apoptosis in response to projection neuron apoptosis. The pathological responses of thalamic neurons to cortical trauma vary depending on cell type.
BibTeX:
@article{Al-Abdulla:2002,
  author = {N. A. Al-Abdulla and L. J. Martin},
  title = {Projection neurons and interneurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus undergo distinct forms of degeneration ranging from retrograde and transsynaptic apoptosis to transient atrophy after cortical ablation in rat.},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  school = {Department of Pathology, Division of Neuropathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205-2196, USA.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {115},
  number = {1},
  pages = {7--14},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/s0306-4522(02)00363-9}
}
Al-Abdulla, N.A., Portera-Cailliau, C. and Martin, L.J. Occipital cortex ablation in adult rat causes retrograde neuronal death in the lateral geniculate nucleus that resembles apoptosis. 1998 Neuroscience
Vol. 86(1), pp. 191-209School: Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205-2196, USA. 
article DOI  
Abstract: The mechanisms of retrograde neurodegeneration following axotomy and target deprivation in the adult central nervous system remain poorly understood. We used a unilateral occipital cortex ablation model in adult rats to test the hypothesis that retrograde neurodegeneration in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus resembles apoptosis. Using the retrograde tracer Fluorogold, combined with nuclear dyes or the terminal transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling method for detecting nuclear DNA fragmentation, apoptotic geniculocortical projection neurons were identified at approximately. six to seven days postlesion. Degeneration of dorsal lateral geniculate neurons was characterized by aberrant accumulation of perikaryal non-phosphorylated neurofilaments and, ultrastructurally, by early vacuolation and subsequent swelling of dendrites. Ultrastructural alterations in the perikaryon of dying dorsal lateral geniculate neurons included the classic chromatolytic response,
with redistribution of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and dispersion of free ribosomes followed by fragmentation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, as well as dilatation and vesiculation of the Golgi, and accumulation of intact mitochondria. Subcellular alterations evolved into classic apoptotic changes, including progressive cytoplasmic and nuclear condensation with chromatin compaction into uniformly large round clumps, while the morphological integrity of mitochondria was preserved until late in the progression of neuronal death. Cytoplasmic and then nuclear fragments budded into the surrounding neuropil and were engulfed by oligodendrocytes. We conclude that the retrograde neurodegeneration of geniculocortical neurons in adult brain results in neuronal death which has a phenotype that closely resembles apoptosis. The morphological changes that occur during this process progress from chromatolysis through consecutive stages associated with apoptosis.
BibTeX:
@article{Al-Abdulla:1998a,
  author = {N. A. Al-Abdulla and C. Portera-Cailliau and L. J. Martin},
  title = {Occipital cortex ablation in adult rat causes retrograde neuronal death in the lateral geniculate nucleus that resembles apoptosis.},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  school = {Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205-2196, USA.},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {86},
  number = {1},
  pages = {191--209},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/s0306-4522(98)00014-1}
}
Alaimo, A., Gorojod, R.M. and Kotler, M.L. The extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways are involved in manganese toxicity in rat astrocytoma C6 cells. 2011 Neurochem Int
Vol. 59(2), pp. 297-308School: Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C1428EGA Buenos Aires, Argentina. agusalaimo@gmail.com 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Manganese (Mn) is a trace element known to be essential for maintaining the proper function and regulation of many biochemical and cellular reactions. However, chronic exposure to high levels of Mn in occupational or environmental settings can lead to its accumulation in the brain resulting in a degenerative brain disorder referred to as Manganism. Astrocytes are the main Mn store in the central nervous system and several lines of evidence implicate these cells as major players in the role of Manganism development. In the present study, we employed rat astrocytoma C6 cells as a sensitive experimental model for investigating molecular mechanisms involved in Mn neurotoxicity. Our results show that C6 cells undergo reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptotic cell death involving caspase-8 and mitochondrial-mediated pathways in response to Mn. Exposed cells exhibit typical apoptotic features, such as chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, caspase-3 activation and caspase-
specific cleavage of the endogenous substrate poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Participation of the caspase-8 dependent pathway was assessed by increased levels of FasL, caspase-8 activation and Bid cleavage. The involvement of the mitochondrial pathway was demonstrated by the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, cytochrome c release, caspase-9 activation and the increased mitochondrial levels of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. In addition, our data also shows for the first time that mitochondrial fragmentation plays a relevant role in Mn-induced apoptosis. Taking together, these findings contribute to a deeper elucidation of the molecular signaling mechanisms underlying Mn-induced apoptosis.
BibTeX:
@article{Alaimo:2011,
  author = {Agustina Alaimo and Roxana M Gorojod and Mónica L Kotler},
  title = {The extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways are involved in manganese toxicity in rat astrocytoma C6 cells.},
  journal = {Neurochem Int},
  school = {Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C1428EGA Buenos Aires, Argentina. agusalaimo@gmail.com},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {59},
  number = {2},
  pages = {297--308},
  note = {Not a tract tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2011.06.001},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2011.06.001}
}
Alaimo, A., Gorojod, R.M. and Kotler, M.L. The extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways are involved in manganese toxicity in rat astrocytoma C6 cells. 2011 Neurochemistry international
Vol. 59, pp. 297-308 
article DOI  
Abstract: Manganese (Mn) is a trace element known to be essential for maintaining the proper function and regulation of many biochemical and cellular reactions. However, chronic exposure to high levels of Mn in occupational or environmental settings can lead to its accumulation in the brain resulting in a degenerative brain disorder referred to as Manganism. Astrocytes are the main Mn store in the central nervous system and several lines of evidence implicate these cells as major players in the role of Manganism development. In the present study, we employed rat astrocytoma C6 cells as a sensitive experimental model for investigating molecular mechanisms involved in Mn neurotoxicity. Our results show that C6 cells undergo reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptotic cell death involving caspase-8 and mitochondrial-mediated pathways in response to Mn. Exposed cells exhibit typical apoptotic features, such as chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, caspase-3 activation and caspase-specific cleavage of the endogenous substrate poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Participation of the caspase-8 dependent pathway was assessed by increased levels of FasL, caspase-8 activation and Bid cleavage. The involvement of the mitochondrial pathway was demonstrated by the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, cytochrome c release, caspase-9 activation and the increased mitochondrial levels of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. In addition, our data also shows for the first time that mitochondrial fragmentation plays a relevant role in Mn-induced apoptosis. Taking together, these findings contribute to a deeper elucidation of the molecular signaling mechanisms underlying Mn-induced apoptosis.
BibTeX:
@article{Alaimo:2011a,
  author = {Alaimo, Agustina and Gorojod, Roxana M. and Kotler, Monica L.},
  title = {The extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways are involved in manganese toxicity in rat astrocytoma C6 cells.},
  journal = {Neurochemistry international},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {59},
  pages = {297-308},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2011.06.001}
}
Alamilla, J., Granados-Fuentes, D. and Aguilar-Roblero, R. The anterior Paraventricular Thalamus Modulates Neuronal Excitability in the Suprachiasmatic Nuclei of the Rat. 2015 Eur J NeurosciSchool: División de Neurociencias, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70-253, 04510, DF, México.  article DOI URL 
Abstract: The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the master clock, which regulates circadian rhythms, in mammals. Neural activity of SCN neurons is synchronized to external light through the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT). The paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) is a neural structure that receives synaptic inputs from, and projects back to, the SCN. Lesioning the anterior PVT (aPVT) modifies the behavioral phase response curve induced by short pulses of bright light. In order to study the influence of the aPVT on SCN neural activity, we addressed whether the stimulation of the aPVT can modulate the electrical response of the SCN to either retinal or RHT stimulation. Using in vitro and in vivo recordings, we found a large population of SCN neurons responsive to the stimulation of either aPVT or RHT pathways. Furthermore, we found that simultaneous stimulation of the aPVT and the RHT increased neuronal responsiveness and spontaneous firing rate (SFR) in neurons with a low basal SFR, which also have
more negative membrane potentials, such as quiescent and arrhythmic neurons, but no change was observed in neurons with rhythmic firing patterns and more depolarized membrane potentials. These results suggest that inputs from the aPVT could shift the membrane potential of an SCN neurons to values closer to its firing threshold and thus contribute to integrating the response of the circadian clock to light. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Alamilla:2015,
  author = {Alamilla, Javier and Granados-Fuentes, Daniel and Aguilar-Roblero, Raul},
  title = {The anterior Paraventricular Thalamus Modulates Neuronal Excitability in the Suprachiasmatic Nuclei of the Rat.},
  journal = {Eur J Neurosci},
  school = {División de Neurociencias, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70-253, 04510, DF, México.},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Not a tract tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.13088},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/ejn.13088}
}
Alanen, K., Nevalainen, T.J. and Lipasti, J. Ischaemic contracture and myocardial perfusion in isolated rat heart. 1980 Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histol
Vol. 385(2), pp. 143-149 
article DOI  
Abstract: The development of left ventricular contracture and myocardial perfusion defect was studied in isolated rat hearts during global ischaemia of 90 min duration. The left ventricular pressure was measured by a balloon catheter inserted into the ventricle and filled with water. The pressure reached the maximum at 16 min of ischaemia. The left ventricular volume and compliance (passive distensibility) were measured by the same balloon, the former by connecting the balloon to an open catheter and the latter by applying a constant additional volume (0.020 ml) into the balloon. the left ventricular volume and compliance both decreased progressively for 20 min of ischaemia after which they remained low for the rest of the observation period (90 min). The myocardial perfusability was tested by infusing 0.1 per cent sodium fluorescein in isotonic saline into the cannulated aortic root of the isolated heart preparation. The percentage perfused with the fluorescent tracer in horizontal frozen myocardial
sections was estimated by point counting from colour photogragraphs taken under ultraviolet light. The proportion of the perfused area decreased gradually from 100% at 0 min of ischaemia to 93, 67, 43 and 37% at 15, 30, 60 and 90 min of ischaemia, respectively. It was concluded that ischaemic contracture of the left ventricle is followed by the development of a myocardial perfusion defect in isolated ischaemic rat heart.
BibTeX:
@article{Alanen:1980,
  author = {Alanen, K. and Nevalainen, T. J. and Lipasti, J.},
  title = {Ischaemic contracture and myocardial perfusion in isolated rat heart.},
  journal = {Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histol},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {385},
  number = {2},
  pages = {143--149},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00427400}
}
Alant, J.D.d.V., Senjaya, F., Ivanovic, A., Forden, J., Shakhbazau, A. and Midha, R. The impact of motor axon misdirection and attrition on behavioral deficit following experimental nerve injuries. 2013 PLoS One
Vol. 8(11), pp. e82546School: Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Peripheral nerve transection and neuroma-in-continuity injuries are associated with permanent functional deficits, often despite successful end-organ reinnervation. Axonal misdirection with non-specific reinnervation, frustrated regeneration and axonal attrition are believed to be among the anatomical substrates that underlie the poor functional recovery associated with these devastating injuries. Yet, functional deficits associated with axonal misdirection in experimental neuroma-in-continuity injuries have not yet been studied. We hypothesized that experimental neuroma-in-continuity injuries would result in motor axon misdirection and attrition with proportional persistent functional deficits. The femoral nerve misdirection model was exploited to assess major motor pathway misdirection and axonal attrition over a spectrum of experimental nerve injuries, with neuroma-in-continuity injuries simulated by the combination of compression and traction forces in 42 male rats. Sciatic nerve
injuries were employed in an additional 42 rats, to evaluate the contribution of axonal misdirection to locomotor deficits by a ladder rung task up to 12 weeks. Retrograde motor neuron labeling techniques were utilized to determine the degree of axonal misdirection and attrition. Characteristic histological neuroma-in-continuity features were demonstrated in the neuroma-in-continuity groups and poor functional recovery was seen despite successful nerve regeneration and muscle reinnervation. Good positive and negative correlations were observed respectively between axonal misdirection (p<.0001, r(2)=.67), motor neuron counts (attrition) (p<.0001, r(2)=.69) and final functional deficits. We demonstrate prominent motor axon misdirection and attrition in neuroma-in-continuity and transection injuries of mixed motor nerves that contribute to the long-term functional deficits. Although widely accepted in theory, to our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence to convincingly demonstrate these
correlations with data inclusive of the neuroma-in-continuity spectrum. This work emphasizes the need to focus on strategies that promote both robust and accurate nerve regeneration to optimize functional recovery. It also demonstrates that clinically relevant neuroma-in-continuity injuries can now also be subjected to experimental investigation.
BibTeX:
@article{Alant:2013,
  author = {Alant, Jacob Daniel de Villiers and Senjaya, Ferry and Ivanovic, Aleksandra and Forden, Joanne and Shakhbazau, Antos and Midha, Rajiv},
  title = {The impact of motor axon misdirection and attrition on behavioral deficit following experimental nerve injuries.},
  journal = {PLoS One},
  school = {Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {8},
  number = {11},
  pages = {e82546},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082546},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082546}
}
Albanese, A. and Bentivoglio, M. The organization of dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic mesencephalo-cortical neurons in the rat. 1982 Brain Res
Vol. 238(2), pp. 421-425 
article DOI  
Abstract: The dopamine containing mesencephalo-cortical pathway was studied in the rat by means of a combined retrograde fluorescent tracing and catecholamine histofluorescence technique. After large injections of the fluorescent retrograde tracer, Evans blue, into the frontal cortex, many neural somata of the ventral midbrain tegmentum were retrogradely labeled; most of the retrogradely labeled neurons also showed catecholamine fluorescence. However, some labeled cells (10-15 did not show any catecholamine fluorescence. The present findings confirm the existence of a non-dopaminergic (DA) mesencephalo-cortical pathway and describe the topographical interrelationships between its DA and the non-DA cell bodies of origin.
BibTeX:
@article{Albanese:1982,
  author = {A. Albanese and M. Bentivoglio},
  title = {The organization of dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic mesencephalo-cortical neurons in the rat.},
  journal = {Brain Res},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {238},
  number = {2},
  pages = {421--425},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(82)90117-2}
}
Albanese, A. and Bentivoglio, M. Retrograde fluorescent neuronal tracing combined with acetylcholinesterase histochemistry. 1982 J Neurosci Methods
Vol. 6(1-2), pp. 121-127 
article DOI  
Abstract: The retrograde fluorescent tracing technique was combined with the di-isopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) histochemical procedure for acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Three fluorescent tracers (True blue, Fast blue and Evans blue) were injected into the rat striatum. After the appropriate survival time and after the administration of DFP, AChE reaction products could be observed in the fluorescent retrogradely labeled substantia nigra neurons. The fluorescent retrograde labeling and AChE brown reaction products were observed in the same cell bodies by simply turning on and off the bright-field illumination while observing with fluorescence. The sensitivity of the method appeared to be related to the length of the survival time after the tracer injection as well as after the DFP administration. This combined method allows to study the efferent connections of AChE-containing neurons in the central nervous system.
BibTeX:
@article{Albanese:1982a,
  author = {A. Albanese and M. Bentivoglio},
  title = {Retrograde fluorescent neuronal tracing combined with acetylcholinesterase histochemistry.},
  journal = {J Neurosci Methods},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {6},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {121--127},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-0270(82)90022-x}
}
Albanese, A. and Bentivoglio, M. Retrograde fluorescent neuronal tracing combined with acetylcholinesterase histochemistry 1982 Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Vol. 6(1-2), pp. 121-127 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The retrograde fluorescent tracing technique was combined with the di-isopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) histochemical procedure for acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Three fluorescent tracers (True blue Fast blue and Evans blue) were injected into the rat striatum. After the appropriate survival time and after the administration of DFP, AChE reaction products could be observed in the fluorescent retrogradely labeled substantia nigra neurons. The fluorescent retrograde labeling and the AChE brown reaction products were observed in the same cell bodies by simply turning on and off the bright-field illumination while observing with fluorescence. The sensitivity of the method appeared to be related to the length of the survival time after the tracer injection as well as after the DFP administration. This combined method allows to study the efferent connections of AChE-containing neurons in the central nervous system. © 1982.
BibTeX:
@article{Albanese:1982b,
  author = {Albanese, A. and Bentivoglio, M.},
  title = {Retrograde fluorescent neuronal tracing combined with acetylcholinesterase histochemistry},
  journal = {Journal of Neuroscience Methods},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {6},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {121-127},
  note = {Duplicate from Scopus!},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0020318913&partnerID=40&md5=35c7b5eec684e09159e0478e234d0eb7},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-0270(82)90022-X}
}
Albanese, A. and Bentivoglio, M. The organization of dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic mesencephalo-cortical neurons in the rat. 1982 Brain research
Vol. 238, pp. 421-5 
article  
Abstract: The dopamine containing mesencephalo-cortical pathway was studied in the rat by means of a combined retrograde fluorescent tracing and catecholamine histofluorescence technique. After large injections of the fluorescent retrograde tracer, Evans blue, into the frontal cortex, many neural somata of the ventral midbrain tegmentum were retrogradely labeled; most of the retrogradely labeled neurons also showed catecholamine fluorescence. However, some labeled cells (10-15%) did not show any catecholamine fluorescence. The present findings confirm the existence of a non-dopaminergic (DA) mesencephalo-cortical pathway and describe the topographical interrelationships between its DA and the non-DA cell bodies of origin.
BibTeX:
@article{Albanese:1982c,
  author = {Albanese, A. and Bentivoglio, M.},
  title = {The organization of dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic mesencephalo-cortical neurons in the rat.},
  journal = {Brain research},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {238},
  pages = {421-5},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Albanese, A., Castagna, M. and Altavista, M.C. Cholinergic and non-cholinergic forebrain projections to the interpeduncular nucleus. 1985 Brain Res
Vol. 329(1-2), pp. 334-339 
article DOI  
Abstract: A combined fluorescent retrograde tracing and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemical technique was used for the study of some forebrain projections to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). After injections of a fluorescent tracer into the IPN, the distribution of AChE-containing and of fluorescent retrogradely labeled neurons was simultaneously studied in the habenular nuclei, medial septum and diagonal band of Broca. In all these regions, the majority of retrogradely labeled neurons also contained AChE: neurons located in the habenular nuclei stained lightly or moderately for the enzyme, while neurons located in the diagonal band and medial septum displayed intense AChE staining and were classified as putatively cholinergic perikarya. In all regions, a minority of labeled neurons did not stain for AChE, and were identified as non-cholinergic neurons projecting to the IPN. The present study shows the existence of a biochemical heterogeneity in the habenulo-interpeduncular and telencephalo-
interpeduncular pathways, and indicates that the latter contains putatively cholinergic as well as non-cholinergic fibers.
BibTeX:
@article{Albanese:1985,
  author = {Albanese, A. and Castagna, M. and Altavista, M. C.},
  title = {Cholinergic and non-cholinergic forebrain projections to the interpeduncular nucleus.},
  journal = {Brain Res},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {329},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {334--339},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(85)90545-1}
}
Albanese, A., Castagna, M. and Altavista, M.C. Cholinergic and non-cholinergic forebrain projections to the interpeduncular nucleus. 1985 Brain research
Vol. 329, pp. 334-9 
article  
Abstract: A combined fluorescent retrograde tracing and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemical technique was used for the study of some forebrain projections to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). After injections of a fluorescent tracer into the IPN, the distribution of AChE-containing and of fluorescent retrogradely labeled neurons was simultaneously studied in the habenular nuclei, medial septum and diagonal band of Broca. In all these regions, the majority of retrogradely labeled neurons also contained AChE: neurons located in the habenular nuclei stained lightly or moderately for the enzyme, while neurons located in the diagonal band and medial septum displayed intense AChE staining and were classified as putatively cholinergic perikarya. In all regions, a minority of labeled neurons did not stain for AChE, and were identified as non-cholinergic neurons projecting to the IPN. The present study shows the existence of a biochemical heterogeneity in the habenulo-interpeduncular and telencephalo-
interpeduncular pathways, and indicates that the latter contains putatively cholinergic as well as non-cholinergic fibers.
BibTeX:
@article{Albanese:1985a,
  author = {Albanese, A. and Castagna, M. and Altavista, M. C.},
  title = {Cholinergic and non-cholinergic forebrain projections to the interpeduncular nucleus.},
  journal = {Brain research},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {329},
  pages = {334-9},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Albanese, A. and Minciacchi, D. Organization of the ascending projections from the ventral tegmental area: a multiple fluorescent retrograde tracer study in the rat. 1983 J Comp Neurol
Vol. 216(4), pp. 406-420 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The projections from the ventral tegmental area of Tsai (VTA) to the frontal cortex (FC), lateral septum (LS), were investigated in the rat by means of the double retrograde fluorescent tracer technique. True blue and fast blue were used in combination with nuclear yellow as retrograde tracers. After combined injections placed into two different terminal fields, many singly and some doubly labeled neurons were seen in the midbrain. In all cases the labeled cells were observed in the ipsilateral VTA, while after injections placed into the LS and Acc some fluorescent neurons were also seen in the contralateral VTA. The patterns of distribution of the labeled neurons showed a topographic organization of the VTA efferent pathways. However, some degree of overlapping was evident in the distribution of cells retrogradely labeled from different terminal fields. The number of the doubly labeled neurons varied according to the sites of combined injections, but in each experiment it never
exceeded 10% of the total number of labeled perikarya. Doubly labeled neurons were particularly numerous after combined injections placed into the FC, LS, or LH; on the contrary, very few doubly labeled cells were observed after combined injections placed into the CPu and LS or LH. The organization of the ascending VTA projections suggests that they are probably integrated into different anatomical sets.
BibTeX:
@article{Albanese:1983,
  author = {A. Albanese and D. Minciacchi},
  title = {Organization of the ascending projections from the ventral tegmental area: a multiple fluorescent retrograde tracer study in the rat.},
  journal = {J Comp Neurol},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {216},
  number = {4},
  pages = {406--420},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.902160406},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.902160406}
}
Albanese, A. and Minciacchi, D. Organization of the ascending projections from the ventral tegmental area: A multiple fluorescent retrograde tracer study in the rat 1983 Journal of Comparative Neurology
Vol. 216(4), pp. 406-420 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The projections from the ventral tegmental area of Tsai (VTA) to the frontal cortex (FC), lateral septum (LS), nucleus accumbens (Acc), caudate-putamen (CPu), and lateral habenula (LH) were investigated in the rat by means of the double retrograde fluorescent tracer technique. True blue and fast blue were used in combination with nuclear yellow as retrograde tracers. After combined injections placed into two different terminal fields, many singly and some doubly labeled neurons were seen in the midbrain. In all cases the labeled cells were observed in the ipsilateral VTA, while after injections placed into the LS and Acc some fluorescent neurons were also seen in the contralateral VTA. The patterns of distribution of the labeled neurons showed a topographic organization of the VTA efferent pathways. However, some degree of overlapping was evident in the distribution of cells retrogradely labeled from different terminal fields. The number of the doubly labeled neurons varied according to
the sites
of combined injections, but in each experiment it never exceeded 10% of the total number of labeled perikarya. Doubly labeled neurons were particularly numerous after combined injections placed into the FC, LS, or LH; on the contrary, very few doubly labeled cells were observed after combined injections placed into the CPu and LS or LH. The organization of the ascending VTA projections suggests that they are probably integrated into different anatomical sets.
BibTeX:
@article{Albanese:1983a,
  author = {Albanese, A. and Minciacchi, D.},
  title = {Organization of the ascending projections from the ventral tegmental area: A multiple fluorescent retrograde tracer study in the rat},
  journal = {Journal of Comparative Neurology},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {216},
  number = {4},
  pages = {406-420},
  note = {Duplicate from Scopus!},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0020509941&partnerID=40&md5=76012c6c54f6c11e4ffa304e785ec489},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.902160406}
}
Albanese, A. and Minciacchi, D. Organization of the ascending projections from the ventral tegmental area: a multiple fluorescent retrograde tracer study in the rat. 1983 The Journal of comparative neurology
Vol. 216, pp. 406-420 
article DOI  
Abstract: The projections from the ventral tegmental area of Tsai (VTA) to the frontal cortex (FC), lateral septum (LS), were investigated in the rat by means of the double retrograde fluorescent tracer technique. True blue and fast blue were used in combination with nuclear yellow as retrograde tracers. After combined injections placed into two different terminal fields, many singly and some doubly labeled neurons were seen in the midbrain. In all cases the labeled cells were observed in the ipsilateral VTA, while after injections placed into the LS and Acc some fluorescent neurons were also seen in the contralateral VTA. The patterns of distribution of the labeled neurons showed a topographic organization of the VTA efferent pathways. However, some degree of overlapping was evident in the distribution of cells retrogradely labeled from different terminal fields. The number of the doubly labeled neurons varied according to the sites of combined injections, but in each experiment it never exceeded 10% of the total number of labeled perikarya. Doubly labeled neurons were particularly numerous after combined injections placed into the FC, LS, or LH; on the contrary, very few doubly labeled cells were observed after combined injections placed into the CPu and LS or LH. The organization of the ascending VTA projections suggests that they are probably integrated into different anatomical sets.
BibTeX:
@article{Albanese:1983b,
  author = {Albanese, A and Minciacchi, D},
  title = {Organization of the ascending projections from the ventral tegmental area: a multiple fluorescent retrograde tracer study in the rat.},
  journal = {The Journal of comparative neurology},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {216},
  pages = {406--420},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.902160406}
}
Albeck, D., Bullock, N., Marrs, K., Cooper, R., Smock, T. and De Vries, G. Antidromic activation of a peptidergic pathway in the limbic system of the male rat 1993 Brain Research
Vol. 606(1), pp. 171-174 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Stimulation of the medial amygdaloid nucleus (AME) produces a long-latency and long-lasting inhibition of pyramidal cells in both the dorsal and the ventral hippocampus. The inhibition is blocked by a specific antagonist to vasopressin, which is a candidate neurotransmitter in the system. Antidromic activation of the AME from the hippocampus occurs with a latency suggestive of the conduction velocity of small diameter unmyelinated fibers. Immunocytochemistry for vasopressin reveals small diameter, unmyelinated immunoreactive fibers in the vicinity of the stimulating electrode in the hippocampus, and immunoreactive cell bodies in the vicinity of the recording electrode in the AME. © 1993.
BibTeX:
@article{Albeck:1993,
  author = {Albeck, D. and Bullock, N. and Marrs, K. and Cooper, R. and Smock, T. and De Vries, G.J.},
  title = {Antidromic activation of a peptidergic pathway in the limbic system of the male rat},
  journal = {Brain Research},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {606},
  number = {1},
  pages = {171-174},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0027468065&partnerID=40&md5=1e43e4eb742b7dc2cc9b71ca86fe025f},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(93)91587-I}
}
Albeck, D. and Smock, T. A mechanism for vasopressin action in the hippocampus. 1988 Brain Res
Vol. 463(2), pp. 394-397School: Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder 80309. 
article DOI  
Abstract: The action of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the rat hippocampal slice has been extensively studied. Extracellular recording indicates that the peptide excites spontaneously active neurons in the slice, though uncertainty exists regarding the identity of this cell type. Intracellular recording from pyramidal cells also reveals an excitatory action of the peptide, but these results are confounded by simultaneous constriction of small blood vessels that surround each pyramidal cell. Here we use field potential recordings to show that AVP inhibits pyramidal cell discharge and employs a pressor-type (V1) receptor to bring about its action. The results resolve issues regarding the identity of AVP targets in the slice. Each reported result is consistent with a model that posits direct AVP excitation of inhibitory interneurons and direct AVP constriction of slice microvessels. Inhibition of pyramidal cells recorded extracellularly and excitation of pyramidal cells recorded intracellularly are
respective indirect consequences of the two direct effects.
BibTeX:
@article{Albeck:1988,
  author = {Albeck, D. and Smock, T.},
  title = {A mechanism for vasopressin action in the hippocampus.},
  journal = {Brain Res},
  school = {Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder 80309.},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {463},
  number = {2},
  pages = {394--397},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(88)90417-9}
}
Albe-Fessard, D., Berkley, K.J., Kruger, L., Ralston, H.J. and Willis, W.D. Diencephalic mechanisms of pain sensation. 1985 Brain Res
Vol. 356(3), pp. 217-296 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Albe-Fessard:1985,
  author = {D. Albe-Fessard and K. J. Berkley and L. Kruger and H. J. Ralston and W. D. Willis},
  title = {Diencephalic mechanisms of pain sensation.},
  journal = {Brain Res},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {356},
  number = {3},
  pages = {217--296},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-0173(85)90013-x}
}
Albe-Fessard, D., Condes-Lara, M. and Sanderson, P. The focal tonic cortical control of intralaminar thalamic neurons may involve a cortico-thalamic loop. 1983 Acta Morphol Hung
Vol. 31(1-3), pp. 9-26 
article  
Abstract: The effects exerted by the cortex on thalamic neuronal activity were studied using the technique of cortical spreading depression. Glass micropipette recordings were made simultaneously in the thalamus and cortex and we found that the activity of a portion of the thalamic neurons was suppressed when the cortical spreading depression arrived at a particular and localised cortical area, which was different for different thalamic nuclei. The suppression of spontaneous activity was longer and more frequently observed for cells of the intralaminar thalamic nuclei. To determine if the action of the cortex on the intralaminar thalamic nuclei, demonstrated by these experiments, involved a monosynaptic pathway we used both electrophysiological and anatomical methods. When recording in the cortical area which we had found to control intralaminar thalamic activity we observed that, antidromic activation and also a pause of cortical cells was produced by intralaminar stimulation. When HRP
was injected into the intralaminar nuclei we found retrogradely labelled cells in the same cortical area. To determine if a reciprocal connection exists we injected HRP into the same cortical area; retrogradely labelled cells were subsequently found in the intralaminar nuclei. A reciprocal cortico-thalamic connection thus appears to exist between the controlling cortical area and the intralaminar thalamic region under this control. The possibility that this loop is involved in the facilitatory descending influence exerted on intralaminar nuclei is discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{Albe-Fessard:1983,
  author = {Albe-Fessard, D. and Condes-Lara, M. and Sanderson, P.},
  title = {The focal tonic cortical control of intralaminar thalamic neurons may involve a cortico-thalamic loop.},
  journal = {Acta Morphol Hung},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {31},
  number = {1-3},
  pages = {9--26}
}
Albe-Fessard, D., Condes-Lara, M. and Sanderson, P. The focal tonic cortical control of intralaminar thalamic neurons may involve a cortico-thalamic loop. 1983 Acta morphologica Hungarica
Vol. 31, pp. 9-26 
article  
Abstract: The effects exerted by the cortex on thalamic neuronal activity were studied using the technique of cortical spreading depression. Glass micropipette recordings were made simultaneously in the thalamus and cortex and we found that the activity of a portion of the thalamic neurons was suppressed when the cortical spreading depression arrived at a particular and localised cortical area, which was different for different thalamic nuclei. The suppression of spontaneous activity was longer and more frequently observed for cells of the intralaminar thalamic nuclei. To determine if the action of the cortex on the intralaminar thalamic nuclei, demonstrated by these experiments, involved a monosynaptic pathway we used both electrophysiological and anatomical methods. When recording in the cortical area which we had found to control intralaminar thalamic activity we observed that, antidromic activation and also a pause of cortical cells was produced by intralaminar stimulation. When HRP was injected
into the intralaminar nuclei we found retrogradely labelled cells in the same cortical area. To determine if a reciprocal connection exists we injected HRP into the same cortical area; retrogradely labelled cells were subsequently found in the intralaminar nuclei. A reciprocal cortico-thalamic connection thus appears to exist between the controlling cortical area and the intralaminar thalamic region under this control. The possibility that this loop is involved in the facilitatory descending influence exerted on intralaminar nuclei is discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{Albe-Fessard:1983a,
  author = {Albe-Fessard, D. and Condes-Lara, M. and Sanderson, P.},
  title = {The focal tonic cortical control of intralaminar thalamic neurons may involve a cortico-thalamic loop.},
  journal = {Acta morphologica Hungarica},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {9-26},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Alberghina, M. and Gould, R. Characterization of phospholipase A2 and acyltransferase activities in squid (loligo pealei) axoplasm: comparison with enzyme activities in other neural tissues, axolemma and axoplasmic subfractions 1992 Neurochemistry International
Vol. 21(4), pp. 563-571 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Phospholipase A2 and acyltransferase were assayed and characterized in pure axoplasm and neural tissues of squid. Intracellular phospholipase A2 activity was highest in giant fiber lobe and axoplasm, followed by homogenates from retinal fibers, optic lobe and fin nerve. In most preparations, exogenous calcium (5 mM) caused a slight stimulation of activity. EGTA (2 mM) was somewhat inhibitory, indicating that low levels of endogenous calcium may be required for optimum activity. Phospholipase A2 was inhibited by 0.1 mM p-bromophenacylbromide, and was completely inactivated following heating. The level of acylCoA: lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase activity was higher in axoplasm and giant fiber lobe than in other neural tissues of the squid. Km (apparent) and Vmax (apparent) for oleoyl-CoA and lysophosphatidylcholine were quite similar for axoplasm and giant fiber lobe enzyme preparations. Acyltransferase activity was inactivated by heat treatment, and greatly inhibited by 0.
2 mM p-
chloromercuribenzoate, and to a lesser extent by 20 mM N-ethylmaleimide. Phospholipase A2 activity was present in fractions enriched in axolemmal membranes (separated from squid retinal fibers and garfish olfactory nerve) from both tissues, and it was also highly concentrated in vesicles derived from squid axoplasm. In all three preparations, phospholipase A2 activity was stimulated by Ca++ (5 mM) and inhibited by EGTA (2 mM). In addition, axoplasmic cytosol (114,000 g supernatant) retained a substantial portion of a Ca++-independent phospholipase A2, active in the presence of 2 mM EGTA. Acyltransferase activity was present at high content in both axolemma membrane rich fractions, and among subaxoplasmic fractions and axoplasmic vesicles. © 1992.
BibTeX:
@article{Alberghina:1992,
  author = {Alberghina, M. and Gould, R.M.},
  title = {Characterization of phospholipase A2 and acyltransferase activities in squid (loligo pealei) axoplasm: comparison with enzyme activities in other neural tissues, axolemma and axoplasmic subfractions},
  journal = {Neurochemistry International},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {21},
  number = {4},
  pages = {563-571},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0026615274&partnerID=40&md5=8a6103a1f331aeb0c29f27815c0da6eb},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0197-0186(92)90089-A}
}
Albers, F.J., Meek, J. and Nieuwenhuys, R. Morphometric parameters of the superior colliculus of albino and pigmented rats. 1988 J Comp Neurol
Vol. 274(3), pp. 357-370School: Department of Anatomy and Embryology, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The superior colliculus (SC) or optic tectum of mammals consists of seven layers, numbered I-VII from superficial to deep, each of which has distinct connectivity patterns and electrophysiological response properties. The present study is devoted to a morphometrical analysis of neuronal diameters, densities, and numbers in different layers and regions of the SC of albino as well as pigmented rats in order to present a quantitative characterization of the collicular neuronal population involved in the different connectivities and functions of these compartments. The morphometric parameters were calculated from tracings of nuclei and cell bodies by means of Kontron-Videoplan equipment and a Micro PDP 11/23 computer. The mean soma diameter per superior colliculus appears to be 12.0 microns, the average neuronal density 70 cells per 0.001 mm3, and the total number of neurons about 600,000. The mean soma diameter gradually increases from superficial to deep layers (i.e., from 10.0 to 14.0 microns)
. Cellular density is highest in layer III, the retinal afferent layer (90 cells per 0.001 mm3), and decreases both in more superficial layers (to about 80 in layer I) and deeper layers (to about 44 in layer VII). About 25% of all collicular neurons are situated in layer II whereas layer I contains the lowest percentage of cells (4. Rostrally within each collicular layer, cellular volumes are about 25% larger than caudally. On the other hand, neuronal densities are rostrally about 38% lower than caudally in all layers except for layers VI and VII. We conclude that collicular neurons, in contrast to collicular axons, are not arranged in distinct layers or clusters but basically establish a random network with only gradual transitions. In this respect, no statistically significant differences were observed between albino and pigmented rats.
BibTeX:
@article{Albers:1988,
  author = {Albers, F. J. and Meek, J. and Nieuwenhuys, R.},
  title = {Morphometric parameters of the superior colliculus of albino and pigmented rats.},
  journal = {J Comp Neurol},
  school = {Department of Anatomy and Embryology, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands.},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {274},
  number = {3},
  pages = {357--370},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.902740306},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.902740306}
}
Albert, J.L. and Nerbonne, J.M. Calcium-independent depolarization-activated potassium currents in superior colliculus-projecting rat visual cortical neurons. 1995 Journal of neurophysiology
Vol. 73, pp. 2163-2178 
article URL 
Abstract: 1. K+ conductances were characterized in isolated, identified superior colliculus-projecting (SCP) rat visual cortical neurons. SCP neurons were identified in vitro under epifluorescence illumination after in vivo retrograde labeling with rhodamine-labeled microspheres or "beads." For experiments, SCP neurons were isolated from the primary visual cortex of postnatal day 7 to 16 (P7-P16) Long Evans rat pups after bead injections into the ipsilateral superior colliculus at p5. 2. Recording conditions were optimized to allow the characterization of Ca2+ -independent K+ conductances. SCP cells that were largely devoid of processes were selected for recording, and experiments were completed 2-30 h after cell isolation. Ca2+ -independent, depolarization-activated K+ currents were routinely recorded during 200-ms voltage steps to potentials positive to -50 mV from a holding potential of -70 mV. 3. Peak outward current densities and the relative amplitudes of the peak and plateau outward currents evoked during 200-ms voltage steps varied among SCP cells. Although cells were isolated from animals at different ages (P7-P16) and maintained for varying times in vitro (2-30 h), no correlations were found between the variations in peak current densities or peak to plateau current ratios and the age of the animal from which the cell was isolated or the length of time the cell was maintained in vitro before recording. 4. Pharmacological experiments revealed the coexpression of three K+ current components in SCP cells that could be separated on the basis of differing sensitivities to the K+ channel blockers, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and tetraethylammonium (TEA). Varying the concentration of 4-AP, for example, facilitated the separation of two rapidly activating K+ currents similar to A (IA) and D(ID) type currents in other cells. ID in SCP neurons is blocked by micromolar concentrations of 4-AP, whereas micromolar concentrations of 4-AP are required to effect complete block of IA in these cells. The current component remaining in the presence of high concentrations (5-10 mM) of 4-AP is slowly activating outward K+ current, similar to delayed rectifier (IK) currents in other cells. IK in SCP neurons is blocked by micromolar concentrations of TEA. 5. Activation of IA, ID, and IK in SCP neurons is voltage dependent, although the three current components display distinct time- and voltage-dependent properties. For example, although both IA and ID begin to activate at approximately -50 mV, IA activates two to three times faster than ID. In addition, the threshold for activation of IK (-30 mV) is approximately 20 mV depolarized from that of IA (or ID), and the voltage dependence of IK activation is steeper than that of IA and ID.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
BibTeX:
@article{Albert:1995,
  author = {Albert, J L and Nerbonne, J M},
  title = {Calcium-independent depolarization-activated potassium currents in superior colliculus-projecting rat visual cortical neurons.},
  journal = {Journal of neurophysiology},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {73},
  pages = {2163--2178},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.google.de/search?source=hp&q=Calcium-independent+depolarization-activated+potassium+currents+in+superior+colliculus-projecting+rat+visual+cortical+neurons.&oq=Calcium-independent+depolarization-activated+potassium+currents+in+superior+colliculus-projecting+rat+visual+cortical+neurons.&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1331.1331.0.1676.1.1.0.0.0.0.0.0..0.0....0...1.1.64.psy-ab..1.0.0....0.I_oCJ1dpOyY#}
}
Albertin, S., Mulder, A., Tabuchi, E., Zugaro, M. and Wiener, S. Lesions of the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens impair rats in finding larger rewards, but spare reward-seeking behavior 2001 Behavioural Brain Research
Vol. 117(1-2), pp. 173-183 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The goal of this study was to help better understand the importance of the nucleus accumbens (Nacc) in the processing of position and reward value information for goal-directed orientation behaviors. Sixteen male Long-Evans rats, under partial water deprivation, were trained in a plus-maze to find water rewards in the respective arms which were lit in pseudo-random sequence (training trials). Each day one reward arm was selected to deliver six drops of water (at 1 s intervals) the others provided only one drop per visit. After 32 visits, probe trials were intermittently presented among training trials. Here, all four arms were lit and offered the previously assigned reward. The rats rapidly learned to go to the highly rewarded arm. Six trained rats were given bilateral electrolytic lesions in the Nacc shell, two others had unilateral lesions and eight had sham operations (with approved protocols). Field potentials evoked by fornix stimulation were recorded in lesion electrodes to
guide placements.
Only the lesioned rats showed significant impairments (P < 0.05) in selecting the greater reward on probe trials. However on training trials, lesioned (and sham-operated) rats made only rare errors. While the motivation to drink and the capacity for cue-guided goal-directed orientation behavior was spared, lesioned rats were impaired in learning the location of the larger reward. The accumbens lesions apparently impaired integration of position and reward value information, consistent with anatomical and electrophysiological data showing the convergence of hippocampal, amygdalar, ventral tegmental area (VTA) and prefrontal cortical inputs there. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.
BibTeX:
@article{Albertin:2001,
  author = {Albertin, S.V. and Mulder, A.B. and Tabuchi, E. and Zugaro, M.B. and Wiener, S.I.},
  title = {Lesions of the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens impair rats in finding larger rewards, but spare reward-seeking behavior},
  journal = {Behavioural Brain Research},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {117},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {173-183},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0034694933&partnerID=40&md5=ec717ff53772ef6efab98229a67675c2},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4328(00)00303-X}
}
Albertini, D.F. and Anderson, E. Structural modifications of lutein cell gap junctions during pregnancy in the rat and the mouse. 1975 Anat Rec
Vol. 181(2), pp. 171-194 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: By use of lanthanum tracer and freeze-fracture procedures it was found that granulosa-lutein cells of the pregnant mouse and rat ovaries are connected by gap junctions and septate-like zones of contact. Lutein cell gap junctions enlarge and become partially internalized by the end of the first week of gestation. Expansion of the gap junction domain appears to be due initially to intercalation of particles along borders of small gap junctions devoid of smaller non-junctional particles. The number of gap junction lined processes appearing at the cell border increases concomitantly with hypertrophy of the lutein cell during the second week of pregnancy. Strands of particulate or grooved membrane emanate from the margin of larger gap junctions undergoing interiorization. Most large gap junctions are intimately associated with elements of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Spherical gap junctional profiles assume a deeper location in the lutein cell and may form concentric arrays by term while
true surface gap junctions appear to fragment in the post-partum corpus luteum. The modifications observed are interpreted with respect to biogenesis of the gap junction and the hormonal control of lutein cell function.
BibTeX:
@article{Albertini:1975,
  author = {Albertini, D. F. and Anderson, E.},
  title = {Structural modifications of lutein cell gap junctions during pregnancy in the rat and the mouse.},
  journal = {Anat Rec},
  year = {1975},
  volume = {181},
  number = {2},
  pages = {171--194},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.1091810203},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.1091810203}
}
Alberto, C.O. and Hirasawa, M. AMPA receptor-mediated miniature EPSCs have heterogeneous time courses in orexin neurons. 2010 Biochem Biophys Res Commun
Vol. 400(4), pp. 707-712School: Division of BioMedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Glutamate plays a predominant role in regulating the activity of orexin neurons that coordinate motivated behaviors, sleep-wake cycle and autonomic functions. To gain more insight into the properties of excitatory transmission to orexin neurons, whole cell patch clamp recordings were made in rat brain slices and quantal analysis of pharmacologically isolated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) was performed. In more than half the orexin neurons examined, mEPSCs showed heterogeneous time course: some mEPSCs had fast rise and decay (fast mEPSC), while some had longer kinetics, smaller amplitude but larger integrated area (slow mEPSC). Other orexin neurons showed low frequency mEPSCs with uniform, fast kinetics. In the former, distribution histogram of 10-90% rise time displayed two peaks, indicating that fast and slow mEPSCs are distinct subgroups. Occasionally fast and slow EPSCs would summate, suggesting that they arise from different pairs of active zones and postsynaptic
receptor clusters. A large majority of mEPSCs were mediated by AMPA receptors that are sensitive to GYKI 52466 and DNQX. To determine whether synapses that give rise to fast and slow mEPSCs are differentially modulated, the D1- and D2-like agonists were tested on various parameters of mEPSCs. The agonists altered the frequency as previously reported, but had no effect on the rise, decay or area of mEPSC, suggesting that dopamine affects fast and slow mEPSCs equally. Given the potential physiological impact of EPSC time course on synaptic integration, our study raises an interesting possibility that distinct subset of excitatory synaptic inputs are processed differently by orexin neurons.
BibTeX:
@article{Alberto:2010,
  author = {Alberto, Christian O. and Hirasawa, Michiru},
  title = {AMPA receptor-mediated miniature EPSCs have heterogeneous time courses in orexin neurons.},
  journal = {Biochem Biophys Res Commun},
  school = {Division of BioMedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {400},
  number = {4},
  pages = {707--712},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.08.132},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.08.132}
}
Albin, R., Makowiec, R., Hollingsworth, Z., Dure IV, L., Penney, J. and Young, A. Excitatory amino acid binding sites in the periaqueductal gray of the rat 1990 Neuroscience Letters
Vol. 118(1), pp. 112-115 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: We used receptor autoradiography to determine the distribution of excitatory amino acid (EAA) binding site subtypes in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) of the rat. N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), kainate, quisqualate-ionotropic, and quisqualate-metabotropic binding sites were all present in the PAG. Distribution was inhomogeneous with greatest density of all binding site subtypes in the dorsolateral subdivision and lowest density in the ventrolateral subdivision. Relative to regions of brain with high densities of EAA binding site subtypes, quisqualate-metabotropic binding sites had the highest relative density and NMDA binding sites the least. The presence of all subtypes of EAA binding sites in the PAG suggests that EAA action within the PAG is likely to be complex. © 1990.
BibTeX:
@article{Albin:1990,
  author = {Albin, R.L. and Makowiec, R.L. and Hollingsworth, Z. and Dure IV, L.S. and Penney, J.B. and Young, A.B.},
  title = {Excitatory amino acid binding sites in the periaqueductal gray of the rat},
  journal = {Neuroscience Letters},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {118},
  number = {1},
  pages = {112-115},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0025038829&partnerID=40&md5=4991757ad5c41ef800e024d368d238f1},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3940(90)90261-7}
}
Albrechet-Souza, L., Borelli, K.G., Almada, R.C. and Brandao, M.L. Midazolam reduces the selective activation of the rhinal cortex by contextual fear stimuli. 2011 Behavioural brain research
Vol. 216, pp. 631-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: Independent brain circuits appear to underlie different forms of conditioned fear, depending on the type of conditioning used, such as a context or explicit cue paired with footshocks. Several clinical reports have associated damage to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) with retrograde amnesia. Although a number of studies have elucidated the neural circuits underlying conditioned fear, the involvement of MTL components in the aversive conditioning paradigm is still unclear. To address this issue, we assessed freezing responses and Fos protein expression in subregions of the rhinal cortex and ventral hippocampus of rats following exposure to a context, light or tone previously paired with footshock (Experiment 1). A comparable degree of freezing was observed in the three types of conditioned fear, but with distinct patterns of Fos distribution. The groups exposed to cued fear conditioning did not show changes in Fos expression, whereas the group subjected to contextual fear conditioning showed selective activation of the ectorhinal (Ect), perirhinal (Per), and entorhinal (Ent) cortices, with no changes in the ventral hippocampus. We then examined the effects of the benzodiazepine midazolam injected bilaterally into these three rhinal subregions in the expression of contextual fear conditioning (Experiment 2). Midazolam administration into the Ect, Per, and Ent reduced freezing responses. These findings suggest that contextual and explicit stimuli endowed with aversive properties through conditioning recruit distinct brain areas, and the rhinal cortex appears to be critical for storing context-, but not explicit cue-footshock, associations.
BibTeX:
@article{Albrechet-Souza:2011b,
  author = {Albrechet-Souza, Lucas and Borelli, Karina G. and Almada, Rafael C. and Brandao, Marcus L.},
  title = {Midazolam reduces the selective activation of the rhinal cortex by contextual fear stimuli.},
  journal = {Behavioural brain research},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {216},
  pages = {631-8},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2010.09.006}
}
Albrechet-Souza, L., Borelli, K.G., Almada, R.C. and Brandão, M.L. Midazolam reduces the selective activation of the rhinal cortex by contextual fear stimuli. 2011 Behav Brain Res
Vol. 216(2), pp. 631-638School: Comportamento, Campus USP, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. lucasas@pg.ffclrp.usp.br 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Independent brain circuits appear to underlie different forms of conditioned fear, depending on the type of conditioning used, such as a context or explicit cue paired with footshocks. Several clinical reports have associated damage to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) with retrograde amnesia. Although a number of studies have elucidated the neural circuits underlying conditioned fear, the involvement of MTL components in the aversive conditioning paradigm is still unclear. To address this issue, we assessed freezing responses and Fos protein expression in subregions of the rhinal cortex and ventral hippocampus of rats following exposure to a context, light or tone previously paired with footshock (Experiment 1). A comparable degree of freezing was observed in the three types of conditioned fear, but with distinct patterns of Fos distribution. The groups exposed to cued fear conditioning did not show changes in Fos expression, whereas the group subjected to contextual fear conditioning showed
selective activation of the ectorhinal (Ect), perirhinal (Per), and entorhinal (Ent) cortices, with no changes in the ventral hippocampus. We then examined the effects of the benzodiazepine midazolam injected bilaterally into these three rhinal subregions in the expression of contextual fear conditioning (Experiment 2). Midazolam administration into the Ect, Per, and Ent reduced freezing responses. These findings suggest that contextual and explicit stimuli endowed with aversive properties through conditioning recruit distinct brain areas, and the rhinal cortex appears to be critical for storing context-, but not explicit cue-footshock, associations.
BibTeX:
@article{Albrechet-Souza:2011,
  author = {Albrechet-Souza, Lucas and Borelli, Karina G. and Almada, Rafael C. and Brandão, Marcus L.},
  title = {Midazolam reduces the selective activation of the rhinal cortex by contextual fear stimuli.},
  journal = {Behav Brain Res},
  school = {Comportamento, Campus USP, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. lucasas@pg.ffclrp.usp.br},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {216},
  number = {2},
  pages = {631--638},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2010.09.006},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2010.09.006}
}
Albrechet-Souza, L., Borelli, K.G., Almada, R.C. and Brandão, M.L. Midazolam reduces the selective activation of the rhinal cortex by contextual fear stimuli. 2011 Behav Brain Res
Vol. 216(2), pp. 631-638School: Comportamento, Campus USP, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. lucasas@pg.ffclrp.usp.br 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Independent brain circuits appear to underlie different forms of conditioned fear, depending on the type of conditioning used, such as a context or explicit cue paired with footshocks. Several clinical reports have associated damage to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) with retrograde amnesia. Although a number of studies have elucidated the neural circuits underlying conditioned fear, the involvement of MTL components in the aversive conditioning paradigm is still unclear. To address this issue, we assessed freezing responses and Fos protein expression in subregions of the rhinal cortex and ventral hippocampus of rats following exposure to a context, light or tone previously paired with footshock (Experiment 1). A comparable degree of freezing was observed in the three types of conditioned fear, but with distinct patterns of Fos distribution. The groups exposed to cued fear conditioning did not show changes in Fos expression, whereas the group subjected to contextual fear conditioning showed
selective activation of the ectorhinal (Ect), perirhinal (Per), and entorhinal (Ent) cortices, with no changes in the ventral hippocampus. We then examined the effects of the benzodiazepine midazolam injected bilaterally into these three rhinal subregions in the expression of contextual fear conditioning (Experiment 2). Midazolam administration into the Ect, Per, and Ent reduced freezing responses. These findings suggest that contextual and explicit stimuli endowed with aversive properties through conditioning recruit distinct brain areas, and the rhinal cortex appears to be critical for storing context-, but not explicit cue-footshock, associations.
BibTeX:
@article{Albrechet-Souza:2011a,
  author = {Albrechet-Souza, Lucas and Borelli, Karina G. and Almada, Rafael C. and Brandão, Marcus L.},
  title = {Midazolam reduces the selective activation of the rhinal cortex by contextual fear stimuli.},
  journal = {Behav Brain Res},
  school = {Comportamento, Campus USP, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. lucasas@pg.ffclrp.usp.br},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {216},
  number = {2},
  pages = {631--638},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2010.09.006},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2010.09.006}
}
Albro, P.W., Hass, J.R., Peck, C.C., Jordan, S.T., Corbett, J.T. and Schroeder, J. Applications of isotope differentiation for metabolic studies with di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. 1982 J Environ Sci Health B
Vol. 17(6), pp. 701-714 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The pervasiveness of the plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in the environment and especially in the laboratory results in a background that may cause severe interference with analytical studies. Animal-to-animal variability in the distribution of DEHP metabolites in excreta normally makes it necessary to use large groups of animals when different treatments are compared. Finally, radioactive tracers are usually considered undesirable for metabolic studies involving human subjects. All of these problems can be overcome through the use of multiple isotopic labels, especially 12C/13C/14C. Examples are given involving rats and monkeys, and applicability to humans is discussed. The principles involved are not limited to any particular class of test compounds. In rats, the competing pathways for metabolism of phthalate esters produce a different distribution of metabolites from a small intravenous dose of DEHP than from a large oral dose.
BibTeX:
@article{Albro:1982,
  author = {Albro, P. W. and Hass, J. R. and Peck, C. C. and Jordan, S. T. and Corbett, J. T. and Schroeder, J.},
  title = {Applications of isotope differentiation for metabolic studies with di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health B},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {17},
  number = {6},
  pages = {701--714},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601238209372351},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/03601238209372351}
}
Alcaraz, F., Marchand, A.R., Courtand, G., Coutureau, E. and Wolff, M. Parallel inputs from the mediodorsal thalamus to the prefrontal cortex in the Rat. 2016 Eur J NeurosciSchool: Université de Bordeaux, INCIA, UMR 5287, 33076, Bordeaux, France.  article DOI URL 
Abstract: There is a growing interest in determining the functional contribution of thalamic inputs to cortical functions. In the context of adaptive behaviors, identifying the precise role of the mediodorsal thalamus (MD) in particular remains difficult despite the large amount of experimental data available. A better understanding of the thalamocortical connectivity of this region may help to capture its functional role. To address this issue, the present study focused exclusively on the specific connections from the MD to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) by mean of direct comparisons of labeling produced by single and dual injections of retrograde tracers in the different subdivisions of the PFC in the Rat. We show that at least three parallel and essentially separate thalamocortical pathways originate from the MD, as follows: projections to the dorsal (1) and the ventral (2) subdivisions of the mPFC follow a mediolateral topography at the thalamic level (i.e. medial thalamic neurons target
the mPFC ventrally whereas lateral thalamic neurons project dorsally), whereas a considerable innervation to the OFC (3) includes thalamic cells projecting to both the lateral and the ventral OFC subdivisions. These observations provide new insight on the functions of the MD and suggest a specific focus on each of these pathways for future functional studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Alcaraz:2016,
  author = {Alcaraz, Fabien and Marchand, Alain R. and Courtand, Gilles and Coutureau, Etienne and Wolff, Mathieu},
  title = {Parallel inputs from the mediodorsal thalamus to the prefrontal cortex in the Rat.},
  journal = {Eur J Neurosci},
  school = {Université de Bordeaux, INCIA, UMR 5287, 33076, Bordeaux, France.},
  year = {2016},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.13316},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/ejn.13316}
}
Alcaraz, F., Marchand, A.R., Vidal, E., Guillou, A., Faugere, A., Coutureau, E. and Wolff, M. Flexible Use of Predictive Cues beyond the Orbitofrontal Cortex: Role of the Submedius Thalamic Nucleus. 2015 The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Vol. 35, pp. 13183-93 
article DOI  
Abstract: The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is known to play a crucial role in learning the consequences of specific events. However, the contribution of OFC thalamic inputs to these processes is largely unknown. Using a tract-tracing approach, we first demonstrated that the submedius nucleus (Sub) shares extensive reciprocal connections with the OFC. We then compared the effects of excitotoxic lesions of the Sub or the OFC on the ability of rats to use outcome identity to direct responding. We found that neither OFC nor Sub lesions interfered with the basic differential outcomes effect. However, more specific tests revealed that OFC rats, but not Sub rats, were disproportionally relying on the outcome, rather than on the discriminative stimulus, to guide behavior, which is consistent with the view that the OFC integrates information about predictive cues. In subsequent experiments using a Pavlovian contingency degradation procedure, we found that both OFC and Sub lesions produced a severe deficit in the ability to update Pavlovian associations. Altogether, the submedius therefore appears as a functionally relevant thalamic component in a circuit dedicated to the integration of predictive cues to guide behavior, previously conceived as essentially dependent on orbitofrontal functions. Significance statement: In the present study, we identify a largely unknown thalamic region, the submedius nucleus, as a new functionally relevant component in a circuit supporting the flexible use of predictive cues. Such abilities were previously conceived as largely dependent on the orbitofrontal cortex. Interestingly, this echoes recent findings in the field showing, in research involving an instrumental setup, an additional involvement of another thalamic nuclei, the parafascicular nucleus, when correct responding requires an element of flexibility (Bradfield et al., 2013a). Therefore, the present contribution supports the emerging view that limbic thalamic nuclei may contribute critically to adaptive responding when an element of flexibility is required after the establishment of initial learning.
BibTeX:
@article{Alcaraz:2015a,
  author = {Alcaraz, Fabien and Marchand, Alain R. and Vidal, Elisa and Guillou, Alexandre and Faugere, Angelique and Coutureau, Etienne and Wolff, Mathieu},
  title = {Flexible Use of Predictive Cues beyond the Orbitofrontal Cortex: Role of the Submedius Thalamic Nucleus.},
  journal = {The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {13183-93},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.1237-15.2015}
}
Alcaraz, F., Marchand, A.R., Vidal, E., Guillou, A., Faugère, A., Coutureau, E. and Wolff, M. Flexible Use of Predictive Cues beyond the Orbitofrontal Cortex: Role of the Submedius Thalamic Nucleus. 2015 J Neurosci
Vol. 35(38), pp. 13183-13193School: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Université de Bordeaux, Institut de Neurosciences Cognitives et Intégratives d'Aquitaine, UMR 5287, 33076 Bordeaux, France mathieu.wolff@u-bordeaux.fr. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is known to play a crucial role in learning the consequences of specific events. However, the contribution of OFC thalamic inputs to these processes is largely unknown. Using a tract-tracing approach, we first demonstrated that the submedius nucleus (Sub) shares extensive reciprocal connections with the OFC. We then compared the effects of excitotoxic lesions of the Sub or the OFC on the ability of rats to use outcome identity to direct responding. We found that neither OFC nor Sub lesions interfered with the basic differential outcomes effect. However, more specific tests revealed that OFC rats, but not Sub rats, were disproportionally relying on the outcome, rather than on the discriminative stimulus, to guide behavior, which is consistent with the view that the OFC integrates information about predictive cues. In subsequent experiments using a Pavlovian contingency degradation procedure, we found that both OFC and Sub lesions produced a severe
deficit in the ability to update Pavlovian associations. Altogether, the submedius therefore appears as a functionally relevant thalamic component in a circuit dedicated to the integration of predictive cues to guide behavior, previously conceived as essentially dependent on orbitofrontal functions. Significance statement: In the present study, we identify a largely unknown thalamic region, the submedius nucleus, as a new functionally relevant component in a circuit supporting the flexible use of predictive cues. Such abilities were previously conceived as largely dependent on the orbitofrontal cortex. Interestingly, this echoes recent findings in the field showing, in research involving an instrumental setup, an additional involvement of another thalamic nuclei, the parafascicular nucleus, when correct responding requires an element of flexibility (Bradfield et al., 2013a). Therefore, the present contribution supports the emerging view that limbic thalamic nuclei may contribute critically to adaptive
responding when an element of flexibility is required after the establishment of initial learning.
BibTeX:
@article{Alcaraz:2015,
  author = {Alcaraz, Fabien and Marchand, Alain R. and Vidal, Elisa and Guillou, Alexandre and Faugère, Angélique and Coutureau, Etienne and Wolff, Mathieu},
  title = {Flexible Use of Predictive Cues beyond the Orbitofrontal Cortex: Role of the Submedius Thalamic Nucleus.},
  journal = {J Neurosci},
  school = {Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Université de Bordeaux, Institut de Neurosciences Cognitives et Intégratives d'Aquitaine, UMR 5287, 33076 Bordeaux, France mathieu.wolff@u-bordeaux.fr.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {35},
  number = {38},
  pages = {13183--13193},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1237-15.2015},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1237-15.2015}
}
Al-Chaer, E.D., Lawand, N.B., Westlund, K.N. and Willis, W.D. Pelvic visceral input into the nucleus gracilis is largely mediated by the postsynaptic dorsal column pathway. 1996 J Neurophysiol
Vol. 76(4), pp. 2675-2690School: Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston 77555-1069, USA. 
article  
Abstract: 1. The purpose of this study was to investigate a proposed role for the postsynaptic dorsal column (PSDC) pathway in mediating visceral nociceptive input into the dorsal column (DC) nuclei. 2. In one group of animals, the hypogastric nerves were sectioned, thereby restricting colorectal input into the cord to pelvic afferent pathways known to coverage on lower lumbar and sacral segments. Extracellular recording were made from 41 nucleus gracilis (NG) cells that responded to colorectal distension (CRD). Results reported are from 15 NG cells that were tested before and after the administration of morphine into the sacral cord by microdialysis. 3. The responses of 11 NG cells to CRD were dramatically reduced by morphine infused into the sacral cord through a microdialysis fiber. This reduction was reversed by an intravenous injection of naloxone. Microdialysis administration of 6-cyano-7-nitro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) or a lesion of the DC also abolished the responses of the NG cells to CRD.
4. Four NG cells that responded to CRD showed an increase in their background activity approximately 25 min after an injection of mustard oil (MO). This increase in activity was counteracted by morphine or by a lesion of the DC. 5. In a second group of animals, recordings were made from 28 PSDC cells in the L0-S1 segments of the cord. These units were antidromically activated by stimulation of the upper cervical fasciculus gracilis. The projections of five PSDC neurons into the NG were traced with the use of antidromic mapping. Results are reported for the responses of 12 PSDC cells to CRD and to cutaneous stimuli before and after morphine administration into the sacral cord by microdialysis. 6. Morphine given spinally reduced the responses of 12 PSDC cells to CRD. This reduction was reversed by an intravenous injection of naloxone. CNQX administered spinally also abolished the responses to CRD of the PSDC cells tested. 7. Four other PSDC cells were studied before and after an injection of MO into the colon.
Their background activity started to increase within 25 min after the injection. Morphine suppressed this increase in background activity and this effect of morphine was reversed by naloxone. 8. The responses of NG cells to cutaneous stimuli were not significantly affected by morphine in the dose used. On the other hand, morphine significantly reduced the responses of PSDC cells to noxious cutaneous stimuli although this effect was not as dramatic as that on responses to visceral stimuli. 9. From the results of the studies described in this and the companion paper, we conclude that there is an important pelvic visceral nociceptive pathway involving PSDC neurons that synapse in the NG. The NG in turn activates neurons in the ventral posterolateral (VPL) nucleus of the thalamus. We presume that activation of VPL neurons by noxious visceral stimulation contributes to visceral pain sensation and thus that pelvic visceral pain depends largely on activity in the DC-medial lemniscus system.
BibTeX:
@article{Al-Chaer:1996,
  author = {E. D. Al-Chaer and N. B. Lawand and K. N. Westlund and W. D. Willis},
  title = {Pelvic visceral input into the nucleus gracilis is largely mediated by the postsynaptic dorsal column pathway.},
  journal = {J Neurophysiol},
  school = {Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston 77555-1069, USA.},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {76},
  number = {4},
  pages = {2675--2690},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.}
}
Al-Chaer, E.D., Lawand, N.B., Westlund, K.N. and Willis, W.D. Pelvic visceral input into the nucleus gracilis is largely mediated by the postsynaptic dorsal column pathway. 1996 Journal of neurophysiology
Vol. 76, pp. 2675-90 
article  
Abstract: 1. The purpose of this study was to investigate a proposed role for the postsynaptic dorsal column (PSDC) pathway in mediating visceral nociceptive input into the dorsal column (DC) nuclei. 2. In one group of animals, the hypogastric nerves were sectioned, thereby restricting colorectal input into the cord to pelvic afferent pathways known to coverage on lower lumbar and sacral segments. Extracellular recording were made from 41 nucleus gracilis (NG) cells that responded to colorectal distension (CRD). Results reported are from 15 NG cells that were tested before and after the administration of morphine into the sacral cord by microdialysis. 3. The responses of 11 NG cells to CRD were dramatically reduced by morphine infused into the sacral cord through a microdialysis fiber. This reduction was reversed by an intravenous injection of naloxone. Microdialysis administration of 6-cyano-7-nitro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) or a lesion of the DC also abolished the responses of the NG cells to CRD.
4. Four NG cells that responded to CRD showed an increase in their background activity approximately 25 min after an injection of mustard oil (MO). This increase in activity was counteracted by morphine or by a lesion of the DC. 5. In a second group of animals, recordings were made from 28 PSDC cells in the L0-S1 segments of the cord. These units were antidromically activated by stimulation of the upper cervical fasciculus gracilis. The projections of five PSDC neurons into the NG were traced with the use of antidromic mapping. Results are reported for the responses of 12 PSDC cells to CRD and to cutaneous stimuli before and after morphine administration into the sacral cord by microdialysis. 6. Morphine given spinally reduced the responses of 12 PSDC cells to CRD. This reduction was reversed by an intravenous injection of naloxone. CNQX administered spinally also abolished the responses to CRD of the PSDC cells tested. 7. Four other PSDC cells were studied before and after an injection of MO into the colon.
Their background activity started to increase within 25 min after the injection. Morphine suppressed this increase in background activity and this effect of morphine was reversed by naloxone. 8. The responses of NG cells to cutaneous stimuli were not significantly affected by morphine in the dose used. On the other hand, morphine significantly reduced the responses of PSDC cells to noxious cutaneous stimuli although this effect was not as dramatic as that on responses to visceral stimuli. 9. From the results of the studies described in this and the companion paper, we conclude that there is an important pelvic visceral nociceptive pathway involving PSDC neurons that synapse in the NG. The NG in turn activates neurons in the ventral posterolateral (VPL) nucleus of the thalamus. We presume that activation of VPL neurons by noxious visceral stimulation contributes to visceral pain sensation and thus that pelvic visceral pain depends largely on activity in the DC-medial lemniscus system.
BibTeX:
@article{Al-Chaer:1996a,
  author = {Al-Chaer, E. D. and Lawand, N. B. and Westlund, K. N. and Willis, W. D.},
  title = {Pelvic visceral input into the nucleus gracilis is largely mediated by the postsynaptic dorsal column pathway.},
  journal = {Journal of neurophysiology},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {76},
  pages = {2675-90},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Al-Chaer, E.D., Westlund, K.N. and Willis, W.D. Sensitization of postsynaptic dorsal column neuronal responses by colon inflammation. 1997 Neuroreport
Vol. 8(15), pp. 3267-3273School: Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston 77555-1069, USA. 
article DOI  
Abstract: The role of a newly identified component of the postsynaptic dorsal column (PSDC) system in viscerosensory processing has been recently described. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of colon inflammation on the responses of single PSDC cells, located in the vicinity of the central canal at L6-S1 spinal segments, to graded colorectal distension (CRD) and to cutaneous stimulation. Experiments were conducted on seven male Sprague-Dawley rats anesthetized with pentobarbital. Recordings were made from seven PSDC cells located around the central canal at L6-S1 in response to CRD and cutaneous stimulation before and after colon inflammation. Inflammation of the colon with mustard oil (MO) induced an increase in the background activity of these cells. Colon inflammation also potentiated the responses of the PSDC cells to graded CRD but not to cutaneous stimulation. This is consistent with previously observed effects of colon inflammation on the responses of viscerosensitive cells in
the ventral posterolateral (VPL) nucleus of the thalamus and in the nucleus gracilis (NG). These observations support a role of the PSDC system in viscerosensory processing and primary visceral hyperalgesia.
BibTeX:
@article{Al-Chaer:1997,
  author = {Al-Chaer, E. D. and Westlund, K. N. and Willis, W. D.},
  title = {Sensitization of postsynaptic dorsal column neuronal responses by colon inflammation.},
  journal = {Neuroreport},
  school = {Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston 77555-1069, USA.},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {8},
  number = {15},
  pages = {3267--3273},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1097/00001756-199710200-00016}
}
Alden, M., Besson, J.M. and Bernard, J.F. Organization of the efferent projections from the pontine parabrachial area to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and neighboring regions: a PHA-L study in the rat. 1994 J Comp Neurol
Vol. 341(3), pp. 289-314School: Unité de Recherches de Physiopharmacologie du Système Nerveux and EPHE, INSERM U 161, Paris, France. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The organization of efferent projections from the pontine parabrachial (pPB) area to the forebrain rostral to the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) was studied in the rat by using microinjections of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L), into subregions of the pPB area. The present study is a follow-up of a former study (Bernard et al. [1993] J. Comp. Neurol. 329:201-229) which examines pPB projections onto the Ce. The results demonstrate that: (1) the pPB(m) region (the medial, the ventral lateral subnuclei and the waist area) diffusely projects to the lateral division (BSTL) of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), the Ce-BSTL continuum (including, the dorsal portion of substantia innominata, the ventral portion of globus pallidus, the fundus striatum, and the substriatal area) and to a lesser extent the agranular insular cortex; (2) the pPB(1) region [the central lateral (pPBcl) and the outer portion of external lateral subnuclei] densely projects to the
dorsal lateral subnucleus of BST (BSTdl); only the pPBcl subnucleus projects to the median, the anteroventral and the periventricular nuclei of the preoptic hypothalamus; and (3) the remaining pPB area (the dorsal lateral, part of the external lateral and the external medial subnuclei) projects to the nucleus of horizontal limb of diagonal band but does not project onto the BST and the preoptic hypothalamus. It is suggested that the pPB(m)-BSTL "diffuse pathway" is mainly implicated in motivational and autonomic aspects of taste. The pPB(1)-BSTdl and hypothalamic "concentrated pathways" could be implicated in autonomic and nociceptive processes.
BibTeX:
@article{Alden:1994,
  author = {Alden, M. and Besson, J. M. and Bernard, J. F.},
  title = {Organization of the efferent projections from the pontine parabrachial area to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and neighboring regions: a PHA-L study in the rat.},
  journal = {J Comp Neurol},
  school = {Unité de Recherches de Physiopharmacologie du Système Nerveux and EPHE, INSERM U 161, Paris, France.},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {341},
  number = {3},
  pages = {289--314},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.903410302},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.903410302}
}
Alderson, H., Brown, V., Latimer, M., Brasted, P., Robertson, A. and Winn, P. The effect of excitotoxic lesions of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus on performance of a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement 2002 Neuroscience
Vol. 112(2), pp. 417-425 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus has connections with sites in both dorsal and ventral striatum, and a number of studies have suggested that it has a role in reward-related behaviour. The present experiment aimed to investigate the perception of reward in pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus-lesioned rats responding for food under a progressive ratio schedule, which measures willingness to work for a given reward. Rats were trained on a progressive ratio-5 schedule for food reward, then given ibotenic acid or sham lesions of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. Their performance under this schedule was examined again following recovery from surgery. Compared with sham-lesioned rats, those with lesions of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus showed significantly reduced breaking points and significantly longer post-reinforcement pauses. However, there was no difference between the groups in their latency to collect food pellets once earned, suggesting that pedunculopontine
tegmental nucleus
excitotoxin and sham-lesioned rats were equally motivated by the presence of food. Excitotoxin-lesioned rats made significantly more responses on the control lever and more entries to the food hopper as progressive ratio increment increased, but did not differ from controls when the schedule requirement was low. These results are interpreted as indicating no global loss of motivation, since lesioned rats performed normally at low schedule requirements, and were as fast as controls to collect pellets. But as the schedule requirement increased, excitotoxin-lesioned rats showed reductions in responding on the active lever (that is, a reduction in breaking point) and an increase in inappropriate responses towards the food hopper and the control lever. We consider these data to indicate that the behavioural deficits in pedunculopontine-lesioned rats arise not from a sensory or hedonic change, but from alteration in the control of motor output. © 2002 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Alderson:2002,
  author = {Alderson, H.L. and Brown, V.J. and Latimer, M.P. and Brasted, P.J. and Robertson, A.H. and Winn, P.},
  title = {The effect of excitotoxic lesions of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus on performance of a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {112},
  number = {2},
  pages = {417-425},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0037129916&partnerID=40&md5=f4e73304a69ddea8e6d5e4846ab66528},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4522(02)00087-8}
}
Alderson, H., Faulconbridge, L., Gregory, L., Latimer, M. and Winn, P. Behavioural sensitisation to repeated d-amphetamine: Effects of excitotoxic lesions of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus 2003 Neuroscience
Vol. 118(2), pp. 311-315 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) interacts with anatomical systems thought to be involved in mediating sensitisation of the locomotor response to repeated d-amphetamine. The PPTg has direct and indirect connections with the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex, and also influences midbrain dopamine activity through direct projections to substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. In this experiment, the development of behavioural sensitisation to the locomotor stimulant effects of repeated d-amphetamine was examined in rats bearing excitotoxic lesions of the PPTg, and sham-lesioned controls. Rats were given repeated d-amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg i.p.) treatment in an on-off procedure, with saline and d-amphetamine given on alternate days, such that rats received a total of seven d-amphetamine and seven saline treatments. Locomotor responses were measured in photocell cages. On the first day of d-amphetamine treatment, there was no difference between excitotoxin and
sham-lesioned rats.
Development of sensitisation to the locomotor stimulant effects of d-amphetamine was delayed in PPTg-lesioned rats, relative to the sham-lesioned control rats. However, there was no difference between lesion and control groups in the locomotion seen on saline-treatment days. These data suggest that the PPTg is involved in the development of behavioural sensitisation to the locomotor stimulant effects of repeated d-amphetamine, and indicate that traditional striatal circuitry models of the mechanisms underlying sensitisation should be extended to include the PPTg. © 2003 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Alderson:2003,
  author = {Alderson, H.L. and Faulconbridge, L.F.H. and Gregory, L.P. and Latimer, M.P. and Winn, P.},
  title = {Behavioural sensitisation to repeated d-amphetamine: Effects of excitotoxic lesions of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus},
  journal = {Neuroscience},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {118},
  number = {2},
  pages = {311-315},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0037426597&partnerID=40&md5=5b53c62de8b5ec165c3e2449c2856aea},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4522(03)00152-0}
}
Alderson, H., Jenkins, T., Kozak, R., Latimer, M. and Winn, P. The effects of excitotoxic lesions of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus on conditioned place preference to 4%, 12% and 20% sucrose solutions 2001 Brain Research Bulletin
Vol. 56(6), pp. 599-605 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: A number of studies have suggested that the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) may play a role in reward-related behaviour. The present study was intended to investigate this further using conditioned place preference. In conditioned place preference paradigms the amount of time spent in a preferred environment is proportional to the value of the reinforcement present, until a maximum is reached. In the present experiments we aimed to determine whether this relationship was affected by lesions of the PPTg by examining the formation of a conditioned place preference to either 4%, 12% or 20% sucrose solutions in food-deprived PPTg lesioned rats. The conditioned place preference apparatus had two compartments different in colour, smell and floor texture. During conditioning, rats were restricted to one compartment or the other, one of which was paired with sucrose. This was carried out during 30 min sessions, alternating conditioned or nonconditioned trials for 14 days. On
the test day, rats
were given access to both compartments through a connecting chamber, and were scored for side preference over 15 min. Both PPTg and sham lesioned rats showed a conditioned place preference to 12% and 20% sucrose, but no place preference was formed by either group to 4% sucrose. There was no significant difference between the groups in the place preference shown. Consumption of 4% sucrose was not affected by excitotoxic lesions of the PPTg, but PPTg lesioned rats consumed significantly more 12% and 20% sucrose than sham controls. This suggests that perception of reward value, as judged by CPP formation, is unchanged by excitotoxic lesions of the PPTg. The increased consumption of 12% and 20% sucrose shown by rats bearing such lesions is therefore not likely to be a product of altered reward perception. © 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.
BibTeX:
@article{Alderson:2001,
  author = {Alderson, H.L. and Jenkins, T.A. and Kozak, R. and Latimer, M.P. and Winn, P.},
  title = {The effects of excitotoxic lesions of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus on conditioned place preference to 4%, 12% and 20% sucrose solutions},
  journal = {Brain Research Bulletin},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {56},
  number = {6},
  pages = {599-605},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0035700839&partnerID=40&md5=97135a74e34f6d68be56c87ea114e524},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0361-9230(01)00733-X}
}
Alderson, H., Parkinson, J., Robbins, T. and Everitt, B. The effects of excitotoxic lesions of the nucleus accumbens core or shell regions on intravenous heroin self-administration in rats 2001 Psychopharmacology
Vol. 153(4), pp. 455-463 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Rationale: It has been suggested that the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) may be involved in heroin reward, and the core and shell regions respond differently following administration of a number of drugs of abuse. Objective: The possible role of the NAcc core and shell subregions in the acquisition of heroin self-administration behaviour was investigated. Methods: Rats were given selective excitotoxic lesions of either the nucleus accumbens core or shell before the acquisition of responding for IV heroin (0.04 mg/infusion) under a continuous reinforcement schedule in daily 3 h sessions. After sham-lesioned rats reached a stable baseline, a between-sessions heroin dose-response function was established. Results: Rats with lesions of the NAcc shell did not differ significantly from sham controls in either the acquisition of heroin self-administration or in their heroin dose-response function. The NAcc core lesion group showed reduced levels of responding during the acquisition of heroin
self-administration
and a reduction in responding during the heroin dose-response function, although this behaviour was sensitive to changes in the dose of heroin. Conclusions: The NAcc shell does not appear to be critical for heroin self-administration, whereas the NAcc core, although apparently not essential in mediating the rewarding effect of IV heroin, may mediate processes that are of special importance during the acquisition of instrumental behaviour.
BibTeX:
@article{Alderson:2001a,
  author = {Alderson, H.L. and Parkinson, J.A. and Robbins, T.W. and Everitt, B.J.},
  title = {The effects of excitotoxic lesions of the nucleus accumbens core or shell regions on intravenous heroin self-administration in rats},
  journal = {Psychopharmacology},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {153},
  number = {4},
  pages = {455-463},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0035102873&partnerID=40&md5=f41b0ef23d2a6727e7310423760e96a9},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s002130000634}
}
Aldes, L., Chronister, R., Shelton III, C., Haycock, J., Marco, L. and Wong, D. Catecholamine innervation of the rat hypoglossal nucleus 1988 Brain Research Bulletin
Vol. 21(2), pp. 305-312 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The catecholamine innervation of the hypoglossal nucleus (XII) was investigated immunocytochemically by comparing the distribution patterns of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) in the rat. Numerous TH- and DBH-positive profiles were found throughout XII, while only occasional PNMT immunoreactivity was observed. Significantly, the distribution patterns of TH and DBH immunoreactivity were coextensive with the most intense staining found ventromedially along the caudal half of XII. We conclude, therefore, that the catecholamine innervation of XII is largely noradrenergic, and that motoneurons innervating the genioglossi muscles, the principal protrusors of the tongue, are the primary targets of this input. © 1988.
BibTeX:
@article{Aldes:1988a,
  author = {Aldes, L.D. and Chronister, R.B. and Shelton III, C. and Haycock, J.W. and Marco, L.A. and Wong, D.L.},
  title = {Catecholamine innervation of the rat hypoglossal nucleus},
  journal = {Brain Research Bulletin},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {21},
  number = {2},
  pages = {305-312},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0024158270&partnerID=40&md5=6166b83bbd2a1d00a19268c0440aa7d7},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0361-9230(88)90245-6}
}
Aldes, L.D. Thalamic connectivity of rat somatic motor cortex. 1988 Brain Res Bull
Vol. 20(3), pp. 333-348School: Department of Anatomy, University of South Alabama College of Medicine, Mobile 36688. 
article DOI  
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate certain organizational features regarding the connectional relationships between the somatic motor cortex (SMI) and dorsal thalamus in the rat. This was accomplished by applying microiontophoretically horseradish peroxidase and tritiated amino acids into low threshold stimulation sites within hindlimb, forelimb and face representations of the SMI as defined by intracortical microstimulation. Injections into the SMI produced labeling in distinct sets of specific and non-specific thalamic nuclei. The former included the ventrolateral (VL), ventromedial (VM), posteromedial (Pom) and posterior (Po) nuclei, and the latter included the centrolateral (CL), paracentral (PC), centromedial (CeM) and parafascicular (PF) nuclei. The densest labeling, both retrograde and anterograde, was found in the VL, and to a slightly lesser extent, in the Pom nuclei. Labeling of specific nuclei was more extensive than in non-specific groups. Thalamic-SMI projections were
reciprocal in nature with the exception of the reticular thalamic nucleus (R). The ventrobasal (VB) nucleus was labeled only after injections into the SMI representations of the hindlimb and forelimb. A topographic organization between the SMI and dorsal thalamic nuclei was indicated by the varied position of label following injections into different cortical representations. Injections into the hindlimb representation resulted in labeling in the rostrodorsolateral VL, ventrolateral VM, rostrodorsomedial Pom, dorsal Po, rostrodorsolateral R, dorsolateral PF, CL and PC. In contrast, injections into the face representation resulted in labeling in the caudoventromedial VL, dorsolateral VM, caudoventrolateral Pom, ventral Po, caudoventromedial R, ventrolateral PF, the PC, CeM and ventral CL. The position of thalamic labeling following injections into the forelimb representation was intermediate between that for hindlimb and face representations. In coronal section, distinct patterns of labeling were identified
in all specific thalamic nuclei following injections into each topographic region of the SMI. In the VL, labeling appeared as an obliquely-oriented, longitudinal strip or band (more C-shaped following injections of the hindlimb representation); in the VM as a horizontal strip; in the Pom as an irregular V-shaped band; and in the Po as a circular-to-ovoid cluster. No distinct patterns of labeling were discerned in non-specific nuclei. Labeling in the anterior grouping of non-specific nuclei overlapped to a large extent, but this was not the case in either the specific thalamic nuclei or the PF nucleus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
BibTeX:
@article{Aldes:1988,
  author = {L. D. Aldes},
  title = {Thalamic connectivity of rat somatic motor cortex.},
  journal = {Brain Res Bull},
  school = {Department of Anatomy, University of South Alabama College of Medicine, Mobile 36688.},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {20},
  number = {3},
  pages = {333--348},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0361-9230(88)90063-9}
}
Aldes, L.D. Thalamic connectivity of rat somatic motor cortex. 1988 Brain research bulletin
Vol. 20, pp. 333-48 
article  
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate certain organizational features regarding the connectional relationships between the somatic motor cortex (SMI) and dorsal thalamus in the rat. This was accomplished by applying microiontophoretically horseradish peroxidase and tritiated amino acids into low threshold stimulation sites within hindlimb, forelimb and face representations of the SMI as defined by intracortical microstimulation. Injections into the SMI produced labeling in distinct sets of specific and non-specific thalamic nuclei. The former included the ventrolateral (VL), ventromedial (VM), posteromedial (Pom) and posterior (Po) nuclei, and the latter included the centrolateral (CL), paracentral (PC), centromedial (CeM) and parafascicular (PF) nuclei. The densest labeling, both retrograde and anterograde, was found in the VL, and to a slightly lesser extent, in the Pom nuclei. Labeling of specific nuclei was more extensive than in non-specific groups. Thalamic-SMI projections were
reciprocal in nature with the exception of the reticular thalamic nucleus (R). The ventrobasal (VB) nucleus was labeled only after injections into the SMI representations of the hindlimb and forelimb. A topographic organization between the SMI and dorsal thalamic nuclei was indicated by the varied position of label following injections into different cortical representations. Injections into the hindlimb representation resulted in labeling in the rostrodorsolateral VL, ventrolateral VM, rostrodorsomedial Pom, dorsal Po, rostrodorsolateral R, dorsolateral PF, CL and PC. In contrast, injections into the face representation resulted in labeling in the caudoventromedial VL, dorsolateral VM, caudoventrolateral Pom, ventral Po, caudoventromedial R, ventrolateral PF, the PC, CeM and ventral CL. The position of thalamic labeling following injections into the forelimb representation was intermediate between that for hindlimb and face representations. In coronal section, distinct patterns of labeling were identified
in all specific thalamic nuclei following injections into each topographic region of the SMI. In the VL, labeling appeared as an obliquely-oriented, longitudinal strip or band (more C-shaped following injections of the hindlimb representation); in the VM as a horizontal strip; in the Pom as an irregular V-shaped band; and in the Po as a circular-to-ovoid cluster. No distinct patterns of labeling were discerned in non-specific nuclei. Labeling in the anterior grouping of non-specific nuclei overlapped to a large extent, but this was not the case in either the specific thalamic nuclei or the PF nucleus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
BibTeX:
@article{Aldes:1988b,
  author = {Aldes, L. D.},
  title = {Thalamic connectivity of rat somatic motor cortex.},
  journal = {Brain research bulletin},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {20},
  pages = {333-48},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Aldes, L.D. Topographically organized projections from the nucleus subceruleus to the hypoglossal nucleus in the rat: a light and electron microscopic study with complementary axonal transport techniques. 1990 J Comp Neurol
Vol. 302(3), pp. 643-656School: Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, University of South Alabama, College of Medicine, Mobile 36688. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Projections from the nucleus subceruleus (nSC) to the hypoglossal nucleus (XII) were investigated with complementary retrograde and anterograde axonal transport techniques at the light and electron microscopic level in the rat. Injections of WGA-HRP into XII resulted in labeling of neurons in and around the nSC. Labeled nSC neurons were few in number (less than 4 per 40-60 microns sections) and variable in size and shape. Most labeled nSC neurons were medium-sized (mean = 16.89 microns), fusiform, triangular, or oval, with 3-4 dendrites typically oriented dorsomedially and ventrolaterally. These neurons were found throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the nSC but were most numerous medial, dorsomedial, and ventromedial to the motor trigeminal nucleus. Others were observed rostral to the motor trigeminal nucleus and ventral to the parabrachial nuclear complex. Confirmation of retrograde results was obtained following injections of tritiated amino acids or WGA-HRP into the nSC.
This resulted in labeling throughout the rostrocaudal extent of XII mainly ipsilaterally. Labeled fibers descended the brainstem in the dorsolateral and, to a lesser extent, in the ventromedial component of Probst's tract. Fibers entered XII mainly rostrally along the lateral border of the nucleus. All regions of XII were recipients of nSC afferents, but the caudoventromedial quadrant contained the greatest density of terminal labeling. Electron microscopic evaluation confirmed that nSC afferents synapsed on motoneurons in XII. Axon terminals containing WGA-HRP reaction product were found contacting dendrites and somata, but primarily the former (81.3% versus 10.6. Axodendritic terminals synapsed mainly on medium-to-small sized dendrites (less than 3 microns in diameter). The majority of labeled axodendritic terminals (90.1 contained small, round, and clear synaptic vesicles (S-type: 20-50 nm) and were associated with an asymmetric (60.6, symmetric (11.4, or no (18 postsynaptic specialization.
By contrast, most axosomatic terminals contained flattened vesicles (F-type) and formed a symmetric or no postsynaptic specialization (75. Large dense core vesicles (55-90 nm) were observed within a small proportion of all labeled axon terminals (1.3. The results from this study demonstrate that the nSC projects to XII, preferentially targets a specific subgrouping of protrusor motoneurons, and synapses on both somata and dendrites, although mainly on the latter. The implications of these data are discussed relative to tongue control.
BibTeX:
@article{Aldes:1990,
  author = {L. D. Aldes},
  title = {Topographically organized projections from the nucleus subceruleus to the hypoglossal nucleus in the rat: a light and electron microscopic study with complementary axonal transport techniques.},
  journal = {J Comp Neurol},
  school = {Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, University of South Alabama, College of Medicine, Mobile 36688.},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {302},
  number = {3},
  pages = {643--656},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.903020318},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.903020318}
}
Aldes, L.D. Topographically organized projections from the nucleus subceruleus to the hypoglossal nucleus in the rat: a light and electron microscopic study with complementary axonal transport techniques. 1990 The Journal of comparative neurology
Vol. 302, pp. 643-56 
article  
Abstract: Projections from the nucleus subceruleus (nSC) to the hypoglossal nucleus (XII) were investigated with complementary retrograde and anterograde axonal transport techniques at the light and electron microscopic level in the rat. Injections of WGA-HRP into XII resulted in labeling of neurons in and around the nSC. Labeled nSC neurons were few in number (less than 4 per 40-60 microns sections) and variable in size and shape. Most labeled nSC neurons were medium-sized (mean = 16.89 microns), fusiform, triangular, or oval, with 3-4 dendrites typically oriented dorsomedially and ventrolaterally. These neurons were found throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the nSC but were most numerous medial, dorsomedial, and ventromedial to the motor trigeminal nucleus. Others were observed rostral to the motor trigeminal nucleus and ventral to the parabrachial nuclear complex. Confirmation of retrograde results was obtained following injections of tritiated amino acids or WGA-HRP into the nSC. This resulted in
labeling throughout the rostrocaudal extent of XII mainly ipsilaterally. Labeled fibers descended the brainstem in the dorsolateral and, to a lesser extent, in the ventromedial component of Probst's tract. Fibers entered XII mainly rostrally along the lateral border of the nucleus. All regions of XII were recipients of nSC afferents, but the caudoventromedial quadrant contained the greatest density of terminal labeling. Electron microscopic evaluation confirmed that nSC afferents synapsed on motoneurons in XII. Axon terminals containing WGA-HRP reaction product were found contacting dendrites and somata, but primarily the former (81.3% versus 10.6%). Axodendritic terminals synapsed mainly on medium-to-small sized dendrites (less than 3 microns in diameter). The majority of labeled axodendritic terminals (90.1%) contained small, round, and clear synaptic vesicles (S-type: 20-50 nm) and were associated with an asymmetric (60.6%), symmetric (11.4%), or no (18%) postsynaptic specialization. By contrast, most
axosomatic terminals contained flattened vesicles (F-type) and formed a symmetric or no postsynaptic specialization (75%). Large dense core vesicles (55-90 nm) were observed within a small proportion of all labeled axon terminals (1.3%). The results from this study demonstrate that the nSC projects to XII, preferentially targets a specific subgrouping of protrusor motoneurons, and synapses on both somata and dendrites, although mainly on the latter. The implications of these data are discussed relative to tongue control.
BibTeX:
@article{Aldes:1990a,
  author = {Aldes, L. D.},
  title = {Topographically organized projections from the nucleus subceruleus to the hypoglossal nucleus in the rat: a light and electron microscopic study with complementary axonal transport techniques.},
  journal = {The Journal of comparative neurology},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {302},
  pages = {643-56},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Aldes, L.D. Subcompartmental organization of the ventral (protrusor) compartment in the hypoglossal nucleus of the rat. 1995 J Comp Neurol
Vol. 353(1), pp. 89-108School: Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, University of South Alabama, College of Medicine, Mobile 36688, USA. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The extent and myotopic organization of the ventral (protrusor) compartment of the hypoglossal nucleus (nXII) in the rat is controversial. Of particular concern is the location of motoneurons that innervate the intrinsic (verticalis, transversus) as compared to extrinsic (genioglossus) tongue protrusor muscles. These issues were investigated with retrograde transport, lesion/degeneration/immunocytochemical, and classic Golgi staining techniques. Results from these experiments demonstrate the following: (1) the ventral compartment extends the entire rostrocaudal length of nXII and is organized into three longitudinally oriented subcompartments, one medial and one lateral within the boundaries of nXII, and one outside the confines of nXII, defined as the lateral accessory subcompartment; 2) the medial and lateral subcompartments contain motoneurons that innervate the intrinsic (verticalis, transversus) and extrinsic (genioglossus) tongue protrusor muscles, respectively, while the
lateral accessory subcompartment innervates the geniohyoid muscle; (3) ventral subcompartments are unequal in size and vary along the rostrocaudal dimension of nXII. The medial subcompartment is largest caudally and smallest rostrally, while the converse is true for the lateral subcompartment. By contrast, the lateral accessory subcompartment is present only along the caudal one-half of nXII; (4) medial and lateral subcompartments are further organized into smaller subgroups. Medial and centromedial subgroups are discernible within the medial subcompartment, lateral and centrolateral subgroups within the lateral subcompartment. Both medial and lateral subgroups extend throughout the rostrocaudal length of nXII, whereas the centromedial and centrolateral subgroups are present only along the middle two-thirds of nXII where they form a central motoneuron band; (5) there is an inverse myotopic organization within the medial and lateral subcompartments such that proximal and distal portions of intrinsic and
extrinsic protrusor muscles receive innervation from rostral and caudal motoneurons, respectively; and (6) there is a correlation between motoneuron morphology (size, shape and dendritic field domains), subcompartment localization, and myotopic specificity. Motoneurons in the medial subcompartment are small (mean = 23.08 microns), round to globular, with dendrites oriented medially, dorsomedially, dorsolaterally, and caudally, whereas lateral subcompartment motoneurons are large (mean = 29.49 microns), round to triangular, with dendrites directed mainly mediolaterally and dorsally. These data are relevant to understanding the functional organization of nXII and the motor control of the tongue. Results are further discussed relative to the convergence of multifunctional afferent systems in the ventromedial subcompartment of nXII.
BibTeX:
@article{Aldes:1995,
  author = {L. D. Aldes},
  title = {Subcompartmental organization of the ventral (protrusor) compartment in the hypoglossal nucleus of the rat.},
  journal = {J Comp Neurol},
  school = {Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, University of South Alabama, College of Medicine, Mobile 36688, USA.},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {353},
  number = {1},
  pages = {89--108},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.903530109},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.903530109}
}
Aldes, L.D. Subcompartmental organization of the ventral (protrusor) compartment in the hypoglossal nucleus of the rat. 1995 The Journal of comparative neurology
Vol. 353, pp. 89-108 
article  
Abstract: The extent and myotopic organization of the ventral (protrusor) compartment of the hypoglossal nucleus (nXII) in the rat is controversial. Of particular concern is the location of motoneurons that innervate the intrinsic (verticalis, transversus) as compared to extrinsic (genioglossus) tongue protrusor muscles. These issues were investigated with retrograde transport, lesion/degeneration/immunocytochemical, and classic Golgi staining techniques. Results from these experiments demonstrate the following: (1) the ventral compartment extends the entire rostrocaudal length of nXII and is organized into three longitudinally oriented subcompartments, one medial and one lateral within the boundaries of nXII, and one outside the confines of nXII, defined as the lateral accessory subcompartment; 2) the medial and lateral subcompartments contain motoneurons that innervate the intrinsic (verticalis, transversus) and extrinsic (genioglossus) tongue protrusor muscles, respectively, while the lateral
accessory subcompartment innervates the geniohyoid muscle; (3) ventral subcompartments are unequal in size and vary along the rostrocaudal dimension of nXII. The medial subcompartment is largest caudally and smallest rostrally, while the converse is true for the lateral subcompartment. By contrast, the lateral accessory subcompartment is present only along the caudal one-half of nXII; (4) medial and lateral subcompartments are further organized into smaller subgroups. Medial and centromedial subgroups are discernible within the medial subcompartment, lateral and centrolateral subgroups within the lateral subcompartment. Both medial and lateral subgroups extend throughout the rostrocaudal length of nXII, whereas the centromedial and centrolateral subgroups are present only along the middle two-thirds of nXII where they form a central motoneuron band; (5) there is an inverse myotopic organization within the medial and lateral subcompartments such that proximal and distal portions of intrinsic and extrinsic
protrusor muscles receive innervation from rostral and caudal motoneurons, respectively; and (6) there is a correlation between motoneuron morphology (size, shape and dendritic field domains), subcompartment localization, and myotopic specificity. Motoneurons in the medial subcompartment are small (mean = 23.08 microns), round to globular, with dendrites oriented medially, dorsomedially, dorsolaterally, and caudally, whereas lateral subcompartment motoneurons are large (mean = 29.49 microns), round to triangular, with dendrites directed mainly mediolaterally and dorsally. These data are relevant to understanding the functional organization of nXII and the motor control of the tongue. Results are further discussed relative to the convergence of multifunctional afferent systems in the ventromedial subcompartment of nXII.
BibTeX:
@article{Aldes:1995a,
  author = {Aldes, L. D.},
  title = {Subcompartmental organization of the ventral (protrusor) compartment in the hypoglossal nucleus of the rat.},
  journal = {The Journal of comparative neurology},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {353},
  pages = {89-108},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Aldes, L.D. and Boone, T.B. Does the interstitial nucleus of cajal project to the hypoglossal nucleus in the rat? 1984 J Neurosci Res
Vol. 12(4), pp. 553-561 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The present study sought to determine whether or not the hypoglossal nucleus receives direct afferent projections from the interstitial nucleus of Cajal. Results from anterograde and retrograde labeling experiments in the rat indicated that while projections from the interstitial nucleus of Cajal do not terminate within the hypoglossal nucleus, they do so among a small group of neurons located ventrolateral to the hypoglossal nucleus, the nucleus of Roller. These findings are discussed in relation to orolingual motor behavior.
BibTeX:
@article{Aldes:1984,
  author = {L. D. Aldes and T. B. Boone},
  title = {Does the interstitial nucleus of cajal project to the hypoglossal nucleus in the rat?},
  journal = {J Neurosci Res},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {12},
  number = {4},
  pages = {553--561},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.490120404},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.490120404}
}
Aldes, L.D. and Boone, T.B. Does the interstitial nucleus of cajal project to the hypoglossal nucleus in the rat? 1984 Journal of neuroscience research
Vol. 12, pp. 553-61 
article  
Abstract: The present study sought to determine whether or not the hypoglossal nucleus receives direct afferent projections from the interstitial nucleus of Cajal. Results from anterograde and retrograde labeling experiments in the rat indicated that while projections from the interstitial nucleus of Cajal do not terminate within the hypoglossal nucleus, they do so among a small group of neurons located ventrolateral to the hypoglossal nucleus, the nucleus of Roller. These findings are discussed in relation to orolingual motor behavior.
BibTeX:
@article{Aldes:1984a,
  author = {Aldes, L. D. and Boone, T. B.},
  title = {Does the interstitial nucleus of cajal project to the hypoglossal nucleus in the rat?},
  journal = {Journal of neuroscience research},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {553-61},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Aldes, L.D. and Boone, T.B. Organization of projections from the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus to the hypoglossal nucleus in the rat: an experimental light and electron microscopic study with axonal tracer techniques. 1985 Exp Brain Res
Vol. 59(1), pp. 16-29 
article DOI  
Abstract: The organization of projections from the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus (PSN) to the hypoglossal nucleus (XII) in the rat was investigated at the light and electron microscopic level with retrograde and anterograde axonal tracer techniques. Microiontophoretic injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into XII resulted in retrograde labeling of neurons confined to the dorsal one-third of the PSN. Labeled neurons were found bilaterally, although a clear preponderance for ipsilateral distribution was evident. Most labeled neurons were found in the medial one-third and caudal two-thirds of the PSN. Labeled neurons were large (30-50 micron), round-to-pear shaped multipolar cells with dendrites oriented primarily in the mediolateral direction. At the electron microscopic level, HRP reaction product was found throughout the cytoplasm of soma and processes of PSN projection neurons. The ultrastructural characteristics of these cells included a round, centrally placed nucleus and invaginated
nuclear envelope, sparse Nissl bodies, numerous free ribosomes, mitochondria, lysosomes and Golgi complexes. Three to four main stem dendrites gradually tapered from the cell body and numerous synaptic terminals impinged upon soma and dendrites of labeled PSN neurons. Microiontophoretic injection of tritiated amino acids or HRP into the dorsal one-third of the PSN resulted in moderately dense terminal labeling in XII bilaterally, although mainly ipsilaterally. Terminal labeling was found diffusely throughout all regions of XII. Fibers descended the brainstem in the dorsolateral reticular formation and entered XII ventrolaterally. At the electron microscopic level, boutons containing HRP reaction product were found to synapse on dendritic processes in XII. Labeled boutons were characterized by clear, spherical vesicles and an asymmetrical postsynaptic density. The significance of these results are discussed in relation to oro-lingual motor behavior.
BibTeX:
@article{Aldes:1985,
  author = {L. D. Aldes and T. B. Boone},
  title = {Organization of projections from the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus to the hypoglossal nucleus in the rat: an experimental light and electron microscopic study with axonal tracer techniques.},
  journal = {Exp Brain Res},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {59},
  number = {1},
  pages = {16--29},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00237661}
}
Aldes, L.D. and Boone, T.B. Organization of projections from the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus to the hypoglossal nucleus in the rat: an experimental light and electron microscopic study with axonal tracer techniques. 1985 Experimental brain research
Vol. 59, pp. 16-29 
article DOI  
Abstract: The organization of projections from the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus (PSN) to the hypoglossal nucleus (XII) in the rat was investigated at the light and electron microscopic level with retrograde and anterograde axonal tracer techniques. Microiontophoretic injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into XII resulted in retrograde labeling of neurons confined to the dorsal one-third of the PSN. Labeled neurons were found bilaterally, although a clear preponderance for ipsilateral distribution was evident. Most labeled neurons were found in the medial one-third and caudal two-thirds of the PSN. Labeled neurons were large (30-50 micron), round-to-pear shaped multipolar cells with dendrites oriented primarily in the mediolateral direction. At the electron microscopic level, HRP reaction product was found throughout the cytoplasm of soma and processes of PSN projection neurons. The ultrastructural characteristics of these cells included a round, centrally placed nucleus and invaginated nuclear envelope, sparse Nissl bodies, numerous free ribosomes, mitochondria, lysosomes and Golgi complexes. Three to four main stem dendrites gradually tapered from the cell body and numerous synaptic terminals impinged upon soma and dendrites of labeled PSN neurons. Microiontophoretic injection of tritiated amino acids or HRP into the dorsal one-third of the PSN resulted in moderately dense terminal labeling in XII bilaterally, although mainly ipsilaterally. Terminal labeling was found diffusely throughout all regions of XII. Fibers descended the brainstem in the dorsolateral reticular formation and entered XII ventrolaterally. At the electron microscopic level, boutons containing HRP reaction product were found to synapse on dendritic processes in XII. Labeled boutons were characterized by clear, spherical vesicles and an asymmetrical postsynaptic density. The significance of these results are discussed in relation to oro-lingual motor behavior.
BibTeX:
@article{Aldes:1985a,
  author = {Aldes, L D and Boone, T B},
  title = {Organization of projections from the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus to the hypoglossal nucleus in the rat: an experimental light and electron microscopic study with axonal tracer techniques.},
  journal = {Experimental brain research},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {59},
  pages = {16--29},
  note = {Duplicate!},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00237661}
}
Aldes, L.D., Chapman, M.E., Chronister, R.B. and Haycock, J.W. Sources of noradrenergic afferents to the hypoglossal nucleus in the rat. 1992 Brain Res Bull
Vol. 29(6), pp. 931-942School: Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, University of South Alabama, College of Medicine, Mobile 36688. 
article DOI  
Abstract: The sources of noradrenergic (NA) innervation to the hypoglossal nucleus (nXII) in the rat were investigated with double-labeling histochemical/immunocytochemical and lesion/degeneration techniques. Following injection of wheat germ-agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase into nXII, brain stem sections were reacted with tetramethylbenzidine, stabilized, and incubated in antiserum to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Double-labeled neurons were observed in three pontine sites bilaterally, although mainly ipsilaterally, that included the nucleus subceruleus (nSC; 68.75 and the A7 (21.09 and A5 (10.15 cell groups. Confirmation of the above results and identification of the course taken by descending NA-nXII projections was accomplished by lesioning the rostral pons, the nSC, or the medullary catecholamine bundle (MB), the suspected route by which NA afferents reach nXII. Quantitative estimates of the reduction of TH immunoreactivity on the lesioned compared to nonlesioned side of nXII
were made densitometrically. In each case, TH immunostaining was significantly decreased (75 in the ipsilateral caudoventromedial district of nXII, the predominant target area of NA input. The results from this study establish that multiple NA sources in the pons project to nXII in the rat, the majority of NA-nXII afferents are derived from the nSC, and descending NA-nXII projections course in the MB. These data are discussed relative to tongue control.
BibTeX:
@article{Aldes:1992,
  author = {Aldes, L. D. and Chapman, M. E. and Chronister, R. B. and Haycock, J. W.},
  title = {Sources of noradrenergic afferents to the hypoglossal nucleus in the rat.},
  journal = {Brain Res Bull},
  school = {Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, University of South Alabama, College of Medicine, Mobile 36688.},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {29},
  number = {6},
  pages = {931--942},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0361-9230(92)90168-w}
}
Aldinio, C., Mazzari, S., Toffano, G., Köhler, C. and Schwarcz, R. Effects of intracerebral injections of quinolinic acid on serotonergic neurons in the rat brain 1985 Brain Research
Vol. 341(1), pp. 57-65 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The effects of intrastriatal and intrahippocampal injections of the excitotoxic amino acid, quinolinic acid (QUIN), were examined in the rat using immunohistochemical and neurochemical techniques. Serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid measurements at 90 min, 6 h, 4 and 11 days following QUIN administration revealed highly elevated levels of the metabolite in the injected nuclei, with peak increases occurring after 4 days. Serotonin levels remained largely unchanged over the same time period. Direct visualization of hippocampal serotonergic fibers by immunohistochemistry demonstrated morphological changes (varicosities, swellings) in otherwise undamaged serotonin-positive afferents 4 days following a local QUIN injecton. Hippocampal serotonin turnover was assessed at 4 days after an intrahippocampal QUIN-application: following inhibition of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, the accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptophan was twice as rapid in QUIN-lesioned hippocampi as in controls.
Dose-response
relationships, examination of brain regions distant from the two injection sites and the temporal sequence of the changes described here suggest a close association between QUIN-induced neuronal degeneration and alterations in the serotonergic system. © 1985.
BibTeX:
@article{Aldinio:1985,
  author = {Aldinio, C. and Mazzari, S. and Toffano, G. and Köhler, C. and Schwarcz, R.},
  title = {Effects of intracerebral injections of quinolinic acid on serotonergic neurons in the rat brain},
  journal = {Brain Research},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {341},
  number = {1},
  pages = {57-65},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0022364297&partnerID=40&md5=b8535bd25603923e703928aa489193b8},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(85)91472-6}
}
Aldskogius, H. and Arvidsson, J. Nerve cell degeneration and death in the trigeminal ganglion of the adult rat following peripheral nerve transection. 1978 J Neurocytol
Vol. 7(2), pp. 229-250 
article DOI  
Abstract: Trigeminal ganglia of normal rats and of adult rats subjected to unilateral transection of the infraorbital nerve were studied by light and electron microscopy. Counts of ganglion cells in ganglia on operated and unoperated sides were made following long postoperative survival times. The ultrastructural changes in ganglia of the operated side were studied from 3 to 70 days postoperatively. The quantitative observations show that a considerable loss of ganglion cells takes place on the operated side. The ultrastructural observations demonstrate the occurrence of ganglion cell degeneration, nerve fibre degeneration and phagocytosis by satellite and Schwann cells. The results are compatible with the view that degeneration of trigeminal afferents in the brain stem following lesions of peripheral trigeminal nerve branches is related to retrograde degeneration of trigeminal ganglion cells.
BibTeX:
@article{Aldskogius:1978,
  author = {H. Aldskogius and J. Arvidsson},
  title = {Nerve cell degeneration and death in the trigeminal ganglion of the adult rat following peripheral nerve transection.},
  journal = {J Neurocytol},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {7},
  number = {2},
  pages = {229--250},
  note = {Not a tract tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01217921}
}
Aldskogius, H. and Arvidsson, J. Nerve cell degeneration and death in the trigeminal ganglion of the adult rat following peripheral nerve transection. 1978 Journal of neurocytology
Vol. 7, pp. 229-50 
article  
Abstract: Trigeminal ganglia of normal rats and of adult rats subjected to unilateral transection of the infraorbital nerve were studied by light and electron microscopy. Counts of ganglion cells in ganglia on operated and unoperated sides were made following long postoperative survival times. The ultrastructural changes in ganglia of the operated side were studied from 3 to 70 days postoperatively. The quantitative observations show that a considerable loss of ganglion cells takes place on the operated side. The ultrastructural observations demonstrate the occurrence of ganglion cell degeneration, nerve fibre degeneration and phagocytosis by satellite and Schwann cells. The results are compatible with the view that degeneration of trigeminal afferents in the brain stem following lesions of peripheral trigeminal nerve branches is related to retrograde degeneration of trigeminal ganglion cells.
BibTeX:
@article{Aldskogius:1978a,
  author = {Aldskogius, H. and Arvidsson, J.},
  title = {Nerve cell degeneration and death in the trigeminal ganglion of the adult rat following peripheral nerve transection.},
  journal = {Journal of neurocytology},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {229-50},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Aldskogius, H., Arvidsson, J. and Grant, G. The reaction of primary sensory neurons to peripheral nerve injury with particular emphasis on transganglionic changes. 1985 Brain Res
Vol. 357(1), pp. 27-46 
article DOI  
Abstract: This paper reviews light- and electron microscopic, histochemical and physiological evidence which demonstrate that peripheral nerve injury in mammals is followed by profound structural and functional changes in the central terminals of the affected primary sensory neurons. Available evidence indicates that at least some of these so-called transganglionic changes are the result of ganglion cell degeneration and death, although other mechanisms are probably in effect as well. Existing data suggest that this ganglion cell death does not effect all types of ganglion cells equally, but do not permit a clearcut answer to the question of which kinds of ganglion cells are affected more than others. Results from studies with microtubule inhibitors and antibodies to nerve growth factor are compatible with the notion that depletion of retrogradely transported trophic factors is involved in the production of certain transganglionic changes. This issue needs further examination, however. Physiological
studies indicate marked alterations in certain primary afferent synaptic connections after peripheral nerve lesions. So far, these changes have not been satisfactorily correlated with the structural changes induced by similar lesions. Further studies on the structural and functional response of primary sensory neurons to peripheral nerve injury are likely to contribute to the understanding of the frequent failure to regain normal sensory functions after peripheral nerve lesions in man, as well as of the basic aspects of lesion-induced changes in general in the peripheral and central nervous system.
BibTeX:
@article{Aldskogius:1985,
  author = {Aldskogius, H. and Arvidsson, J. and Grant, G.},
  title = {The reaction of primary sensory neurons to peripheral nerve injury with particular emphasis on transganglionic changes.},
  journal = {Brain Res},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {357},
  number = {1},
  pages = {27--46},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-0173(85)90006-2}
}
Aldskogius, H., Arvidsson, J. and Grant, G. The reaction of primary sensory neurons to peripheral nerve injury with particular emphasis on transganglionic changes. 1985 Brain research
Vol. 357, pp. 27-46 
article  
Abstract: This paper reviews light- and electron microscopic, histochemical and physiological evidence which demonstrate that peripheral nerve injury in mammals is followed by profound structural and functional changes in the central terminals of the affected primary sensory neurons. Available evidence indicates that at least some of these so-called transganglionic changes are the result of ganglion cell degeneration and death, although other mechanisms are probably in effect as well. Existing data suggest that this ganglion cell death does not effect all types of ganglion cells equally, but do not permit a clearcut answer to the question of which kinds of ganglion cells are affected more than others. Results from studies with microtubule inhibitors and antibodies to nerve growth factor are compatible with the notion that depletion of retrogradely transported trophic factors is involved in the production of certain transganglionic changes. This issue needs further examination, however. Physiological
studies indicate marked alterations in certain primary afferent synaptic connections after peripheral nerve lesions. So far, these changes have not been satisfactorily correlated with the structural changes induced by similar lesions. Further studies on the structural and functional response of primary sensory neurons to peripheral nerve injury are likely to contribute to the understanding of the frequent failure to regain normal sensory functions after peripheral nerve lesions in man, as well as of the basic aspects of lesion-induced changes in general in the peripheral and central nervous system.
BibTeX:
@article{Aldskogius:1985a,
  author = {Aldskogius, H. and Arvidsson, J. and Grant, G.},
  title = {The reaction of primary sensory neurons to peripheral nerve injury with particular emphasis on transganglionic changes.},
  journal = {Brain research},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {357},
  pages = {27-46},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Aldskogius, H., Arvidsson, J. and Kinnman, E. Movement of horseradish peroxidase after its entry into intact and damaged peripheral nerve axons. 1983 Exp Neurol
Vol. 79(3), pp. 862-866 
article DOI  
Abstract: After application of a solution of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) around intact sciatic nerve axons in the rat, numerous HRP-labeled neurons were found in the ipsilateral L5 dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord ventral horn. These findings indicate that HRP enters intact peripheral nerve axons, and is transported retrogradely from its site of entry to their cell bodies of origin.
BibTeX:
@article{Aldskogius:1983,
  author = {Aldskogius, H. and Arvidsson, J. and Kinnman, E.},
  title = {Movement of horseradish peroxidase after its entry into intact and damaged peripheral nerve axons.},
  journal = {Exp Neurol},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {79},
  number = {3},
  pages = {862--866},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-4886(83)90049-3}
}
Aldskogius, H., Hermanson, A. and Jonsson, C.-E. Reinnervation of experimental superficial wounds in rats 1987 Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Vol. 79(4), pp. 595-599 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Sensory reinnervation of a superficial skin wound in the rat was studied by labeling sensory axons with anterogradely transported wheat germ agglutinin-horse-radish peroxidase. Reinnervation starts after 3 days from the edge of the wound as well as from beneath the wound. About 2 weeks after the production of the wound, some hyperinnervation appears to be present, but after a few additional weeks, the innervation pattern is essentially normal. The results indicate that structural recovery of sensory axons is rapid and probably complete when skin wounds heal with no or minimal scar formation.© 1987 American Society of Plastic Surgeons.
BibTeX:
@article{Aldskogius:1987,
  author = {Aldskogius, H. and Hermanson, A. and Jonsson, C.-E.},
  title = {Reinnervation of experimental superficial wounds in rats},
  journal = {Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {79},
  number = {4},
  pages = {595-599},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0023194674&partnerID=40&md5=a0c4d3456750b38141c1cd961dfa4f64},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1097/00006534-198704000-00014}
}
Aldskogius, H., Kinnman, E. and Persson, J. Labeling of cutaneous sensory nerve endings with axonally transported horseradish peroxidase and wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase conjugate: a methodological study in the rat. 1986 J Neurosci Methods
Vol. 15(4), pp. 281-294 
article DOI  
Abstract: Practical aspects on the use of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase conjugate (WGA-HRP) to trace peripheral cutaneous nerve endings have been studied. The parameters studied included application site of the tracer, post-application survival time, tracer concentration and tracer volume. These parameters were examined in the glabrous skin of the rat hindpaw. The best results were obtained with injections of 1 microliter WGA-HRP (20 micrograms/microliter) in dorsal root ganglia innervating the examined cutaneous region and a postinjection survival time of 18-36 h. With this approach extensive and heavy labeling was achieved of epidermal nerve endings, nerve endings in Merkel cell-neurite complexes and Meissner corpuscles. Useful, but less extensive labeling of these types of peripheral nerve endings, was obtained with injections of HRP in the lumbar spinal cord dorsal horn.
BibTeX:
@article{Aldskogius:1986,
  author = {Aldskogius, H. and Kinnman, E. and Persson, J.},
  title = {Labeling of cutaneous sensory nerve endings with axonally transported horseradish peroxidase and wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase conjugate: a methodological study in the rat.},
  journal = {J Neurosci Methods},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {15},
  number = {4},
  pages = {281--294},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3959(87)90096-0}
}
Aldskogius, H. and Thomander, L. Selective reinnervation of somatotopically appropriate muscles after facial nerve transection and regeneration in the neonatal rat. 1986 Brain Res
Vol. 375(1), pp. 126-134 
article DOI  
Abstract: The organization of the facial motor nucleus (FMN) has been examined after transection and regeneration of the facial nerve (FN) in neonatal and adult rats. In one series of experiments, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was applied bilaterally to the superior or inferior buccal ramus 5 months after neonatal FN transection. In another series of experiments, wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase conjugate was injected in selected vibrissae follicular muscles on both sides in animals surviving 5 months after FN transection at the neonatal or adult stage. The number and distribution of HRP-labeled cell bodies in the FMN after regeneration was compared with the contralateral side. On the uninjured side, labeled neurons were somatotopically organized. Ipsilateral to nerve injury the number of labeled cells was markedly reduced after neonatal nerve transection, but somatotopy was preserved. However, after nerve lesion at the adult stage, no significant loss of motoneurons occurred, but motor
nucleus somatotopy was not maintained. Two alternative principal explanations are proposed for the re-establishment of the normal somatotopy after neonatal injury: that regenerating axons grow in a random fashion but inappropriate connections are subsequently eliminated or that regenerating axons of surviving neurons immediately follow a pathway leading to the appropriate muscle.
BibTeX:
@article{Aldskogius:1986a,
  author = {Aldskogius, H and Thomander, L},
  title = {Selective reinnervation of somatotopically appropriate muscles after facial nerve transection and regeneration in the neonatal rat.},
  journal = {Brain Res},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {375},
  number = {1},
  pages = {126--134},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in normal adult rats.},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(86)90965-0}
}
Aldskogius, H., Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Z. and Kristensson, K. Selective neuronal destruction by Ricinus communis agglutinin I and its use for the quantitative determination of sciatic nerve dorsal root ganglion cell numbers 1988 Brain Research
Vol. 461(2), pp. 215-220 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The selectivity of the neurotoxic lesion of Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCAI) in rat dorsal root ganglia was examined. RCAI was injected in the sural nerve on one side. Two weeks later, the injected nerve, as well as the ipsilateral peroneal nerve, were examined in 1-μm-thick plastic embedded sections in the light microscope. The injected nerves showed a complete or almost complete Wallerian-like degeneration of myelinated fibers, but there were no signs of fiber damage in the uninjected nerves, which to a large extent originate in the same ganglia as the injected ones. We conclude that RCAI does not diffuse into and destroy ganglion cells adjacent to those that have transported the substance. We then used this selectivity in the effect of RCAI to determine indirectly the relative number of neurons in dorsal root ganglia L4-L6 which contribute to the sciatic nerve. Three weeks after unilateral injections of RCAI in the sciatic nerve, the L4-L6 dorsal root ganglion cells were
counted bilaterally.
On average, relative neuronal numbers between injected and uninjected sides were 0.36, 0.15 and 0.64 for L4, L5 and L6 respectively. From these data we conclude that the sciatic nerve receives on average of 64%, 85% and 36%, respectively of its sensory contribution from these ganglia. © 1988.
BibTeX:
@article{Aldskogius:1988,
  author = {Aldskogius, H. and Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Z. and Kristensson, K.},
  title = {Selective neuronal destruction by Ricinus communis agglutinin I and its use for the quantitative determination of sciatic nerve dorsal root ganglion cell numbers},
  journal = {Brain Research},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {461},
  number = {2},
  pages = {215-220},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0023789640&partnerID=40&md5=3bfcc2dda18a11bd4a64ba63230e2bff},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(88)90252-1}
}
Aleksandrov, V.G., Bagaev, V.A., Nozdrachev, A.D. and Panteleev, S.S. Identification of gastric related neurones in the rat insular cortex. 1996 Neurosci Lett
Vol. 216(1), pp. 5-8School: Laboratory of cortico-visceral Physiology, Pavlov Institute of Physiology, Sankt-Petersburg, Russia. chi@physiology.spb.su 
article DOI  
Abstract: Location peculiarities of insular neurones implicated in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility have been studied in acute experiments on rats. After microinjection of a horseradish peroxidase solution in a part of the dorsal vagal complex that receive gastric afferent inputs, retrogradely labelled cell bodies are observed in a certain area of the agranular and disgranular insular cortex. Electrical stimulation of the insular cortex area had no significant effect on heart and respiration rate but had evoked gastric tone changes. These results suggest that the insular cortex contains a specific cell group that provides direct output to the bulbar 'gastric' centre and takes part in regulation of gastrointestinal functions.
BibTeX:
@article{Aleksandrov:1996,
  author = {V. G. Aleksandrov and V. A. Bagaev and A. D. Nozdrachev and S. S. Panteleev},
  title = {Identification of gastric related neurones in the rat insular cortex.},
  journal = {Neurosci Lett},
  school = {Laboratory of cortico-visceral Physiology, Pavlov Institute of Physiology, Sankt-Petersburg, Russia. chi@physiology.spb.su},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {216},
  number = {1},
  pages = {5--8},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3940(96)12980-3}
}
Aleksandrov, V.G., Bagaev, V.A., Nozdrachev, A.D. and Panteleev, S.S. Identification of gastric related neurones in the rat insular cortex. 1996 Neuroscience letters
Vol. 216, pp. 5-8 
article  
Abstract: Location peculiarities of insular neurones implicated in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility have been studied in acute experiments on rats. After microinjection of a horseradish peroxidase solution in a part of the dorsal vagal complex that receive gastric afferent inputs, retrogradely labelled cell bodies are observed in a certain area of the agranular and disgranular insular cortex. Electrical stimulation of the insular cortex area had no significant effect on heart and respiration rate but had evoked gastric tone changes. These results suggest that the insular cortex contains a specific cell group that provides direct output to the bulbar 'gastric' centre and takes part in regulation of gastrointestinal functions.
BibTeX:
@article{Aleksandrov:1996a,
  author = {Aleksandrov, V. G. and Bagaev, V. A. and Nozdrachev, A. D. and Panteleev, S. S.},
  title = {Identification of gastric related neurones in the rat insular cortex.},
  journal = {Neuroscience letters},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {216},
  pages = {5-8},
  note = {Duplicate!}
}
Alexander, K., Brooks, J., Sarter, M. and Bruno, J. Disruption of mesolimbic regulation of prefrontal cholinergic transmission in an animal model of schizophrenia and normalization by chronic clozapine treatment 2009 Neuropsychopharmacology
Vol. 34(13), pp. 2710-2720 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Abnormal mesolimbic control of cortical cholinergic activity has been hypothesized to contribute to the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Stimulation of NMDA receptors in nucleus accumbens (NAC) increases acetylcholine (ACh) release in prefrontal cortex (PFC), an activation thought to contribute to attentional processing. Thus, the effects of intra-NAC perfusion of NMDA (250-400 M) on ACh release in PFC were determined in rats receiving lesions of the ventral hippocampus (VH) as neonates (nVHLX), a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, or as adults (aVHLX). NMDA elevated ACh release (100-150% above baseline) in adults sham-lesioned as neonates or in aVHLX rats. Adult nVHLX were unresponsive to NAC NMDA receptor stimulation. The inability of nVHLX to respond to NMDA emerged over development as a separate experiment demonstrated that evoked ACh release was normal before puberty (100-150% increase) yet, in these same nVHLX animals, absent after puberty. Amphetamine-evoked
ACh release was
assessed in nVHLX animals to exclude potential limitations in release capacity. Amphetamine produced greater increases in ACh release than in shams, indicating that nVHLX does not impair the capacity of cholinergic neurons to release ACh. Finally, the ability of 13 days of pretreatment with clozapine (1.25 mg/kg/day) to reinstate NMDA-evoked cortical ACh efflux was determined. Clozapine treatment normalized NMDA-evoked ACh release in nVHLX animals. These experiments show that mesolimbic regulation of cortical ACh release is disrupted in postpubertal nVHLX rats and normalized by low-dose treatment of clozapine; supporting the usefulness of nVHLX animals for research on the neuronal mechanisms underlying the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. © 2009 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Alexander:2009,
  author = {Alexander, K.S. and Brooks, J.M. and Sarter, M. and Bruno, J.P.},
  title = {Disruption of mesolimbic regulation of prefrontal cholinergic transmission in an animal model of schizophrenia and normalization by chronic clozapine treatment},
  journal = {Neuropsychopharmacology},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {34},
  number = {13},
  pages = {2710-2720},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-70449531474&partnerID=40&md5=f4458a2d734b9c64ab876f70cf93ffd0},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2009.105}
}
Alger, B. and Teyler, T. A monosynaptic fiber track studied in vitro: Evidence of a hippocampal CA1 associational system? 1977 Brain Research Bulletin
Vol. 2(5), pp. 355-365 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: An excitatory afferent system previously undescribed in the in vitro slice was found to be present in the hippocampal CA1 stratum oriens. Evidence was provided that the system makes monosynaptic, en passage contact with CA1 pyramidal cells in the region of their basal dendrites. Slices from partially deafferented hippocampi were used in evaluating the possibility that the s. oriens pathway originated in the contralateral hippocampus. This possibility was not confirmed and the results were discussed in terms of an ipsilateral associational system in CA1 s. oriens. © 1977.
BibTeX:
@article{Alger:1977,
  author = {Alger, B.E. and Teyler, T.J.},
  title = {A monosynaptic fiber track studied in vitro: Evidence of a hippocampal CA1 associational system?},
  journal = {Brain Research Bulletin},
  year = {1977},
  volume = {2},
  number = {5},
  pages = {355-365},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0017657666&partnerID=40&md5=5498225ddc527db160d2f822f6e7597f},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0361-9230(77)90069-7}
}
Alger, S., Maasch, S. and Riters, L. Lesions to the medial preoptic nucleus affect immediate early gene immunolabeling in brain regions involved in song control and social behavior in male European starlings 2009 European Journal of Neuroscience
Vol. 29(5), pp. 970-982 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The medial preoptic nucleus (POM) is a brain region outside of the song control system of songbirds. It has been implicated in song production, sexual motivation, and the integration of both sensory and hormonal information with appropriate behavioral responses. The POM is well positioned neuroanatomically to interact with multiple regions involved in song, social behavior, and motivation. However, little is known about the brain regions with which the POM directly or indirectly communicates to influence song. To gain insight into the neuronal circuits normally activated in association with POM activity during male song, we compared activity within multiple brain regions using immunolabeling for protein products of immediate early genes (IEGs) zenk (aka egr-1) and c-fos (indirect markers of neuronal activity) in sham and POM-lesioned male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). As compared to sham lesions, POM lesions disrupted song and interest in a nest box, and females
responded less to POM-
lesioned males. POM lesions reduced numbers of IEG-labeled cells and disrupted correlations between numbers of IEG-labeled cells and song within several song control, limbic, hypothalamic and midbrain regions. These results are consistent with the possibility that the POM integrates activity among nuclei involved in song control, social behavior and motivational state that work in concert to promote sexually motivated communication. © Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
BibTeX:
@article{Alger:2009,
  author = {Alger, S.J. and Maasch, S.N. and Riters, L.V.},
  title = {Lesions to the medial preoptic nucleus affect immediate early gene immunolabeling in brain regions involved in song control and social behavior in male European starlings},
  journal = {European Journal of Neuroscience},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {29},
  number = {5},
  pages = {970-982},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-61449223021&partnerID=40&md5=afb677bb9857f6d4f9a2101e8e08ff6a},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2009.06637.x}
}
Al-Ghoul, W., Volsi, G., Weinberg, R. and Rustioni, A. Glutamate immunocytochemistry in the dorsal horn after injury or stimulation of the sciatic nerve of rats 1993 Brain Research Bulletin
Vol. 30(3-4), pp. 453-459 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Glutamate is a major neurotransmitter of fine afferent fibers to the spinal cord. Neuropeptides are also released by the same fibers. We explored, by quantitative immunocytochemistry, the effects of two experimental manipulations of peripheral nerves on the levels of these two classes of mediators. Glutamate levels in the superficial dorsal horn of rats increased after chronic loose ligature of the sciatic nerve, a model for hyperpathic peripheral neuropathy. A similar increase was observed acutely, after stimulation of C fibers, but not A fibers, in the sciatic nerve. In contrast, immunostaining for substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide decreased in the same region with both manipulations. The decrease in immunocytochemical levels of peptides is in agreement with previous observations and can result from activity-related depletion. We propose that the increase in glutamate levels reflects differences in the regulation and kinetics of amino acid versus peptide
neuromediators. © 1993.
BibTeX:
@article{Al-Ghoul:1993,
  author = {Al-Ghoul, W.M. and Volsi, G.L. and Weinberg, R.J. and Rustioni, A.},
  title = {Glutamate immunocytochemistry in the dorsal horn after injury or stimulation of the sciatic nerve of rats},
  journal = {Brain Research Bulletin},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {30},
  number = {3-4},
  pages = {453-459},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0027413423&partnerID=40&md5=702b4802221feaccae3d8a19c9c8703d},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0361-9230(93)90278-J}
}
al-Ghoul, W.M. and Miller, M.W. Development of the principal sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve of the rat and evidence for a transient synaptic field in the trigeminal sensory tract. 1993 J Comp Neurol
Vol. 330(4), pp. 476-490School: Program in Physiology and Neurobiology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: The early development of the principal sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (PSN) was examined to determine whether spatiotemporal patterns of synaptogenesis coincide with patterns in neuronal generation, migration, and death. The morphogenesis of PSN neurons during the period from G16 to P14 was studied with a Golgi method. Prenatally, PSN neurons had dendrites that extended into the sensory tract of the trigeminal nerve (s5), and from as early as G18, these dendrites were studded with spines. The dendrites in the s5 degenerated or regressed in the early postnatal period so that the s5 was free of dendrites by P14. The development of anti-synapsin I immunoreactivity was traced from G14 to P10. Immunoreactive puncta (synaptic boutons) appeared in the medial third of the s5 transiently between G18 and P5. On the other hand, puncta in the PSN did not appear until G20, at which time they were confined to the lateral margin of the PSN. By P0, puncta were distributed throughout the PSN.
Cytochrome oxidase activity in the PSN was low and unpatterned prenatally. Postnatally, cytochrome oxidase activity intensified and a segmented pattern of barreloids appeared in the ventral PSN on the day of birth. By P5, the complete pattern of barreloids, spanning the full width of the ventral PSN, was evident. The development of cytochrome oxidase activity in the PSN followed the lateral-to-medial gradient of synaptogenesis revealed by the development of synapsin 1 immunoreactivity. This gradient is opposite of that for neuronal generation, migration, and death. Moreover, the s5 serves as a transient synaptic field.
BibTeX:
@article{Ghoul:1993,
  author = {W. M. al-Ghoul and M. W. Miller},
  title = {Development of the principal sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve of the rat and evidence for a transient synaptic field in the trigeminal sensory tract.},
  journal = {J Comp Neurol},
  school = {Program in Physiology and Neurobiology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey.},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {330},
  number = {4},
  pages = {476--490},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.903300404},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.903300404}
}
Alhadeff, A.L., Baird, J.-P., Swick, J.C., Hayes, M.R. and Grill, H.J. Glucagon-like Peptide-1 receptor signaling in the lateral parabrachial nucleus contributes to the control of food intake and motivation to feed. 2014 Neuropsychopharmacology
Vol. 39(9), pp. 2233-2243School: Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Central glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation reduces food intake and the motivation to work for food, but the neurons and circuits mediating these effects are not fully understood. Although lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) neurons are implicated in the control of food intake and reward, the specific role of GLP-1R-expressing lPBN neurons is unexplored. Here, neuroanatomical tracing, immunohistochemical, and behavioral/pharmacological techniques are used to test the hypothesis that lPBN neurons contribute to the anorexic effect of central GLP-1R activation. Results indicate that GLP-1-producing neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius project monosynaptically to the lPBN, providing a potential endogenous mechanism by which lPBN GLP-1R signaling may exert effects on food intake control. Pharmacological activation of GLP-1R in the lPBN reduced food intake, and conversely, antagonism of GLP-1R in the lPBN increased food intake. In addition, lPBN GLP-1R activation reduced the
motivation to work for food under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Taken together, these data establish the lPBN as a novel site of action for GLP-1R-mediated control of food intake and reward.
BibTeX:
@article{Alhadeff:2014,
  author = {Alhadeff, Amber L. and Baird, John-Paul and Swick, Jennifer C. and Hayes, Matthew R. and Grill, Harvey J.},
  title = {Glucagon-like Peptide-1 receptor signaling in the lateral parabrachial nucleus contributes to the control of food intake and motivation to feed.},
  journal = {Neuropsychopharmacology},
  school = {Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {39},
  number = {9},
  pages = {2233--2243},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2014.74},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2014.74}
}
Alhadeff, A.L., Holland, R.A., Zheng, H., Rinaman, L., Grill, H.J. and De Jonghe, B.C. Excitatory Hindbrain-Forebrain Communication Is Required for Cisplatin-Induced Anorexia and Weight Loss. 2017 The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Vol. 37, pp. 362-370 
article DOI  
Abstract: Cisplatin chemotherapy is commonly used to treat cancer despite severe energy balance side effects. In rats, cisplatin activates nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) projections to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) projections from the lPBN to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We demonstrated previously that CeA glutamate receptor signaling mediates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss. Here, we used neuroanatomical tracing, immunofluorescence, and confocal imaging to demonstrate that virtually all NTS-->lPBN and lPBN-->CeA CGRP projections coexpress vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), providing evidence that excitatory projections mediate cisplatin-induced energy balance dysregulation. To test whether lPBN-->CeA projection neurons are required for cisplatin-induced anorexia and weight loss, we inhibited these neurons chemogenetically using a retrograde Cre-recombinase-expressing canine adenovirus-2 in combination with Cre-dependent inhibitory Designer Receptors Exclusive Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) before cisplatin treatment. Inhibition of lPBN-->CeA neurons attenuated cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss significantly. Using a similar approach, we additionally demonstrated that inhibition of NTS-->lPBN neurons attenuated cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss significantly. Together, our data support the view that excitatory hindbrain-forebrain projections are necessary for cisplatin's untoward effects on energy intake, elucidating a key neuroanatomical circuit driving pathological anorexia and weight loss that accompanies chemotherapy treatment. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Chemotherapy treatments are commonly used to treat cancers despite accompanying anorexia and weight loss that may limit treatment adherence and reduce patient quality of life. Strikingly, we lack a neural understanding of, and effective treatments for, chemotherapy-induced anorexia and weight loss. The current data characterize the excitatory nature of neural projections activated by cisplatin in rats and reveal the necessity of specific hindbrain-forebrain projections for cisplatin-induced anorexia and weight loss. Together, these findings help to characterize the neural mechanisms mediating cisplatin-induced anorexia, advancing opportunities to develop better-tolerated chemotherapies and adjuvant therapies to prevent anorexia and concurrent nutritional deficiencies during cancer treatment.
BibTeX:
@article{Alhadeff:2017,
  author = {Alhadeff, Amber L. and Holland, Ruby A. and Zheng, Huiyuan and Rinaman, Linda and Grill, Harvey J. and De Jonghe, Bart C.},
  title = {Excitatory Hindbrain-Forebrain Communication Is Required for Cisplatin-Induced Anorexia and Weight Loss.},
  journal = {The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {37},
  pages = {362-370},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.2714-16.2017}
}
Alhadeff, A.L., Rupprecht, L.E. and Hayes, M.R. GLP-1 neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract project directly to the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens to control for food intake. 2012 Endocrinology
Vol. 153, pp. 647-658 
article DOI  
Abstract: Central glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor activation reduces food intake; however, brain nuclei and mechanism(s) mediating this effect remain poorly understood. Although central nervous system GLP-1 is produced almost exclusively in the nucleus of the solitary tract in the hindbrain, GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) are expressed throughout the brain, including nuclei in the mesolimbic reward system (MRS), e.g. the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Here, we examine the MRS as a potential site of action for GLP-1-mediated control of food intake and body weight. Double immunohistochemistry for Fluorogold (monosynaptic retrograde tracer) and GLP-1 neuron immunoreactivity indicated that GLP-1-producing nucleus tractus solitarius neurons project directly to the VTA, the NAc core, and the NAc shell. Pharmacological data showed that GLP-1R activation in the VTA, NAc core, and NAc shell decreased food intake, especially of highly-palatable foods, and body weight. Moreover, blockade of endogenous GLP-1R signaling in the VTA and NAc core resulted in a significant increase in food intake, establishing a physiological relevance for GLP-1 signaling in the MRS. Current data highlight these nuclei within the MRS as novel sites for GLP-1R-mediated control of food intake and body weight.
BibTeX:
@article{Alhadeff:2012,
  author = {Alhadeff, Amber L and Rupprecht, Laura E and Hayes, Matthew R},
  title = {GLP-1 neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract project directly to the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens to control for food intake.},
  journal = {Endocrinology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {153},
  pages = {647--658},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2011-1443}
}
Alheid, B., Braun, M. and Francois, d.O. The Basal Ganglia 1994 , pp. 95-107  inbook  
BibTeX:
@inbook{Alheid:1994,
  author = {Alheid, Beltramino, Braun, Miselis, Francois, de Olmos},
  title = {The Basal Ganglia},
  publisher = {Plenum Press},
  year = {1994},
  pages = {95-107},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.}
}
Alheid, G. Extended amygdala and basal forebrain 2003 Ann N Y Acad Sci
Vol. 985, pp. 185-205 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Alheid:2003,
  author = {Alheid, GF},
  title = {Extended amygdala and basal forebrain},
  journal = {Ann N Y Acad Sci},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {985},
  pages = {185-205},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2003.tb07082.x}
}
Alheid, G. and Carlsen, J. Small injections of fluorescent tracers by iontophoresis or chronic implantation of micropipettes 1982 Brain Research
Vol. 235(1), pp. 174-178 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Iontophoresis and chronic micropipette implants were compared for delivery of retrograde fluorescent tracers. Injection sizes and retrograde transport were similar, but implants were more frequently successful than iontophoresis. © 1982.
BibTeX:
@article{Alheid:1982a,
  author = {Alheid, G.F. and Carlsen, J.},
  title = {Small injections of fluorescent tracers by iontophoresis or chronic implantation of micropipettes},
  journal = {Brain Research},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {235},
  number = {1},
  pages = {174-178},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0020059371&partnerID=40&md5=5190c0d6761e1a3f02c27ba3942f78ac},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(82)90209-8}
}
Alheid, G., Carlsen, J. and Heimer, L. An algebraic approach to the detection of multiple markers in complex neuronal systems 1984 Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Vol. 10(1), pp. 71-77 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: An important class of neuroanatomical problems requires identification of neurons that contain two or more substances. Based on the additivity of neuronal elements that are independently labeled, a simple numerical approach may be applied to these problems. This approach provides a sensitive and viable alternative to direct multiple labeling of endogenous or transported neuronal markers. © 1984.
BibTeX:
@article{Alheid:1984b,
  author = {Alheid, G.F. and Carlsen, J. and Heimer, L.},
  title = {An algebraic approach to the detection of multiple markers in complex neuronal systems},
  journal = {Journal of Neuroscience Methods},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {10},
  number = {1},
  pages = {71-77},
  note = {Not a tract tracing study in the normal adult rat.},
  url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0021331032&partnerID=40&md5=4e257017907b6d361a8e8b836c487895},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-0270(84)90081-5}
}
Alheid, G.F., Beltramino, C.A., De Olmos, J.S., Forbes, M.S., Swanson, D.J. and Heimer, L. The neuronal organization of the supracapsular part of the stria terminalis in the rat: the dorsal component of the extended amygdala. 1998 Neuroscience
Vol. 84(4), pp. 967-996School: Department of Psychiatric Medicine, University of Virginia, Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville 22908, USA. 
article DOI  
Abstract: In the present normal anatomical light and electron